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Marine Integrated Aquaculture Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. Professor, University of Arizona American Soybean Association Past President – World Aquaculture Society Karachi, Pakistan 9 March, 2012 Overview F Global perspective on sustainable aquaculture F Production systems F Polyculture of fish, bivalves, seaweeds, and crustaceans F Future trends Several models F Fish and seaweed in cages F Seaweeds in shrimp pond F Fish in cages in shrimp farm supply reservoirs F Fish and shrimp in crop rotation F Tilapia to treat/re-use shrimp effluent Tilapia - shrimp polyculture Philippines - Early adoption of polyculture F Severe disease outbreaks in shrimp industry in 1990’s F Major producer of tilapia F Developed tilapia-shrimp polyculture system on Negros Island F Crop-rotation, tilapia in cages/hapas, and tilapia in reservoir F Have been operating for 10+ years Tilapia-shrimp farm in Sonora, Mexico Fish-shrimp production in Ecuador and Peru F Supplementing shrimp because of white spot and other shrimp diseases F Crop rotation, tilapia in supply reservoirs F Using shrimp infrastructure F Exporting tilapia to US and EU Tilapia production in Ecuador and shrimp viral infections White Spot IHHN Taura Tilapia production in outside ponds with shrimp in covered ponds (Ecuador) Tilapia-shrimp-halophytes Eritrea Salicornia Mangroves Mangroves Salicornia Shrimp / tilapia ponds Shrimp-fish systems Tilapia cages in shrimp pond, Thailand Tilapia hapa in shrimp pond, Thailand Brackish water fish – seaweeds and bivalves Snapper, seabass, grouper cage effluents (feed and feces) fertilize seaweed and feed filter feeding bivalves Thailand experimental polyculture systems at AIT F Shrimp survival - 90% F Shrimp yield - 3,000 kg/ha F Tilapia survival - > 90% F Tilapia yield - 1,500 kg/ha F Tilapia growth - 10g to 300g in 10 weeks F Shrimp survival and yield was lower in monoculture control Seaweed and Mud crabs Gracilaria Shrimp Tilapia Seaweed, milkfish and shrimp polyculture F Fresh Gracilaria from the tilapia-shrimp pond Mechanisms F Mucus – supports gram positive bacteria F Fish activity increases green algae bloom while maintaining levels of other types of algae F Bio-manipulators of sediments - Oxidize wastes - Disturb life-cycle of pathogens and vectors Marine Integrated Aquaculture F Shrimp seaweeds, bivalves, cucumbers, urchins F Fish seaweeds, bivalves, tunicates F Abalone seaweeds F Mud crabs seaweeds, fish, shrimp Grouper and Snappers → seaweeds, inverts F Groupers and snappers in cages release dissolved nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, CO2, etc.) and suspended solids (feed, feces, phytoplankton) to be consumed by seaweed, bivalves, and sea urchins Floating feeds Conclusions F Improved production systems with more sustainability. F Protection of the environment F More economic benefit for aquatic farmers.
"Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview_ Nutrition and Feed Tchnology_1_"