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building a path to
opportunity for all children

                               KIDS COUNT

     Building a Path to Opportunity
     for All Children

     Developing the Race for Results Index


12   African-American Children

14   American Indian Children

16   Asian and Pacific Islander Children

18   Latino Children

20   White Children

     Investing for the Future

31   Definitions and Data Sources
                                                RACE FOR RESULTS
                                                building a path to opportunity for all children

From the time our children are born, we imagine a bright
future for them: a solid foundation of education and
development in their early years, excellent health care, high
school graduation, a good college education and a career
path that launches them toward lifelong achievement and
economic self-sufficiency. As parents, nothing will stop us
from doing everything within our power to make that happen.
And as Americans, our concern extends beyond our own
doorsteps. We want success for children in rural towns and
urban communities across the nation because we understand
that providing opportunity to all children, regardless of their
race or ethnicity, is essential to America’s future prosperity.

Opportunity has been a constant theme           it all, however, our country holds firmly to a
in our country’s narrative, beginning with      fundamental belief that we must build paths
the waves of immigrants who arrived from        to opportunity to allow success for all chil-
across the globe in search of a better life.    dren to contribute to our national progress.1
During painful periods in our history, the          Now, more than ever, rapid changes in
notion of opportunity has been severely         the nation’s demographics demand that
tested — those times when the most              we make this belief a reality. Last year,
discriminatory policies were established,       for the first time, more children of color
impacting the lives of children and families    were born in the United States than white
of color. The repercussions of those policies   children. According to Census Bureau
continue to impede the advancement of our       projections, by 2018, children of color will
nation and children of color today. Through     represent a majority of children. By 2030,

RACE FOR RESULTS                                The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org      1
                                                                              the majority of the U.S. labor force will be           succeed. We are truly in a race against time
                                                                              people of color. By mid-century, no single             to deliver better results for our kids.
                                                                              racial group will comprise a majority of                   For a quarter of a century, the Casey
                                                                              the population.2 The price of letting any              Foundation has published the KIDS COUNT
                                                                              group fall behind, already unacceptably                Data Book to inform state and national deci-
                                                                              high, will get higher. McKinsey & Com-                 sion makers on issues related to the well-being
                                                                              pany researchers found that if the United              of America’s children. The annual Data Book
                                                                              States had closed the racial achievement               has also called attention to the persistently
                                                                              gap and African-American and Latino                    troubling status of children of color and
                                                                              student performance had caught up with                 their families. While it is widely understood
                                                                              white students by 1998, the gross domes-               that children’s life chances differ by race and
                                                                              tic product in 2008 would have been up                 ethnicity, we believe that more consistent
                                                                              to $525 billion higher.3 If America is to              and comprehensive data on these differences,
                                                                              remain prosperous for generations to come,             coupled with the rationale and strategies
                                                                              all children must have a fair chance to                for action by all sectors, will help lead to
                                                                                                                                     evidence-based solutions that can improve
                                                                                                                                     the odds of success for children of color.
                                                                                                                                         The Annie E. Casey Foundation has
                 FIGURE 1                                                                                                            created Race for Results to bring a fresh
                                                                                                                                     perspective and new data analysis to the
                                                                                                                                     national conversation about how we make
                Changing Demographics of U.S. Child Population                                                                       sure that all children realize their potential.
                                                                                                                                     We recognize that numerous leaders and
                                                                                                                                     organizations have examined and advo-
100%                                                                                                                                 cated for many of these issues for years. We
                            14%                              14%                                                                     believe that the moment is right to comple-
                                                                                                                                     ment these efforts with additional data
                                                                                                                                     analysis, research and policy recommenda-
              1%                                                             1%                         African American             tions to focus attention on solutions that
                            5%                                5%
80%                                                                                                                                  can create a brighter future for all kids.
                            24%                              29%                                        American Indian
                                                                                                                                         We present, for the first time, the Race
                                                                                                        Asian and Pacific Islander   for Results Index, a new collection of data
                                                                                                                                     disaggregated by racial and ethnic groups
                                                                                                        Latino                       and by state to illustrate how far we are
                                                                                                        Two or more races            from positioning all kids for success in
                            4%                                                                                                       school and in life. The Race for Results
                            53%                              6%                                         White                        Index will become a continuing part of our
                                                                                                                                     data agenda, with updated reports planned
                                                             45%                                                                     for future years when we hope to see many
                                                                                                                                     more children meeting key milestones on
                                                                                                                                     the path toward opportunity.

                                                                                                                                     CHILDREN OF COLOR FACE
20%                                                                                                                                  MULTIPLE BARRIERS

                                                                                                                                     Every parent wants good schools, safe
                                                                                                                                     communities and access to the services
                                                                                                                                     their children need — all key factors in the
                           2012                             2030                                                                     complex equation that positions children
                                                                                                                                     for success. But the odds are stacked against
                                                                                                                                     many children of color, who, along with
       SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 National Population Estimates and 2012 Population Projections.                                their families, disproportionately lack those
                                                                                                                                     resources. By nearly every measure in

       2                                                                      The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org           kids count policy report
the Race for Results Index, African-              Crow laws and discriminatory immigration
American, Latino, American Indian and             policies have played in shaping the life tra-
subgroups of Asian and Pacific Islander           jectories for tens of millions of Americans.
kids face some of the biggest obstacles               American history is littered with an incal-
on the pathway to opportunity.                    culable number of local, state and federal
    Differences in opportunity are evident        policies — as well as business practices —
from the earliest years of a child’s life. Too    that set up racial barriers negatively affecting
often, children of color grow up in environ-      children of color today. Consider the Federal
ments where they experience high levels of        Housing Administration (FHA). On its face,         Rapid changes in the
poverty and violence. Such circumstances          the legislation Franklin D. Roosevelt signed       nation’s demographics
derail healthy development and lead to            to create the FHA in 1934 was designed to
significant psychological and physiological       help encourage home ownership among all            demand that we build
trauma. Research has shown that growing           Americans, as he sought to lift the nation         paths to opportunity
up in chronic poverty contributes directly        from the depths of the Great Depression.
to stress at a level that can affect children’s   For white families, the law accomplished this      for all children so that
health, brain development and social              goal. Their home ownership rates rose sig-         they can contribute to
and emotional well-being — a response             nificantly, meaning that many of them built
known as “toxic stress.”4 At least one out of     wealth and a future for their children.6           our national progress.
every three African-American, Latino and              At the same time, the FHA used fed-
American Indian children in America lives         eral rules to push people of color further
in a household with an income below the           behind.7 The federal government insti-
poverty line.5 As these children attempt          tuted the insidious policy we now know
to climb the ladder of opportunity, many          as redlining, which prohibited banks from
will fall through broken rungs.                   providing FHA-backed loans in African-
    The public systems designed to help           American neighborhoods. Federal housing
children and families have functioned in          authorities used a manual that literally drew
ways that denied opportunity to people of         red lines around African-American com-
color — and even worked to push them              munities on neighborhood maps, showing
down the ladder. Throughout much of our           banks where they could not lend. Over
history, laws severely restricted access to       time, these policies solidified the structure
jobs, health care and education. Even today,      of racial segregation in America and denied
despite great progress, opportunities are         families of color the chance to build wealth
not equitably distributed to all Americans.       for themselves and opportunity for their
Although the historical foundations are well      kids at a time when white families were
documented, it is almost impossible to over-      climbing the economic ladder.8
state the role that slavery, forcible removal         Families of color fell even further
of American Indians from their land, Jim          behind a decade later when the G.I. Bill

RACE FOR RESULTS                                  The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                  3
                                                   provided generous benefits that enabled         college system or take on tremendous debt
                                                   veterans to pay for college and purchase        to achieve this important milestone.15
                                                   homes with low-cost mortgages.9 While               Decade after decade, children of color
                                                   white veterans used the G.I. Bill to            have confronted more barriers to oppor-
                                                   great advantage, discriminatory practices       tunity: overly harsh school disciplinary
                                                   systematized through government struc-          policies that often trap them in juvenile
                                                   tures often prevented non-whites from           justice systems, racial profiling by police
                                                   accessing G.I. Bill benefits, either for        and disproportionate arrests of people of
                                                   college or to obtain mortgages. People          color, more severe sentencing for the same
                                                   of color whose valor helped defeat fascism      offenses and the greater likelihood that
                                                   abroad were being denied pillars of the         young people of color will be tried as adults
                                                   American Dream by racist processes and          and incarcerated in adult prisons than
                                                   practices at home.10                            whites for the same conduct.16
                                                       Housing, transportation and develop-            Thanks to the courage, sacrifice and per-
                                                   ment policies also separated people of          sistence of the heroes of the civil rights and
                                                   color from higher-paying jobs. Businesses       immigrant rights movements, Americans
                                                   were increasingly migrating from cities         made great strides in rolling back laws and
                                                   where most people of color lived to subur-      customs that had sanctioned overt racism
                                                   ban areas that were hard to reach because       in voting rights, housing, public accom-
                                                   of a lack of public transportation.11           modations, educational opportunity and
                                                       More recently, many researchers and         equal treatment under the law. Yet many of
                                                   advocates have highlighted the lack of          our institutions, cultural norms and beliefs
                                                   adequate funding for schools with large         continue to operate in ways that limit
                                                   populations of children of color and the        opportunity for children of color. These
                                                   disproportionate placement of teachers with     forces have been normalized and legiti-
                                                   inadequate training and experience in their     mized over time through custom, practice
                                                   classrooms.12 Many young people of color,       and policy, creating a system of privilege
                                                   with aspirations to become the first in their   and inequity that often leads to preferential
                                                   families to complete college, are forced to     treatment, greater access to opportunity
                                                   rely on the under-resourced community           and power for whites at the expense of
                                                                                                   African Americans, American Indians,
                                                                                                   Asians, Latinos, Pacific Islanders and
                                                                                                   people from other racial and ethnic groups.
                                                                                                       Despite efforts to eradicate the most
                                                                                                   overt forms of racism in this country, a
                                                                                                   web of stubborn obstacles remains, under-
     Children in Immigrant Families                                                                mining the chances for children of color
                                                                                                   and their families to succeed. Even families
                                                                                                   of color in the middle class have a very
The majority of the 18 million children in     development because of their parents’ legal         tenuous hold on their economic status.
immigrant families in the United States        status or English language ability.14 They          Children of color are more likely to
are children of color. These children face     must often overcome school interruption             fall out of the middle class and are more
obstacles to opportunity that include          and economic hardship if parental income            likely to stay in the lower class as adults.17
poverty, lack of health insurance, parents     is lost because of immigration enforcement              In sum, there are steep barriers to oppor-
with lower levels of educational attainment,   and deportation. Recent bipartisan propos-          tunity in American society for people of
substandard housing and language               als for meaningful immigration reform offer         color as a group. This surely does not bode
barriers.13 Most vulnerable are the            opportunities to improve the lives of these         well for their children or for our nation.
5.5 million children who reside with at        vulnerable children and their families.
least one unauthorized immigrant parent.       If implemented, they would help remove              WE CAN CREATE OPPORTUNITY
Children in these families have less access    significant roadblocks to the future                FOR ALL CHILDREN
to public programs that benefit children’s     success of children in immigrant families.
                                                                                                   Individuals of all colors and faiths have
                                                                                                   worked together throughout our history,

