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Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview_ Nutrition and Feed Tchnology_1_

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									Marine Integrated Aquaculture



        Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.
        Professor, University of Arizona
        American Soybean Association
  Past President – World Aquaculture Society
             Karachi, Pakistan
                9 March, 2012
                 Overview
F Global perspective on sustainable aquaculture
F Production systems
F Polyculture of fish, bivalves, seaweeds, and
  crustaceans
F Future trends
         Several models
F Fish and seaweed in cages
F Seaweeds in shrimp pond
F Fish in cages in shrimp farm
  supply reservoirs
F Fish and shrimp in crop rotation
F Tilapia to treat/re-use shrimp
  effluent
Tilapia - shrimp polyculture
Philippines - Early adoption of
         polyculture
F   Severe disease outbreaks in shrimp
    industry in 1990’s
F   Major producer of tilapia
F   Developed tilapia-shrimp polyculture
    system on Negros Island
F   Crop-rotation, tilapia in cages/hapas, and
    tilapia in reservoir
F   Have been operating for 10+ years
Tilapia-shrimp farm in Sonora, Mexico
   Fish-shrimp production in
       Ecuador and Peru
F Supplementing   shrimp because
  of white spot and other shrimp
  diseases
F Crop rotation, tilapia in supply
  reservoirs
F Using shrimp infrastructure
F Exporting tilapia to US and EU
Tilapia production in Ecuador
 and shrimp viral infections




                     White Spot
  IHHN       Taura
Tilapia production in outside
ponds with shrimp in covered
      ponds (Ecuador)
Tilapia-shrimp-halophytes                      Eritrea


               Salicornia


     Mangroves
                            Mangroves



  Salicornia

                                    Shrimp / tilapia ponds
                              Shrimp-fish
                                systems
                         Tilapia cages in shrimp
                         pond, Thailand




Tilapia hapa in shrimp
   pond, Thailand
 Brackish water fish – seaweeds and bivalves
Snapper, seabass,
grouper cage
effluents (feed and
feces) fertilize
seaweed and feed
filter feeding
bivalves
        Thailand experimental
      polyculture systems at AIT
F   Shrimp survival - 90%
F   Shrimp yield - 3,000 kg/ha
F   Tilapia survival - > 90%
F   Tilapia yield - 1,500 kg/ha
F   Tilapia growth - 10g to 300g in 10 weeks
F   Shrimp survival and yield was lower in
    monoculture control
Seaweed and Mud crabs
          Gracilaria




             Shrimp




Tilapia
Seaweed, milkfish and shrimp   polyculture
F   Fresh Gracilaria from the tilapia-shrimp pond
                Mechanisms
F   Mucus – supports gram positive bacteria
F   Fish activity increases green algae bloom
    while maintaining levels of other types of
    algae
F   Bio-manipulators of sediments
    - Oxidize wastes
    - Disturb life-cycle of pathogens and vectors
       Marine Integrated Aquaculture
F   Shrimp    seaweeds, bivalves, cucumbers, urchins
F   Fish      seaweeds, bivalves, tunicates
F   Abalone   seaweeds
F   Mud crabs    seaweeds, fish, shrimp
Grouper and Snappers → seaweeds, inverts
F   Groupers and
    snappers in cages
    release dissolved
    nutrients (N, P, K,
    Fe, CO2, etc.) and
    suspended solids
    (feed, feces,
    phytoplankton) to
    be consumed by
    seaweed, bivalves,
    and sea urchins
Floating feeds
                Conclusions
F   Improved production systems with more
    sustainability.
F    Protection of the environment
F    More economic benefit for aquatic farmers.

								
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