4                                                  The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org    kids count policy report
locally and nationally, to promote equity         factors, we can compare children’s devel-
in realizing our shared vision of the             opment on key benchmarks to better
American Dream. During the past 25                determine where attention is needed.
years, the Annie E. Casey Foundation has              Because we know that where a child
supported research, worked to implement           grows up greatly influences his or her
programs and shared data on issues of             prospects, we also provide state-level data.
racial equity to help advance this work.          These analyses between the states and across
It is time to recognize that our nation can       regions reveal notable geographic variations
and must do much more to ensure that all          in the ways that children of color are moving    It is time to recognize
children are able to reach their full potential   along the path toward opportunity. We real-      that our nation can and
in life regardless of their race, ethnicity       ize that outcomes often vary dramatically
or community of residence.                        within states, so we hope that this research     must do much more to
    We hope that Race for Results will help       will inform and encourage more local-level       ensure that all children
to advance the often-difficult conversation       analysis to illuminate these differences.
about racial equity and that it will help             In sum, Race for Results should serve        are able to reach their
communities and our country focus                 as a national and state scorecard on             full potential in life
on providing children of color with the           children’s progress — across all racial and
opportunities they need to thrive. To             ethnic groups — in meeting important             regardless of their race,
this end, we have collected data by race          milestones that are critical to their long-      ethnicity or community
and ethnicity for indicators that suggest         term success. As such, it is a resource
whether children are succeeding in each           and reference for serious and fair-minded        of residence.
stage of life, from birth through young           debate about how to improve the life
adulthood, and are on the path to eco-            chances of all children.
nomic success. These indicators measure               We offer the first Race for Results report
racial differences in such areas as health,       and index to local, state and federal policy-
education and family environment, as              makers and to the private sector with a
well as in contextual factors like neigh-         clear agenda in mind. With this informa-
borhood poverty. Additionally, we have            tion, we hope to contribute to better state
aggregated these indicators into a compos-        and local policy, practice, funding and
ite index that enables comparisons across         business decisions. The data clearly show
racial groups. Admittedly, the Race for           that while we need to pay attention to the
Results Index does not capture all of the         success of all kids, children of color have
numerous dynamics that contribute to a            a steeper mountain to climb. Decisions
child’s success, and the indicators we have       on where and how to create opportunity
selected are not evenly distributed across all    cannot be viewed through a colorblind
developmental domains. However, we do             lens, but rather through a clear picture
believe that by examining these individual        of yesterday’s history, today’s reality and
                                                  tomorrow’s hope for the nation’s future.

RACE FOR RESULTS                                  The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                 5
                                               MEASURING EQUITY
                                               developing the race for results index

                                                                                               CHARTING CHILDREN’S SUCCESS

                                                                                               For 25 years, the Casey Foundation has
                                                                                               used the data-based advocacy of its KIDS
                                                                                               COUNT project to raise the visibility of
                                                                                               children’s issues and to inform decision
THE 12 MEASURES IN THE RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX                                                  making at the state and local levels. Build-
                                                                                               ing on this work and the work of other
                                                                                               groups nationwide that are using indicator
                                           Young adults ages 19 to 26                          analysis to contribute to positive change for
Babies born at normal birthweight
                                           who are in school or working                        children, we developed the Race for Results
                                                                                               Index to better measure the impact of a
                                                                                               child’s race on his or her opportunity for
Children ages 3 to 5 enrolled in nursery   Young adults ages 25 to 29 who have                 success in adulthood.
school, preschool or kindergarten          completed an associate’s degree or higher               We began with an aspirational goal:
                                                                                               all children should grow up in economically
                                                                                               successful families; live in supportive com-
Fourth graders who scored                  Children who live with a householder
                                                                                               munities; and meet developmental, health
at or above proficient in reading          who has at least a high school diploma
                                                                                               and educational milestones. In an effort
                                                                                               to capture the complex set of factors that
Eighth graders who scored                                                                      influence a child’s success, we chose to
                                           Children who live in two-parent families            develop a composite index that would
at or above proficient in math
                                                                                               allow comparisons across groups at the
                                                                                               national level and within and across states.
Females ages 15 to 19 who delay            Children who live in families with                      The selection of indicators in this index
childbearing until adulthood               incomes at or above 200% of poverty                 was heavily informed by the research of the
                                                                                               Social Genome Project at the Brookings
                                                                                               Institution, which connects key indicators
High school students                       Children who live in low-poverty                    to the likelihood of a young person becom-
graduating on time                         areas (poverty <20%)                                ing middle class by middle age,18 and by
                                                                                               the research that shows that children do
                                                                                               best in supportive families and communi-
                                                                                               ties. We selected 12 indicators that were
                                                                                               comparably and regularly collected in every
                                                                                               state through surveys sufficient in size to
                                                                                               allow valid estimates for the five largest
                                                                                               racial groups. More information on these

6                                               The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org   kids count policy report
                                                                    Defining Race and Ethnicity

                                                             Racial definitions are not static constructs   – PACIFIC ISLANDER This category
                                                             based in science or biology. In fact, the      includes those who selected Native
                                                             way racial groups have been defined and        Hawaiian, Samoan or Other Pacific
indicators, including definitions and data                   measured in the United States has changed      Islander group.
sources, can be found on page 31.                            dramatically over time and continues to
    We realize that the data included in                     evolve, along with the country’s changing      – WHITE This category includes people
this index are limited and provide only a                    demographics. In developing the state-         who identify as white or Caucasian and
high-level snapshot of a group of children                   and national-level data included in this       have European ancestry.
at one time. In conjunction with other                       report, we used the race and ethnicity
tools that allow for deeper analysis in a                    categories currently defined by the U.S.       – TWO OR MORE RACES This category
specific area, such as health, education or                  Office of Management and Budget (OMB)21        includes people who chose two or more of
geography — for example, the Kirwan                          for use by federal statistical agencies.       the racial categories above.
Institute’s Opportunity Mapping19 — it is                    They are as follows:
our hope that the Race for Results Index                                                                    For purposes of this analysis all racial
will function as a measurement of a state’s                  – AFRICAN AMERICAN This category               and ethnic groups are mutually exclusive.
progress and a device for state policy change.               includes people who identify as being black    All data for racial groups are reported
                                                             or of African descent and may include          for non-Hispanics only. We constructed
THE DATA                                                     people from the Caribbean.                     national- and state-level indices for five of
                                                                                                            these six racial and ethnic groups. Because
The Race for Results Index is intended to                    – AMERICAN INDIAN This category                of the relatively small size of the population
provide a single composite score to compare                  includes people who identified as belong-      and constraints on several of the data sets,
how children are progressing on key mile-                    ing to an American Indian or Alaska Native     Asian and Pacific Islander children were
stones across states and racial groups. To                   tribal group.                                  combined into one group. There are no
construct this index, we used a similar meth-                                                               state-level indices for children and youth
odology to that used in the annual KIDS                      – ASIAN This category includes people          of two or more races because insufficient
COUNT Data Book. Though a bit more                           who selected Asian Indian, Chinese,            data were available to allow meaningful
complicated than using simple percentages,                   Korean, Japanese or Other Asian group.         comparisons on all 12 measures. However,
our index does standardize scores20 across 12                                                               we present national estimates for children
indicators that have different scales and dis-               – LATINO This category includes people         and youth of two or more races for the nine
tributions. We think that this is the best way               who selected Hispanic, Latino or Spanish       individual indicators with available data.
to make accurate comparisons. These scores                   origin, defined as an ethnic group by the
were then put on a scale of 0 to 1,000. Index                OMB. People who chose this category can
values are presented for all states and racial               be of any racial group and include people
groups for which there were enough children                  from Mexico, Central and South America
so that valid estimates were available. The                  and other Spanish-speaking countries.
higher the score, the greater the likelihood
that children in that group are meeting
milestones associated with success. For
more information on the methodology,
visit www.aecf.org/race4results.

RACE FOR RESULTS                                 The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                                           7
                                                                              OVERALL FINDINGS                                  Table 1 displays the indicators disag-
                                                                                                                             gregated by race. These data differ from
                                                                              As the national data show, no one group        the index scores because we use the
                                                                              has all children meeting all milestones.       simple percentages for each indicator,
                                                                              African-American, American Indian and          as opposed to the standardized scores
                                                                              Latino children face some of the biggest       used for the combined index.
                                                                              obstacles on the pathway to opportunity.          In comparing results across the
                                                                              As Figure 2 illustrates, Asian and Pacific     areas represented in the index, we
                                                                              Islander children have the highest index       have grouped the indicators into four
                                                                              score at 776, followed by white children       areas — early childhood, education
                                                                              at 704. Scores for Latino (404), American      and early work experiences, family
                                                                              Indian (387) and African-American (345)        resources and neighborhood context.
                                                                              children are considerably lower.
                                                                                  The composite index is useful in           EARLY CHILDHOOD
                                                                              comparing outcomes between groups
                                                                              at the national level, but it obscures the     The earliest years of a child’s life are the
                                                                              variations between the individual items        period when the most brain develop-
                                                                              in the index. In other words, although the     ment occurs, laying the foundation
                                                                              indicators are interrelated, certain indica-   for later learning and success. Although
                                                                              tors more than others may be driving the       the gaps in the indicators in this
                                                                              index scores for a particular group. There     life stage are less pronounced across
                                                                              are also differences in performance by         racial groups, even small disparities in
                                                                              indicator between the racial and ethnic        outcomes in the early years can have
                                                                              groups. To account for these effects,          significant and long-lasting impacts on
                                                                              we compare both index and indicator            children’s development that can widen
                                                                              data across each demographic group.            over time. Nationally, 92 percent of
                                                                                                                             babies are born at healthy birthweight,
                                                                                                                             and most racial groups have similar
                                                                                                                             rates. However, African-American
                   FIGURE 2                                                                                                  babies are the least likely to be born
                                                                                                                             at healthy birthweight (87 percent),
                                                                                                                             putting them at higher risk of develop-
                  National Race for Results Index Scores                                                                     mental delays and death within the
                                                                                                                             first year of life.22
                                                                                                                                 The percentage of participation in
1,000                                                                                                                        nursery school, preschool or kindergar-
                                                                                                                             ten is lower — around 60 percent for
                                                                      776                                                    most groups, with American Indian
                                                                                                              704            (56 percent) and Latino (54 percent)
                                                                                                                             children the least likely to attend
 600                                                                                                                         early childhood programs. However,
                                                                                                                             this indicator does not measure the
                                              387                                       404                                  quality of the child’s early educational
 400                  345
                                                                                                                             experiences, which research has shown
                                                                                                                             can significantly influence outcomes
                                                                                                                             for young children. Researchers have
                                                                                                                             suggested that boosting both the
   0                                                                                                                         participation in and the quality
               AFRICAN AMERICAN        AMERICAN INDIAN            ASIAN AND             LATINO                WHITE
                                                               PACIFIC ISLANDER                                              of early childhood educational experi-
                                                                                                                             ences could increase school readiness,
                                                                                                                             especially for African-American and
        NOTE Racial and Hispanic origin categories are mutually exclusive.                                                   Latino children.23

        8                                                                     The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org   kids count policy report
         TABLE 1

        Race for Results Index Indicators (Percentages)

                                                                     NATIONAL          AFRICAN        AMERICAN      ASIAN AND                              TWO OR
                                                                     AVERAGE          AMERICAN         INDIAN    PACIFIC ISLANDER   LATINO   WHITE       MORE RACES

Babies born at normal birthweight               2011                   92               87             92             92            93       93           N.A.
Children ages 3 to 5 enrolled in nursery
school, preschool or kindergarten
                                                2010–12                60               63             56             65            54       62             60
Fourth graders who scored
at or above proficient in reading
                                                2013                   34               17             22             51            19       45             39
Eighth graders who scored
at or above proficient in math
                                                2013                   34               14             21             60            21       44             37
Females ages 15 to 19 who delay
childbearing until adulthood
                                                2010                   93               89             87             98            88       96           N.A.
High school students
graduating on time
                                                2009/10                78               66             69             94            71       83           N.A.
Young adults ages 19 to 26
who are in school or working
                                                2010–12                83               72             65             93            77       86             82
Young adults ages 25 to 29 who have
completed an associate’s degree or higher
                                                2010–12                39               26             19             66            19       47             40
Children who live with a householder
who has at least a high school diploma
                                                2010–12                85               85             83             88            63       93             92
Children who live in
two-parent families
                                                2010–12                68               37             53             84            65       77             64
Children who live in families with
incomes at or above 200% of poverty
                                                2010–12                55               35             36             68            36       69             56
Children who live in low-poverty
areas (poverty <20%)
                                                2007–11                74               50             51             84            57       86             75
See page 31 for definitions and data sources.                                                                                                 N.A. Data not available.

RACE FOR RESULTS                                       The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                                                9
     EDUCATION AND EARLY                            people are graduating from high school
     WORK EXPERIENCES                               today than at any other time in U.S. history.
                                                    However, many students of color never reach
     The index has five indicators that bear        this critical milestone. African-American,
     directly on educational outcomes and           American Indian and Latino teens are the
     early work experiences — fourth-grade          least likely to graduate from high school
     reading proficiency, eighth-grade math         on time. A mere 19 percent of Latino and
     proficiency, high school students graduat-     American Indian youth have completed
     ing on time, young adults in school or         an associate’s degree or higher, with only
     working and the completion of a post-          a slightly larger share of African-American
     secondary degree. Across most of these         young adults (26 percent) achieving these
     indicators, African-American, American         same credentials. These numbers indicate
     Indian and Latino children face the longest    how far we have to go to launch the careers
     odds for succeeding.                           of the very individuals who will need to
         Mastering reading early is critical to     drive our economy forward and provide
     ensure that children have a solid base         for their own young families.
     to understand more complicated material
     in later years.24 Proficiency in math          FAMILY RESOURCES
     fundamentals makes students more likely
     to attend and complete college, giving         Our study has four indicators that relate
     them the higher-level technical skills         to family resources: delaying childbearing
     that are increasingly needed for success       until adulthood, living with a householder
     in the workplace. The most recent data         who has at least a high school diploma,
     show that mastery of these subjects early      living in a two-parent family and living
     is an obstacle for many U.S. children          in a family with income at or above
     and most significant for African-American,     200 percent of the poverty line.
     Latino and American Indian children.               Childbearing as a teen can be a signif-
     In fact, fourth-grade reading and eighth-      icant barrier to staying on the path to
     grade math proficiency rates are low           successful adulthood. More than 90 percent
     across all racial groups. Only Asian and       of all young women between ages 15 and
     Pacific Islanders are above 50 percent         19 delay having children, and the racial
     on either indicator.                           differences are smaller than on some other
         Graduation from high school is a           indicators. However, American Indian,
     minimum requirement to attain a post-          Latino and African-American girls are
     secondary credential, often necessary for a    less likely to delay childbearing than their
     good job in today’s economy. More young        white and Asian peers.

10   The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org   kids count policy report
    Significant racial differences are evi-     obstacle that these families face in access-
dent on other indicators and point to the       ing the resources to help them move ahead.
obstacles that families of color face in            The result is that many children of
gaining economic security. Most nota-           color are growing up in communities
bly, Latino children are the least likely to    where unemployment and crime are
live in a household where someone has at        higher; schools are poorer; access to
least a high school diploma (26 percent         capital, fresh produce, transit and health
below the national average). Additionally,      care is more limited; exposure to envi-
African-American children are significantly     ronmental toxins is greater; and family
less likely to live in two-parent families      supports and services are fewer.27 All
(46 percent below the national average),        of these circumstances prevent children
as are American Indian children (22 per-        from accessing the network of institutions
cent below the national average). These         and resources that make prosperity
factors and others contribute to the fact       possible. Like the power grid that delivers
that a smaller share of African-American,       energy to every home within its network,
Latino and American Indian children live        this “prosperity grid” provides critical links
in families with incomes at or above 200        that help children succeed.28 The inability      African-American, American
percent of poverty (about 35 percent below      of children of color to connect to this
the national average).                          network through their neighborhoods              Indian and Latino children
    There are structural disadvantages          clearly has significant consequences for         are least likely to live in
facing many families of color in America        their healthy development and well-being.29
that contribute to lower rates of marriage                                                       communities where poverty
and cohabitation — trends that several          Our analysis, while telling, has caveats.        rates are low, which prevents
public, private and philanthropic efforts       First, while our indicators are important
are working to address (see Boys and Men        measures of success, we were constrained         them from accessing the
of Color on page 26). In addition to being      by the need to find data that were regu-         network of institutions
more likely to have only one adult earner       larly and comparably collected in all
in the household, many parents experience       states. There were many indicators that          and resources that make
lower levels of labor force participation.      we would have liked to include — for             prosperity possible.
And, when they are employed, these adults       example, involvement with the juvenile
are more likely to work in low-wage jobs        justice system and quality of early child-
presenting major obstacles to children          hood experiences — which are simply
from these groups growing up in middle-         not available. Second, we recognize that
to upper-income households.25                   our racial groupings may mask significant
                                                intragroup differences. For example, we
NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT                            know that there are many subgroups in the
                                                Asian, Pacific Islander and Latino groups
Children and their families are more likely     and that each one has different experiences
to thrive when they live in communities         and opportunities. In addition, boys and
with strong social and cultural institutions;   girls of the same racial group face different
good role models; and the resources to          barriers to success. Third, we anticipate
provide safety, good schools and quality        notable geographic distinctions — the
support services. To measure the effect of      KIDS COUNT Data Book annually
neighborhood context, we use the percent-       demonstrates that kids tend to do better
age of children living in low-poverty areas,    in some states than in others. Fourth,
where the poverty rate of the total popula-     the literature suggests that the family’s
tion is less than 20 percent (the point above   immigrant status often is a determining
which the effects of concentrated poverty       factor in the well-being of children.
begin to appear).26 African-American,               The next section considers how these
American Indian, and Latino children are        factors shape children’s opportunities
least likely to live in areas where poverty     for success. For ease of interpretation,
rates are low, highlighting an additional       we examine each racial group separately.

RACE FOR RESULTS                                The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                 11
                    factors that impact the life chances of

OUTCOMES FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN                  In 2012, there were 10.2 million African-American children under age 18 in
                                               the United States, representing 14 percent of the total child population.30
        Children in          Children in
     U.S.-born families   immigrant families   Children included here as African American are of African ancestry alone and
                                               are not Hispanic. African-American children live in all regions of the country,
       AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN READING       but remain most highly concentrated in the southeastern United States.
          18   %
                                 7  %

                                               Geography                                            Immigrant Status
                                               The index scores for African-American children       Though less widely discussed, immigrant sta-
                                               should be considered a national crisis. Although     tus is an important issue for African-American
                                               they vary across states, regions and domains,        children, given the historical influx of blacks
                                               in nearly all states, African-American children      from the Caribbean and the more recent arrival
         EIGHTH GRADERS WHO SCORED             face some of the biggest barriers to success.        of people from a variety of African nations.
        AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN MATH              The states scoring the lowest on the            English speakers have a considerable advan-
                                               index for African Americans are located in the       tage over native language speakers when it
          14  %
                                 2  %
                                               South (e.g., Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama,        comes to grade-level proficiency in reading and
                                               Arkansas, South Carolina) and the Midwest            math. Conversely, African-American children
                                               (e.g., Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana,           in immigrant families are about twice as likely
                                               Illinois). Conditions in the American South          to live with two parents.
                                               have always been especially difficult for
                                               African Americans. While great strides have
                                               been made, it will require public will and greater
                                               investments to overcome the vestiges of a
          32%                   66%            system of institutional discrimination that
                                               still plague the region.
                                                    Hawaii does best with a score of 583,
                                               followed by New Hampshire (538), Utah (511)
                                               and Alaska (507) — all states with relatively
                                               low African-American populations.

African-American children in
immigrant families are twice as
likely to live in two-parent families.

12                                             The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org         kids count policy report
                                               583    HI
                                               538    NH
                                               511    UT

                                               507    AK
                                               482    MA
                                               474    MD
                                               461    ND
                                               458    SD
                                               455    NJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX

                                               446    NM
                                               430    VA
                                               423    WA
                                               414    DE
                                               413    OR
                                               408    CT
                                               401    AZ
                                               395    CA
                                               387    CO
                                               386    TX
                                               384    NY
                                               372    RI
                                               362    GA
                                               360    MN
                                               357    WV
                                               347    KS
                                               346    NC
                                                                                                                                                                         A State-to-State Comparison of African-American Children

                                               345    FL

The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org
                                               345    US
                                               323    NE
                                               322    IA
                                               319    PA
                                               317    KY
                                               313    NV
                                               312    TN
                                               308    MO
                                               306    OK
                                               305    IL
                                               293    SC
                                               289    IN
                                               279    AL
                                               274    OH
                                               270    AR
                                               252    LA
                                               244    MI

                                               243    MS

                                               238    WI

                                               N.A.   ID
                                               N.A.   MT
                                               N.A.   VT
                                                                                           N.A. (Data not available)

                                               N.A.   WY
           factors that impact the life chances of

                               American Indian children included in this analysis are not Hispanic and not
                               identified with any other racial group. With this definition, there are nearly
                               640,000 American Indian children in the United States, or one percent of
                               the total child population.31 Due to historically high rates of intermarriage,
                               this number would more than double if we included children who identified
                               as American Indian in combination with another race.
The score for American
Indian children in South       Geography                                          10 LARGEST AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES
                               Like African-American children, American
Dakota is the lowest of        Indian children face some of the steepest          CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN FAMILIES WITH
any group in any state         barriers to success of any group in this           INCOMES AT OR ABOVE 200% OF POVERTY
                               analysis. Of the 25 states for which data were     Navajo                      27%
on the index — 185 out of      reported, the states in which American Indian      Cherokee                           45%
a possible score of 1,000.     children have higher levels of well-being are      Sioux                      21%
                               spread out across the country. American Indian     Chippewa                          37%
                               children are relatively better off in states as                                        49%
                               disparate as Texas (631), Alabama (568),                                             37%
                               Florida (554), Kansas (553), New York (537)
                                                                                  Apache                     20%
                               and California (529).
                                                                                  Pueblo                      24%
                                   The map illustrates that American Indian
                                                                                  Iroquois                           42%
                               children are meeting significantly fewer mile-
                               stones in the upper Midwest, the Southwest         Inupiat                            45%
                               and the Mountain States. The score for
                                                                                  SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau, 2010–2012 American Community
                               American Indian children in South Dakota is        Survey. Tribal affiliations are self-identified.
                               the lowest of any group in any state on the
                               index at 185. The range of scores for American
                               Indian children — 185 to 631 — is the widest
                               in the index.

                               Intragroup Differences
                               There are considerable differences in children’s
                               outcomes based on tribal affiliation. For
                               example, nearly one in two Choctaw children
                               live in families with incomes at or above
                               200 percent of poverty, compared with only
                               20 percent of Apache children.

14                             The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org       kids count policy report
                                               631    TX
                                               568    AL
                                               554    FL

                                               553    KS
                                               537    NY
                                               529    CA
                                               515    MO
                                               501    MI
                                               491    OR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX

                                               442    LA
                                               436    WI
                                               406    WA
                                               400    UT
                                               397    CO
                                               388    ID
                                               387    US
                                               364    NC
                                               353    AK
                                               341    WY
                                               334    MN
                                               293    NM
                                               282    AZ
                                               281    MT
                                               280    ND
                                               185    SD
                                                                                                                                                                         A State-to-State Comparison of American Indian Children

                                               N.A.   AR
                                               N.A.   CT

The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org
                                               N.A.   DE
                                               N.A.   GA
                                               N.A.   HI
                                               N.A.   IL
                                               N.A.   IN
                                               N.A.   IA
                                               N.A.   KY
                                               N.A.   ME
                                               N.A.   MD
                                               N.A.   MA
                                               N.A.   MS
                                               N.A.   NE
                                               N.A.   NV
                                               N.A.   NH
                                               N.A.   NJ
                                               N.A.   OH
                                               N.A.   PA


                                               N.A.   SC

                                               N.A.   TN
                                               N.A.   VT
                                               N.A.   VA
                                                                                           N.A. (Data not available)

                                               N.A.   WV
                    factors that impact the life chances of

OUTCOMES FOR ASIAN AND                         Asian and Pacific Islander children include 3.4 million children of Asian descent
                                               and 140,000 Pacific Islander children, representing 5 percent of all children.32
        Children in          Children in       As with all groups in this analysis, Asian and Pacific Islander children included
     U.S.-born families   immigrant families
                                               here are not of Hispanic origin and are identified with one racial category.
       AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN READING       Geography                                               TOP 10 LARGEST SUBGROUPS
          59   %
                                15   %         State Race for Results Index scores for Asian
                                               and Pacific Islander children are consistently          CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN FAMILIES WITH
                                               among the highest across all groups. Two                INCOMES AT OR ABOVE 200% OF POVERTY
                                               states — Delaware and New Jersey — have                 Asian Indian                                         83%
                                               scores above 900. Of the lowest-scoring                 Chinese*                                       71%
                                               states, only two — Alaska (508) and Rhode               Filipino                                        78%
                                               Island (580) — were below 600.                          Vietnamese                               57%
         EIGHTH GRADERS WHO SCORED                                                                     Korean                                         70%
        AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN MATH         Intragroup Differences                                                                         54%
                                               There are clear differences in the extent to
          65   %
                                20   %
                                               which barriers to success exist for different sub-      Hmong
                                               groups of Asian children. Of the 10 largest Asian
                                                                                                       Cambodian                             53%
                                               subgroups, Japanese, Asian Indian and Filipino
                                               children are the most likely to live in families with   Laotian                            45%
                                               incomes at or above 200 percent of poverty.
                                                                                                       *except Taiwanese
                                                   At the other end of the spectrum, children          SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau, 2010–2012 American Community Survey.
                                               in families from Southeast Asian ethnic groups
                                               (e.g., Hmong, Laotian, Cambodian, Vietnamese)
          59%                   87%            are the least likely to have high scores on this
                                               critical measure on the path to economic stability.

                                               Immigrant Status
                                               The impact of immigrant status on the well-being
                                               of Asian and Pacific Islander children is mixed.
                                               Kids of U.S.-born parents are much more likely
                                               to be proficient in reading by the fourth grade
Asian and Pacific Islander children            and in math by the eighth grade. Asian and
with U.S.-born parents are more likely         Pacific Islander children from immigrant families,
to be proficient in reading and math.          however, are significantly more likely to live in
                                               two-parent families.

16                                             The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org            kids count policy report
                                               914    DE
                                               903    NJ
                                               883    MD

                                               861    IL
                                               860    OH
                                               855    VA
                                               852    CT
                                               824    TX
                                               823    MA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX

                                               802    FL
                                               796    MO
                                               791    GA
                                               787    IN
                                               787    MI
                                               784    PA
                                               779    SC
                                               776    US
                                               774    TN
                                               771    AL
                                               768    CA
                                               760    WA
                                               756    CO
                                               750    NE
                                               746    NC
                                               744    AZ
                                               744    KY
                                               743    KS

The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org
                                               743    NY
                                               729    OK
                                                                                                                                                                         A State-to-State Comparison of Asian and Pacific Islander Children

                                               728    NM
                                               724    LA
                                               721    OR
                                               711    IA
                                               688    ID
                                               687    MS
                                               682    AR
                                               656    WI
                                               646    MN
                                               641    NV
                                               627    UT
                                               607    HI
                                               580    RI
                                               508    AK
                                               N.A.   ME


                                               N.A.   ND

                                               N.A.   SD
                                               N.A.   VT
                                               N.A.   WV
                                                                                           N.A. (Data not available)

                                               N.A.   WY
                    factors that impact the life chances of
                    LATINO CHILDREN

OUTCOMES FOR LATINO CHILDREN,                  There are 17.6 million Latino children in the United States, representing
                                               24 percent of the country’s child population. Because Latino is considered
        Children in          Children in
     U.S.-born families   immigrant families   an ethnicity, children in this group can be of any racial category. Latino
                                               children live in every region of the country, but they represent half of
        AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN MATH         the children in the two most populous states — California and Texas.33
          25   %
                                 3  %

                                               Geography                                           TOP 10 LARGEST SUBGROUPS
                                               The Race for Results Index scores for Latinos
                                               are cause for deep concern. Only eight states had   CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN FAMILIES WITH
                                               index scores above 500, with the highest score      INCOMES AT OR ABOVE 200% OF POVERTY
                                               in Alaska (573). The states with the highest        Mexican                       33%
 CHILDREN WHO LIVE WITH A HOUSEHOLDER          index scores are located in two regions — the       Puerto Rican                     40%
 WHO HAS AT LEAST A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA        Eastern Seaboard and the Mountain West.             Salvadoran                      37%
                                                   The states with the lowest Race for Results
                                               Index scores for Latino children are primarily
                                               located in the Mid-South and southwestern                                         33%
                                               regions. The range of index scores for Latino
                                                                                                   Colombian                              55%
                                               children — 331 to 573 — is the narrowest
                                                                                                   Honduran                    28%
                                               of all racial groups.
                                                                                                   Spaniard                                   65%

                                               Intragroup Differences                              Ecuadorian                          48%
                                               Of the 10 largest Latino subgroups, children
          51                    77
                                                                                                   SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau, 2010–2012 American Community Survey.
               %                     %         from Cuba, Spain and South America are
                                               the most likely to live in families with incomes
                                               at or above 200 percent of poverty.
                                                   Families from Mexico, the Caribbean
                                               and Central America face the biggest barriers
                                               to attaining economic security.

                                               Immigrant Status
On most indicators, Latino children            On nearly every measure in our index, Latino
in immigrant families have the                 children in immigrant families have the steepest
steepest obstacles to success.                 obstacles to success. The only exception is
                                               that children with immigrant parents are more
                                               likely to live in two-parent families than those
                                               whose parents were born in the United States.

18                                             The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org        kids count policy report
                                               573    AK
                                               540    NH
                                               521    HI

                                               517    VA
                                               512    MD
                                               511    FL
                                               504    MT
                                               502    NJ
                                               498    ND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX

                                               467    WY
                                               458    MO
                                               449    IL
                                               435    MN
                                               432    OH
                                               430    DE
                                               423    WI
                                               419    IA
                                               418    SD
                                               414    KS
                                               411    MI
                                               409    KY
                                                                                                                                                                         A State-to-State Comparison of Latino Children

                                               405    CA
                                               404    US
                                               398    CT
                                               395    NY
                                               394    IN
                                               389    CO

The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org
                                               387    MA
                                               384    MS
                                               380    ID
                                               378    OR
                                               377    WA
                                               376    TX
                                               371    SC
                                               370    UT
                                               369    AR
                                               368    GA
                                               368    NE
                                               363    NM
                                               362    TN
                                               356    AZ
                                               353    PA
                                               350    OK
                                               347    NC


                                               336    RI

                                               331    AL
                                               N.A.   ME
                                               N.A.   VT
                                                                                           N.A. (Data not available)

                                               N.A.   WV
                    factors that impact the life chances of
                    WHITE CHILDREN

OUTCOMES FOR WHITE CHILDREN,                   In 2012, white children represented the majority, 53 percent of the
                                               U.S. child population. The 39 million white children included in this
        Children in          Children in
     U.S.-born families   immigrant families   analysis are not Hispanic and identified as white or Caucasian alone.34
       AT OR ABOVE PROFICIENT IN READING       Geography                                               Immigrant Status
          46   %
                                11   %         The map shows that there is little variation in
                                               scores for white children across states. The
                                                                                                       Outcomes for white children in immigrant
                                                                                                       families are similar to immigrants in other
                                               northeastern states of New Jersey (827),                racial groups. On average, white children
                                               Massachusetts (827) and Connecticut (812)               who are non-native English speakers are
                                               hold the top three scores for white children on         about one-fourth as likely to be proficient
                                               the Race for Results Index. New York is in the          in math or reading as those who are native
                                               top 10, with a score of 768. New Jersey and             speakers. Children of foreign-born parents
   YOUNG ADULTS AGES 25 TO 29 WHO HAVE         Connecticut likely benefit from their proximity         are more likely to live in a two-parent family.
COMPLETED AN ASSOCIATE’S DEGREE OR HIGHER      to this important economic center. It is also           Unlike some other groups, they are also
                                               noteworthy that Virginia is the only southern           more likely to have obtained a postsecondary
                                               state in the top 10.                                    degree by age 29.
                                                   At the other end of the spectrum, the
                                               10 lowest-scoring states are overwhelmingly
                                               in the South (both Southeast and Southwest).
                                               Not surprisingly, two states in extremely poor
                                               regions are at the bottom of this list: West Virginia
                                               (Appalachia) and Mississippi (the Delta).

          76%                   89%

White children of foreign-born
parents are more likely to live in two-
parent families and to have obtained
a postsecondary degree by age 29.

20                                             The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org            kids count policy report
                                               827   MA
                                               827   NJ
                                               812   CT

                                               801   MD
                                               794   MN
                                               768   NY
                                               767   IL
                                               758   CO
                                               756   VA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RACE FOR RESULTS INDEX

                                               748   WI
                                               746   NE
                                               745   ND
                                               744   NH
                                               740   RI
                                               736   PA
                                               731   IA
                                               730   DE
                                               725   SD
                                               719   VT
                                               716   KS
                                                                                                                                                                        A State-to-State Comparison of White Children

                                               712   UT
                                               710   TX
                                               710   WA
                                               704   AK
                                               704   US
                                               688   HI
                                               687   NC

The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org
                                               677   AZ
                                               674   FL
                                               674   OH
                                               673   WY
                                               668   MI
                                               666   MT
                                               664   GA
                                               664   ID
                                               664   ME
                                               661   MO
                                               657   OR
                                               648   IN
                                               640   SC
                                               634   NM
                                               628   NV
                                               613   LA
                                               607   TN


                                               602   AL

                                               577   AR
                                               563   KY
                                               559   MS
                                                                                          N.A. (Data not available)

                                               521   WV
     investing for the future

              Children are America’s most indispensable          We propose four sets of recommen-
              asset for the future. As the country becomes    dations: expanding data collection,
              more and more diverse, our future prosper-      connecting data to investments and poli-
              ity, global competitiveness and community       cymaking, implementing promising and
              strength increasingly hinge on the success      evidence-based programs and practices and
              of children of color. To improve our nation’s   encouraging economic inclusion. Taken
              prospects for a strong, secure future, our      together, these recommendations will help
              wisest investment is to ensure that all         ensure that all children and their families
              children have the opportunity to succeed.       participate, prosper and achieve their full
              Erasing racial inequities, creating pathways    potential in an inclusive economy.
              to opportunity and making sound invest-
              ments in our youth will benefit not just        RECOMMENDATION 1
              children of color, but all Americans.           Gather and analyze racial and ethnic
                  The alarming statistics presented in        data to inform all phases of programs,
              Race for Results should be heard as a call      policies and decision making.
              for immediate action. To be sure, danger-       Moving children along the path of opportu-
              ously low reading and math proficiency          nity will require action across sectors. And,
              levels threaten the life chances of all         in all instances, programs, policies and other
              children and demand national action.            efforts should be guided by comprehensive,
              However, even in these areas, we observe        regularly updated data. Typically, data are
              real variations across racial and ethnic        reported for whole populations or as aggre-
              groups. It is clear that children of color —    gates. Access to and dissemination of racial
              especially African Americans, American          and ethnic data, including small popula-
              Indians, and Latinos — are in serious           tions, is limited at the local, state and federal
              trouble in numerous issue areas and in          levels. Advocacy groups and nonprofits have
              nearly every region of the country. Our         long indicated the importance of racial and
              nation cannot afford to leave this talent       ethnic data to uncover patterns, trends and
              behind in hopes that these problems             other important information that can assist
              will remedy themselves.                         in planning more responsive programs and
                  We have the resources and the moral         services. A growing number of leaders in the
              responsibility to ensure equitable oppor-       education, child welfare and juvenile justice
              tunities for all children of all races and      systems are looking to use disaggregated data
              ethnicities. We must help all children move     to further understand the complex factors
              forward along the path to self-sufficiency      contributing to disparities, with the goal of
              so that their talents can contribute to the     developing strategies that eliminate racial
              future success of our families, communities     disparities and that lead to improved child
              and economy.                                    and family outcomes for all.

22            The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org    kids count policy report
    For example, all grantees of the federal
Promise Neighborhoods program have                                Using Data to Help Address Disparities
been creating longitudinal databases with                         in the Juvenile Justice System
the information sufficiently disaggregated
by race to allow for this kind of periodic
assessment and recalibration. Many of the
programs serving African-American boys                     The existence of racial and ethnic dispari-      – Built the capacity to collect and
and young men are taking steps to ensure                   ties within juvenile justice systems has         extract disaggregated race and ethnicity
that the issues faced by this population are               been a persistent and vexing problem for         data from its information systems;
directly addressed and that the full range                 decades. However, when leaders take a
of best practices from around the country                  data-informed, results-focused approach          – Developed a data template enabling
are at their disposal.35                                   to tackling these issues, these systems can      stakeholders and system leaders to
    The collection, analysis and use of race               see significant reductions in disparities,       regularly track eight key data points; and
and ethnicity data should be an integral                   enabling more young people to have the
part of every public system’s continuing                   opportunity to fulfill their potential to make   – Deployed the template as a tool to
improvement efforts, quality assurance,                    a positive contribution to society.              assist local jurisdictions with measuring
supervision and accountability processes.                      One example of this is in Ventura County,    and monitoring disparities at key juvenile
If used both internally and with key                       California, where stakeholders worked for        justice decision-making points.
contractual partners, these data can                       three years with the W. Haywood Burns
become an analytic tool to manage and                      Institute, a national nonprofit, to address      As a result of collecting and reviewing
effectively allocate resources necessary to                racial and ethnic disparities within their       disaggregated data, the collaborative
help children and their families thrive.                   juvenile justice system, specifically focusing   identified two areas for intervention that
                                                           on young people entering secure facilities       would reduce disparities for youth of
RECOMMENDATION 2                                           for violations of probation (warrants).36        color in the system: ensuring that youth
Use data and impact assessment                                 When this effort began, Latino and           appear in court and reducing detentions
tools to target investments to yield the                   African-American youth were significantly        from bench warrants. After implementing
greatest impact for children of color.                     overrepresented in the population admitted       strategies in these areas, there has been
Improving equity and opportunity for                       to secure facilities for warrants. Latinos       a significant reduction in admissions to
children of color requires collecting and                  represented 46 percent of the youth popu-        secure detention, particularly for Latino
analyzing data to understand differential                  lation and 69 percent of those admitted          youth. Admissions to secure detention for
impacts of current policies on children                    to secure facilities for warrants. African-      violations of probation have decreased
of color and then using that analysis to                   American youth were 1 percent of the youth       for all groups, and Latino admissions for
target resources in ways that can improve                  population and 6 percent of youth admitted       violations of probation have dropped by
their outcomes. Racial Equity Impact                       for warrants. With the support of the Burns      more than 50 percent.
Assessments, Opportunity Impact State-                     Institute, Ventura County:
ments and sustainability reporting are just
a few tools that can help policymakers,

RACE FOR RESULTS                               The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                                              23
     communities and companies assess equity           to determine the effect of each identified
     and remedy long-standing inequities.              option on different students and com-
         A Racial Equity Impact Assessment — a         munities. The school board’s use of Racial
     systematic examination of how a proposed          Equity Impact Assessments resulted in
     action or decision will likely affect different   keeping a school serving the Somali com-
     racial and ethnic groups — is a useful tool       munity open that was originally proposed
     for assessing the actual or anticipated effect    to be closed. It also resulted in a policy
     of public policies, budgets and decision          that gave American Indians more choice
     making to maximize equity and minimize            in selecting schools.39
     negative unintended consequences. Race                An Opportunity Impact Statement
     Forward: The Center for Racial Justice            (OIS)40 is an evaluation instrument that
     Innovation, a national nonprofit working          public bodies, affected communities and
     to advance racial justice, developed its          the private sector can use to evaluate public
     Racial Equity Impact Assessment tool in           spending and ensure that programs and
     2009.37 The tool is used to inform decisions      projects offer equal and expanded oppor-
     in a way very similar to environmental            tunity for everyone in a community or
     impact statements, fiscal impact reports          region, as required by law. Whether it is for
     and workplace risk assessments.                   job creation, building out transportation
         King County (Seattle), Washington,            to jobs or improving schools, Opportunity
     began using Racial Equity Impact                  Impact Statements create consistent
     Assessments in 2012 to inform all county          metrics to facilitate compliance with anti-
     decisions, policies and practices. The            discrimination protections and, proactively,
     use of Racial Equity Impact Assessments           to promote greater opportunity.
     is now a county standard, and the                     The Opportunity Agenda has been
     program’s multimillion-dollar budget              promoting the use of Opportunity Impact
     is a direct reflection of its priorities,         Statements for many years. In its recent
     practices and resource allocations. In            issue brief, Promoting Opportunity Through
     fact, the county executive’s Procurement          Impact Statements: A Tool for Policymakers
     Reform Initiative has recently expanded           to Assess Equity,41 The Opportunity Agenda
     contracting opportunities to 200 addi-            recommended that administrative agen-
     tional local small businesses.38                  cies use Opportunity Impact Statements
         In 2008, the Minneapolis Board of             to evaluate government-funded projects for
     Education agreed to use Racial Equity             compliance with equal opportunity and
     Impact Assessments to inform decision             anti-discrimination laws. It suggests that
     making related to its Changing School             by making an agency fully cognizant of
     Options Initiative. The main goal in              its civil rights compliance, an Opportu-
     using the assessment tool was to use data         nity Impact Statement could significantly

24   The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org      kids count policy report
improve access to quality employment,            additional resources and services may be
education, housing, transportation and           needed to ensure good outcomes.
health care.                                         California is an example of a state in
    Corporations can use data from sustain-      the earliest stages of implementing this
ability reports to assess their contribution     approach. Legislation was passed in 2013 to
to the success of diverse communities. Sus-      replace the previous K–12 funding system
tainability reporting enables all companies      with the Local Control Funding Formula
to measure, understand and communicate           (LCFF) across the entire state. Similar
how the organization combines long-term          to fair student funding, LCFF provides
profitability with ethical behavior, social      all school districts with base funding
justice and environmental care. The              determined by their student enrollment.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),42 which       Districts are then eligible to receive a series
has more than 6,000 entities worldwide           of adjustments that layer on additional
using its reporting framework, is helping        funds per pupil in the early grades and high
companies document and assess their              school and for children in poverty, dual-
impact on communities of color. GRI              language learners and children in the foster
specifically asks companies to report the        care system. Additional enhancements are          A Racial Equity Impact
number of people of color who are in             available to districts where more than
their employee, management and senior            55 percent of their overall student popula-
                                                                                                   Assessment — a systematic
ranks; training opportunities and per-           tion fits into the above categories. LCFF         examination of how a
formance reviews by employee group;              represents a bold move to target resources
and compensation by employee group.              to children with differential outcomes.
                                                                                                   proposed action or decision
They also are asked to report incidents          Full implementation and accountability            will likely affect different
of discrimination and remedial action.           will be crucial to LCFF producing good
In addition, most companies report their         outcomes for California’s children.43
                                                                                                   racial and ethnic groups — is
charitable contributions, recruiting and                                                           a useful tool for assessing the
marketing outreach to communities of             RECOMMENDATION 3
color, especially as they relate to suppliers.   Develop and implement promising and               actual or anticipated effect of
Companies are encouraged to use this             evidence-based programs and practices             public policies, budgets and
information to develop more equitable            focused on improving outcomes for
business practices and to take proactive         children and youth of color.                      decision making to maximize
steps that direct more employment,               Improving opportunities and outcomes              equity and minimize negative
procurement and charitable investments           for children of color also will require
to people and communities of color.              creating a comprehensive inventory of
                                                                                                   unintended consequences.
    Many school districts across the coun-       promising programs and practices that
try have begun implementing weighted             work and providing incentives for their
student funding, also referred to as fair        use. Too often, the resources of public
student funding. The basic premise of            systems serving children and families are
fair student funding involves allocating a       spent on programs that lack evidence and
base amount for every student in the district    without input from the families and com-
and then layering on additional funding          munities they are intended to serve.
for students who are likely to require addi-         There should be room in each commu-
tional supports and services to succeed in       nity’s overall portfolio not only for those
school. To date, weighted funding models         strategies that have been proven effective,
have largely focused on equitably allocating     but also for those approaches that are show-
resources to improve outcomes for chil-          ing promising early results — even if they
dren in poverty or concentrated poverty,         are too new or too innovative to have been
children with special education needs and        fully studied. Such emerging practices need
dual-language learners or to target addi-        to be carefully documented and assessed so
tional resources to specific age groups. But,    that their results become evidence for the
weighted funding models could also be            next round of innovations.
implemented to target resources to children          The Parents as Teachers National Center
of color, where data analysis shows that         (PAT) is one example of an organization

RACE FOR RESULTS                                 The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                   25
                                                                                                   using a program that has demonstrated
     Boys and Men of Color                                                                         positive impacts for children of color.47
                                                                                                   To improve the education achievement
                                                                                                   gap in reading and math for American
Nearly every major indicator of economic,          The Annie E. Casey Foundation was               Indian children, PAT is implementing
social and physical well-being shows           a part of two recent efforts to mobilize            the evidence-based Family and Child
that black and brown men and boys in           action on this issue. In April 2013,                Education (FACE) Program.48 This effort
the United States disproportionately lack      27 foundations formed the Executives’               is working to ensure that children enter
access to the structural assets and oppor-     Alliance to Expand Opportunities for                kindergarten prepared to succeed in school
tunities needed to thrive. The Foundation      Boys and Men of Color. This philanthropic           and go on to read at grade level by the end
Center’s report Where Do We Go From            effort is a growing network of national,            of third grade. FACE is currently offered in
Here? Philanthropic Support for Black Men      regional and community foundations with             45 Bureau of Indian Education Schools.
and Boys documents the stark reality that      a shared conviction to ensure that all                  Volunteers of America (VOA) is another
there are too many obstacles and too few       boys and men of color enjoy full oppor-             example of an organization using a prom-
prospects to ensure that men and boys          tunity and inclusion. The Executives’               ising program to improve outcomes for
of color have the resources necessary to       Alliance seeks to increase targeted                 children of color. To date, relatively few
reach their full potential in life.44          philanthropic investments, build a sus-             programs that specifically target incar-
    Over the past six years, there has been    tainable field and utilize the platforms and        cerated parents or their children have
an upswing in the philanthropic sector’s       voice of foundation executives to promote           demonstrated their effectiveness with
recognition of the myriad ways in which        new narratives for males of color and               families of color. However, VOA’s Look
boys and men of color are being consistently   change policies for these populations. 45           Up and Hope initiative is one noteworthy
and systemically marginalized by the public        In addition, on February 27, 2014,              exception. Launched in 2009, this national,
agencies that touch their lives (e.g., child   the Obama administration announced a                multisite pilot project takes a uniquely
welfare, juvenile justice, education, health   public–private partnership, My Brother’s            long-term and family-centered approach
care). Diffuse investments in pockets of       Keeper, with 10 philanthropies. The part-           to supporting children with a mother in
communities throughout the country, which      nership is a cross-sector commitment to             prison. It provides incarcerated mothers,
were rarely coordinated among various          make targeted investments of financial and          their children and their children’s caregiv-
foundations, have morphed into coordinated     political capital to reduce the barriers to         ers with up to five years of comprehensive
philanthropic strategies working across        positive life outcomes for boys and men of          wraparound services, including home visits
institutions and across sectors.               color in America.46                                 and intensive individualized support from
                                                                                                   a case manager, called a “family coach.”
                                                                                                   While participants of all races and eth-
                                                                                                   nicities have clearly benefited from their
                                                                                                   involvement, the program’s results have
                                                                                                   been especially impressive with families
                                                                                                   of color. Most mothers involved in the
                                                                                                   program appear to be improving their

26                                                  The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org   kids count policy report
parenting skills and meeting their personal      own transitions from school to careers.
goals. Their children are performing well        The array of approaches to broadening
in school and are active in after-school         opportunity for young people of all
activities. And, their families are becoming     races, genders and backgrounds has been
more financially and emotionally stable.         evolving to keep up with an increasingly
VOA credits both the voluntary nature of         knowledge-based economy.
the program and the role of family coaches          Economic inclusion strategies explicitly
as independent advocates and supporters          connect vulnerable groups to new jobs
of the family as invaluable in winning the       and economic activity and ensure that
trust of African-American and American           new jobs are high-quality ones that offer
Indian participants.49                           family-supporting wages, benefits and
                                                 opportunities for growth. Targeted hiring
RECOMMENDATION 4                                 and minority contracting strategies are
Integrate economic inclusion                     examples of economic inclusion strategies
strategies within economic and                   that connect low-income people, people
workforce development efforts.                   of color and minority- and women-owned
As America’s demographics shift, ensuring        businesses to economic opportunities.
that communities of color can participate           A recent paper about economic inclu-
in and contribute to economic growth and         sion, supported by the Casey Foundation
development is not just an issue of social       and authored by PolicyLink, outlined four
justice — it is an economic imperative. For      ways to integrate economic inclusion into
regional economies to thrive, their residents    large-scale economic development and
need to have clear pathways to achieve           job-creation strategies: (1) fostering growth
economic success. In addition to ensuring        of “high-opportunity” industries that pro-
high-quality and universally accessible public   vide job opportunities for people without
education systems, cities and states should      college degrees; (2) leveraging large anchor
integrate economic inclusion strategies into     institutions like hospitals and universities
their economic development efforts.              to provide jobs and business opportunities
   Increasing access to jobs and career          for low-income communities; (3) removing
pathways, as well as opportunities to start      barriers and increasing opportunities for
or expand businesses, is also essential to       minority-owned businesses to start and
the development of healthy communities           expand; and (4) ensuring that public
and the success of families and individuals.     investments create jobs and business oppor-
Workforce development and entrepreneur-          tunities for low-income communities.
ship programs should be key parts of any            There are many examples of how cities
long-term strategy for children, first as        and states can implement economic inclu-
support for their parents and then for their     sion strategies. In Southern California,

RACE FOR RESULTS                                 The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org    27
     for example, the Coachella Valley               long-standing conversation, the Annie E.
     Economic Partnership is working with            Casey Foundation recognizes and honors
     local school districts, colleges and busi-      the work that has come before, while con-
     nesses to create career pathways for young      tributing a new mechanism for measuring
     people from mostly Latino, low-income           the progress of all children.
     communities in the rapidly growing health           We do so because we believe it is time
     care field. From kindergarten through           not only to think differently, but also to
     college, students are provided with men-        act urgently. The obstacles that block the
     torship, summer internship opportunities        path to opportunity for so many children
     and scholarships for college.50 Portland’s      are daunting to confront, but they must
     Clean Energy Works51 pilot project to help      be addressed. As profound demographic
     500 local homeowners finance and install        shifts, technological advances and changes
     energy efficiency upgrades was guided           in global competition race toward us, no
     by a landmark community workforce agree-        individual can afford to ignore the fact that
     ment requiring that 80 percent of the jobs      regardless of our own racial background or
     go to local residents; that 30 percent of       socioeconomic position, we are inextricably
     the trades and technical work hours go to       interconnected as a society. We must view
     historically underrepresented groups; and       all children in America as our own — and
     that wages be equal to at least 180 percent     as key contributors to our nation’s future.
     of the state median. People of color filled         We offer data and recommendations in
     almost half of the work hours on the project    this report because it is essential that local,
     (48 percent). Evergreen Cooperatives in         state and federal leaders take steps now
     Cleveland is leveraging the purchasing          — this year — to transform formidable
     power of the many health and educational        challenges into irresistible opportunities.
     institutions located in the University Circle   Businesses, philanthropies and nonprofit
     area to launch worker-owned cooperative         organizations also must step forward and
     businesses in the adjacent neighborhood,        use proven approaches to catalyze success.
     creating jobs and wealth-building opportu-          We believe that when we revisit and
     nities for low-income families.52               update these indicators in the next few years,
                                                     we can report improved results. At Casey,
     CONCLUSION                                      we will do more than just hope that Race
                                                     for Results inspires broad action on behalf
     We realize that many organizations have         of kids across America. We will remain
     worked diligently to address issues facing      involved, working with both traditional
     children of color for many years, and           and new partners to create conditions that
     that work has been valuable in shining          will allow the next generation — children
     a spotlight on the issues. In joining this      of every race and ethnicity — to thrive.

28   The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org    kids count policy report

1. Davey, L. (2009). Strategies        11. Pendall, R., Davies, E.,              16. Na, C., & Gottfredson, D.           standard score. Lower values repre-
for framing racial disparities         Freiman, L., & Pitingolo, R.              (2011). Police officers in schools:     sent worse outcomes for children,
(FrameWorks Institute Message          (2011). A lost decade: Neighborhood       Effects on school crime and the         and higher values represent more
Brief). Washington, DC:                poverty and the urban crisis of           processing of offending behaviors.      positive outcomes.
FrameWorks Institute.                  the 2000s. Washington, DC:                Justice Quarterly, 1–32. And, Torres,
                                       Joint Center for Political and            M., & Stefkovich, J. A. (2009).         21. Office of Management and
2. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012).         Economic Studies.                         Demographics and police involve-        Budget. (1997, October 30).
2012 national population                                                         ment: Implications for student          Revisions to the standards for the
projections: Summary tables.           12. Davis, T. M., & Welcher, A. N.        civil liberties and just leadership.    classification of federal data on
Washington, DC: Author.                (2013). School quality and the            Education Administration Quarterly,     race and ethnicity (Federal Register
Retrieved from www.census.gov/         vulnerability of the black middle         45(3), 450–473. And, Raby, R.           Notice). Washington, DC: Author.
population/projections/data/           class: The continuing significance        (2012). School rules: Obedience,        Retrieved from www.whitehouse.
national/2012/summarytables.html       of race as a predictor of disparate       discipline and elusive democracy.       gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/
                                       schooling environments. Sociological      Toronto, Canada: University of
3. Auguste, B. G., Hancock, B., &      Perspectives, 56(4), 467–493. And,                                                22. The Annie E. Casey
                                                                                 Toronto Press. And, The Sentencing      Foundation. (2013). 2013 KIDS
Laboissiere, M. (2009, June). The      Oakes, J. (2005). Keeping track:          Project (2010). Disproportionate        COUNT data book: State trends in
economic cost of the U.S. educa-       How schools structure inequality          minority contact. Retrieved from        child well-being. Baltimore, MD:
tion gap. Insights & Publications.     (2nd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale            www.sentencingproject.org/doc/          Author.
McKinsey & Company. Retrieved          University Press.                         publications/jj_DMCfactsheet.pdf
from www.mckinsey.com/insights/
social_sector/the_economic_cost_       13. Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D’V.                                                   23. Woodrow Wilson School of
                                                                                 17. Isaacs, J. B. (2008). Economic      Public and International Affairs
of_the_us_education_gap                (2011). Unauthorized immigrant            mobility of black and white
                                       population: National and state                                                    at Princeton & The Brookings
                                                                                 families. In R. Haskins, J. B.          Institution. (2005). School readi-
4. Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D.     trends, 2010. Washington, DC:             Isaacs, & I. V. Sawhill, Getting
A. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to     Pew Research Center–Pew                                                           ness: Closing racial and ethnic gaps.
                                                                                 ahead or losing ground: Economic        The Future of Children, 15(1).
neighborhoods: The science of early    Hispanic Center. Retrieved                mobility in America (pp. 467–483).
childhood development. Washington      from www.pewhispanic.org/files/                                                   Retrieved from www.princeton.
                                                                                 Washington, DC: The Brookings           edu/futureofchildren/publications/
DC: National Academy Press.            reports/133.pdf                           Institution.                            docs/15_01_FullJournal.pdf
5. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.      14. Yoshikawa, H., & Kholoptseva,         18. Center on Children and
(2013). 2013 KIDS COUNT Data           J. (2013). Unauthorized immigrant                                                 24. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.
                                                                                 Families. (2013). The Social Genome     (2013). Early warning confirmed:
Book: State trends in child well-      parents and their children’s develop-     Project. Washington, DC: The            A research update on third-grade
being. Baltimore, MD: Author.          ment. Washington, DC: Migration           Brookings Institution. Retrieved        reading. Baltimore, MD: Author.
6. Jackson, K. T. (1985). Crabgrass    Policy Institute. Retrieved from          from www.brookings.edu/about/
                                       www.migrationpolicy.org/research/                                                 Retrieved from www.aecf.org/
frontier: The Suburbanization of                                                 centers/ccf/social-genome-project       KnowledgeCenter/Publications.
the United States. New York, NY:       unauthorized-immigrant-parents-
                                       and-their-childrens-development?          19. Kirwan Institute for the            aspx?pubguid={58440238-1626-
Oxford University Press.                                                                                                 476F-AFDA-155D2185FB3A}
                                       pdf=COI-Yoshikawa.pdf                     Study of Race and Ethnicity.
7. Ibid.                                                                         (2013). Opportunity Mapping             25. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012).
                                       15. Telles, E. E., & Ortiz, V.            initiative and project listing.
                                       (2008). Generations of exclusion:                                                 American Community Survey.
8. Ibid.                                                                         Retrieved February 20, 2014,
                                       Mexican Americans, assimila-                                                      Washington, DC: Author.
                                                                                 from http://kirwaninstitute.osu.        Retrieved from http://factfinder2.
9. Higginbotham, M. F. (2013).         tion and race. New York, NY:              edu/opportunity-communities/
Ghosts of Jim Crow: Ending racism in   Russell Sage Foundation. And,                                                     census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/
                                                                                 mapping/                                index.xhtml
post-racial America. New York, NY:     PolicyLink. (2011). California’s
New York University Press.             tomorrow: Equity is the superior          20. The standard score is the           26. The Annie E. Casey
                                       growth model. PolicyLink and              number of standard deviations           Foundation. (2012). Children
10. Ibid.                                                                        an observation is from the mean.
                                       USC Program for Environmental                                                     living in high-poverty commu-
                                       and Regional Equity. Retrieved            Standard scores were derived by         nities (KIDS COUNT Data
                                       from www.policylink.org/atf/              subtracting the mean score from         Snapshot). Baltimore, MD: Author.
                                       cf/%7B97c6d565-bb43-406d-                 the observed score and dividing the     Retrieved from www.aecf.org/
                                       a6d5-eca3bbf35af0%7D/CA_                  amount by the standard deviation        KnowledgeCenter/Publications.
                                       ESGM_FINAL.PDF                            for that distribution of scores.        aspx?pubguid={DF6A3A0E-9AA3-
                                                                                 All measures were given the same        405E-9FB9-E1D9C80C5E5C}
                                                                                 weight in calculating the total

RACE FOR RESULTS                                           The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                                          29
     27. Sanbonmatsu, L., Kling, J. R.,       36. The W. Haywood Burns Institute             42. Global Reporting Initiative.            48. Family and Child Education
     Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn,            for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity         (2014). G4 sustainability reporting         (FACE) Resources. (2014). Family
     J. (2006). Neighborhoods and             works to eliminate racial and ethnic           guidelines. Retrieved from www.             and Child Education making a
     academic achievement: Results            disparity by building a community-             globalreporting.org/reporting/g4/           difference for American Indian
     from the Moving to Opportunity           centered response to youthful                  Pages/default.aspx                          children. FACE Program. Retrieved
     experiment. The Journal of Human         misbehavior that is equitable and                                                          from http://faceresources.org/
     Resources, 41(4), 649–691.               restorative (www.burnsinstitute.org/           43. California Department of
                                              article.php?id=324).                           Education. (2014). Local Control            49. Nelson-Dusek, S., Ryba-
     28. Gilliam, Jr., F. D. (2006). The                                                     Funding Formula overview.                   Tures, K. L., & Atella, J. (2013,
     architecture of a new racial discourse   37. Keleher, T. (2009). Racial                 Retrieved from www.cde.ca.gov/              June). Look Up and Hope: Annual
     (FrameWorks Message Memo).               Equity Impact Assessment toolkit.              fg/aa/lc/lcffoverview.asp                   progress report. Saint Paul, MN:
     Washington, DC: FrameWorks               New York, NY: Race Forward.                                                                Wilder Research. Retrieved
     Institute. Retrieved from www.           Retrieved from www.raceforward.                44. Shah, S., & Sato, G. (2012,             from www.voa.org/Get-Help/
     frameworksinstitute.org/assets/          org/practice/tools/racial-equity-              October). Where do we go from               National-Network-of-Services/
     files/PDF/gilliam_memo1106.pdf           impact-assessment-toolkit                      here? Philanthropic support for             Children-Youth-Families/
                                                                                             black men and boys. New York,               Look-Up-and-Hope-Initiative-
     29. Sampson, R. J., Sharkey, P.,         38. King County Executive Office.              NY: Foundation Center. Retrieved            StrengtheningFamilies-Affected-by-
     & Raudenbush, S. W. (2008).              (2012). King County: Equity and                from http://foundationcenter.               Incarceration/Look-Up-and-Hope-
     Durable effects of concentrated          social justice annual report. Seattle,         org/gainknowledge/research/pdf/             2013-Annual-Progress-Report.pdf
     disadvantage on verbal ability           WA: Author. And, the Tools and                 osf_bmb.pdf
     among African-American children.         Resources section of the county’s                                                          50. PolicyLink. (2013, June 27).
     Proceedings of the National Academy      Equity and Social Justice site                 45. Southeastern Council of                 The doctor is in: Preparing
     of Sciences of the United States         offers information on the Equity               Foundations. (2013, September–              tomorrow’s health-care work-
     of America, 105(3), 845–852.             Impact Review toolkit (www.                    October). Improving outcomes                force. America’s Tomorrow: Equity
                                              kingcounty.gov/exec/equity/                    for black men & boys: Southern              Is the Superior Growth Model.
     30. The KIDS COUNT Data                  toolsandresources.aspx).                       funders among new national                  Oakland, CA: Author. Retrieved
     Center is a site that provides child                                                    alliance to step up the pace.               from www.policylink.org/site/c.
     well-being data at the national,         39. Toney, J., & Keleher, T.                   Interchange: The News Connection            lkIXLbMNJrE/b.8727929/k.
     state and community levels               (2013, September–October). Using               for Southeastern Grantmakers,               D2D2/Americas_Tomorrow__
     (http://datacenter.kidscount.org).       a racial equity impact analysis in             22(5). Retrieved from www.secf.             June_27_2013.htm#.
                                              the Minneapolis public schools.                org/assets/site/Interchange/                UxCdr7Eo6Ul
     31. Ibid.                                Clearinghouse Review: Journal of               ic%2022.5.pdf
     32. Ibid.                                Poverty Law and Policy, 47(5/6),                                                           51. Green For All. (2011, March).
                                              163–168.                                       46. The White House. (2014). My             High road outcomes in Portland’s
     33. Ibid.                                                                               brother’s keeper: Creating opportunity      energy efficiency upgrade pilot.
                                              40. The Opportunity Agenda.                    for boys and young men of color.            Washington, DC: Author.
     34. Ibid.                                (2012). The Opportunity Impact                 Retrieved from www.whitehouse.              Retrieved from http://greenforall.
                                              Statement: Expanding the American              gov/my-brothers-keeper                      org/wordpress/wp-content/
     35. PolicyLink. (2013). Accelerating     Dream. Retrieved from http://                                                              uploads/2012/08/High-Road-
     results for black males: A resource      opportunityagenda.org/files/field_             47. The Parents as Teachers
                                                                                             site provides information about             Outcomes-Clean-Energy-Works-
     guide for Promise Neighborhoods.         file/The%20Opportunity%20                                                                  Portland.pdf
     Oakland, CA: Author. Retrieved           Impact%20Statement.pdf                         organizations and programs
     from www.policylink.org/atf/                                                            that are having a positive effect           52. The Evergreen Cooperatives
     cf/%7B97c6d565-bb43-406d-                41. Jenkins, A., Thukral, J., Hsu,             on children of color (www.                  site provides information on
     a6d5-eca3bbf35af0%7D/                    K., Kunakemakorn, N., & Haberle,               parentsasteachers.org/).                    programs that are creating jobs for
     PNIBMARESOURCEGUIDE_                     M. (2012, April). Promoting oppor-                                                         low-income families and improving
     20130624_1.PDF. And, Comey, J.,          tunity through impact statements: A                                                        their wealth-building opportunities
     Tatian, P. A., Freiman, L., Winkler,     tool for policymakers to assess equity                                                     (http://evergreencooperatives.com).
     M. K., Hayes, C., Franks, K.,            (Issue Brief). Washington, DC:
     & Jordan, R. (2013). Measuring           American Constitution Society for
     performance: A guidance document for     Law and Policy. Retrieved from
     Promise Neighborhoods on collecting      www.acslaw.org/sites/default/
     data and reporting results. Wash-        files/Jenkins_et_al_-_Promoting_
     ington, DC: The Urban Institute.         Opportunity_through_Impact_
     Retrieved from www2.ed.gov/              Statements_0.pdf

30                                            The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                        kids count policy report

Race for Results Index value is the state value      Babies born at normal birthweight is the               Fourth graders who scored at or above proficient
between 0 and 1,000, based on 12 critical            percentage of all live births where the newborn        in reading is the percentage of fourth-grade
milestones for success. To construct this index,     weighs 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) or more. The           public school students who scored at or above
we standardized scores across 12 indicators          data reflect the mother’s place of residence,          the proficient level in reading, as measured
that have different scales and distributions,        not the place where the birth occurred. Births         and defined by the National Assessment of
to help make more accurate comparisons.              of unknown weight were not included in these           Educational Progress. (See http://nces.ed.gov/
Standard scores (or z-scores) are based on           calculations. Births where the mother’s Hispanic       nationsreportcard/Reading/achieveall.asp
50-state averages and standard deviations for        status was unknown were counted as non-                for a more detailed description of achievement
each indicator. To better show the differences       Hispanic. As directed by the National Center for       levels.) Public schools include charter schools
across groups and states, we converted these         Health Statistics, data were suppressed when           and exclude Bureau of Indian Education schools
z-scores to a scale ranging from 0 to 1,000,         there were fewer than 20 cases. SOURCE Centers         and Department of Defense Education Activity
using this formula: [(Score – Minimum Score) /       for Disease Control and Prevention, National           schools. SOURCE U.S. Department of Education,
(Maximum Score – Minimum Score)] x 1,000.            Center for Health Statistics, 2011 Vital Statistics.   National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
The lowest standard score across states and                                                                 National Assessment of Educational Progress.
racial/ethnic groups was assigned a 0, and the       Children ages 3 to 5 enrolled in nursery school,
highest score was assigned 1,000. This formula       preschool or kindergarten is the share of              Eighth graders who scored at or above proficient
was applied to the z-scores for each of the 12       children ages 3 to 5 enrolled in nursery school,       in math is the percentage of eighth-grade public
indicators, and then those values were averaged      preschool or kindergarten during the previous          school students who scored at or above the
to produce an overall index value for each state     three months. “Nursery school” and “preschool”         proficient level in mathematics, as measured
and racial/ethnic group. Lower values represent      include any group or class within an institution       and defined by the National Assessment of
worse outcomes for children, and higher values       that provides educational experiences for              Educational Progress. (See http://nces.ed.gov/
represent more positive outcomes for children.       children during the years preceding kindergarten.      nationsreportcard/Mathematics/achieveall.asp
Indicator estimates were suppressed when the         Places where instruction is an integral part of        for a more detailed description of achievement
coefficient of variation was greater than 30         the program were included, but private homes           levels.) Public schools include charter schools
percent or when there were fewer than 20 events      that primarily provide custodial care were             and exclude Bureau of Indian Education schools
in the state. The average was based only on the      not included. Children enrolled in programs            and Department of Defense Education Activity
indicators that had valid values, and index values   sponsored by federal, state or local agencies          schools. SOURCE U.S. Department of Education,
were reported only for those groups that had         to provide preschool education to young                National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
no more than three of the 12 values suppressed.      children — including Head Start programs —             National Assessment of Educational Progress.
                                                     were considered as enrolled in nursery school
                                                     or preschool. Children enrolled in grades              Females ages 15 to 19 who delay childbearing
                                                     higher than kindergarten were excluded from            until adulthood is the estimated percentage
                                                     this analysis. SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau,              of females ages 15 to 19 who did not give birth
                                                     2010–12 American Community Survey Public               during their teen years. The number of teen
                                                     Use Microdata Sample files.                            mothers was calculated by adding all first births
                                                                                                            to 15- to 19-year-olds in the current year to all

RACE FOR RESULTS                                     The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org                                                           31
first births to 14- to 18-year-olds in the previous   Young adults ages 25 to 29 who have                    Children birth to 17 who live in families with
year and all first births to 13- to 17-year-olds in   completed an associate’s degree or higher              incomes at or above 200 percent of poverty
the year before. Then, the percentage of females      is the percentage of young adults ages 25 to 29        is the percentage of children ages birth to 17
who delayed childbearing was calculated by            who have completed an associate’s degree or            who live in families with incomes at or above
subtracting the estimated number of teen              higher. An associate’s degree generally requires       200 percent of the federal poverty threshold.
mothers from the population of 15- to 19-year-old     two years of college-level work and is either          The federal poverty definition comprises a
girls in each state. Because data were pooled for     in an occupational program that prepares               series of thresholds, based on family size and
some years, some teen mothers who first gave          students for a specific career, or an academic         composition. In 2012, a 200 percent poverty
birth when they were very young were excluded         program primarily in the arts and sciences.            threshold for a family of two adults and two
from these estimates. SOURCES Birth Statistics:       The coursework may or may not be transferable          children was $46,566. Poverty status was
Child Trends’ analysis of data from the Centers       to a bachelor’s degree. SOURCE U.S. Census             not determined for people in military barracks,
for Disease Control and Prevention, National          Bureau, 2010–12 American Community Survey              for those in institutional quarters or for
Center for Health Statistics, 2006–10 Vital           Public Use Microdata Sample files.                     unrelated individuals under age 15 (such as
Statistics. Population Statistics: U.S. Census                                                               foster children). SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau,
Bureau, 2010 Population Estimates.                    Children birth to 17 who live with a householder       2010–12 American Community Survey Public
                                                      who has at least a high school diploma is the          Use Microdata Sample files.
High school students graduating on time is the        percentage of all children ages birth to 17 who
estimated percentage of an entering freshman          live with a householder who has at least a high        Children birth to 17 who live in low-poverty areas
class graduating in four years. This measure was      school diploma, GED or equivalent credential.          (poverty <20 percent) is the percentage of
derived by aggregating student enrollment data        The child may be the householder’s “own                children ages birth to 17 who live in census tracts
to estimate the size of an incoming freshman          child” or related to the householder by birth,         where the poverty rates are less than 20 percent.
class and aggregating counts of the number of         marriage or adoption. Children under age 18            Research indicates that as neighborhood
regular diplomas awarded four years later.            who maintain households or are spouses or              poverty rates increase, undesirable outcomes
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, National         unmarried partners of householders were                rise, and opportunities for success are less
Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of       excluded from this analysis. SOURCE U.S. Census        likely. The effects of concentrated poverty begin
Data, 2009/10 State Dropout and Completion Data       Bureau, 2010–12 American Community Survey              to appear once neighborhood poverty rates rise
(http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/drpcompstatelvl.asp).         Public Use Microdata Sample files.                     above 20 percent and continue to grow as the
                                                                                                             concentration of poverty increases, up to the
Young adults ages 19 to 26 who are in school or       Children birth to 17 who live in two-parent            40 percent threshold. Data for non-Hispanic
working is the percentage of young adults ages        families is the percentage of children ages birth to   black and African-American children were not
19 to 26 who are either enrolled in school (full      17 who live with two parents — biological, adoptive    available from the Census Bureau’s American
or part time) or employed (full or part time).        or stepparents. Two-parent families include            Community Survey Summary tables. Therefore,
This measure is sometimes referred to as “Youth       married-couple families, as well as those in which     in this analysis, black and African-American
Connectedness.” SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau,            the parents are unmarried partners. SOURCE U.S.        children include those who were of either
2010–12 American Community Survey Public              Census Bureau, 2010–12 American Community              Hispanic or non-Hispanic descent. SOURCE U.S.
Use Microdata Sample files.                           Survey Public Use Microdata Sample files.              Census Bureau, 2007–11 American Community
                                                                                                             Survey Five-Year Summary file.

32                                                    The Annie E. Casey Foundation | www.aecf.org           kids count policy report

The Annie E. Casey Foundation is a private           This report would not have been possible
philanthropy that creates a brighter future for      without the work of a number of contributors.
the nation’s children by developing solutions to     Primary research and writing assistance was
strengthen families, build paths to economic         provided by Frank Gilliam, Jr., PhD. We would
opportunity and transform struggling communi-        also like to thank the team at the Population
ties into safer and healthier places to live, work   Reference Bureau for their assistance in
and grow.                                            developing the Race for Results Index. Finally,
                                                     we would like to thank the many colleagues
KIDS COUNT®, a project of the Annie E. Casey         at the Foundation who contributed to the
Foundation, is a national and state-by-state         development of this report, especially the
effort to track the status of children in the        Race for Results work group led by Jessica
United States. By providing policymakers and         Donaldson, Florencia Gutierrez, Lisa Hamilton,
citizens with benchmarks of child well-being,        Jamael Hines, Laura Speer, Donna Stark,
KIDS COUNT seeks to enrich local, state and          Nonet Sykes and Norris West. We thank them
national discussions concerning ways to secure       all for their expertise and tireless efforts.
better futures for all children.
                                                     Permission to copy, disseminate or otherwise
                                                     use information from this policy report is granted
At the national level, the initiative develops and   as long as appropriate acknowledgment is given.
distributes reports on key areas of well-being,
                                                     Designed by KINETIK
including the annual KIDS COUNT Data Book.           www.kinetikcom.com
The initiative also maintains the KIDS COUNT
                                                     Photography © Jason Miczek
Data Center (datacenter.kidscount.org), which
uses the best available data to measure the          Printed and bound in the United States of America
                                                     on recycled paper using soy-based inks.
educational, social, economic and physical well-
being of children. Additionally, the Foundation      KIDS COUNT ® is a registered trademark
                                                     of the Annie E. Casey Foundation.
funds a nationwide network of state-level KIDS
COUNT projects that provide a more detailed,         © 2014 The Annie E. Casey Foundation                 Additional data and copies
                                                     701 St. Paul Street
community-by-community picture of the condi-         Baltimore, MD 21202                                  of this report can be found at
tion of children.                                    www.aecf.org                                         www.kidscount.org

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