Machine Guards in the Oil Patch.pptx

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					Machine Guards in
  the Oil patch

Machine Guard Oilfield Standards
  Go once around the Globe
So tell me it doesn’t have to happen
         So tell me it doesn’t have to happen

Many accidents result from persons working on or around
moving machinery. These accidents could have been
prevented by the installation and proper maintenance of
guarding. The goal of this training is to make the guarding
of all equipment as easily understood as possible and re-
enforce the safe working procedures that must always be
in place around dangerous equipment.
So your safety record goes from green
     to red for injuries on the job
         The Road to Zero
        Goals & Objectives
• Improve inspection and enforcement
  consistency to ensure proper guarding

• This will result in … REDUCED :
    Ø Serious and Fatal accidents
    Ø Risk of injury posed to oilfield
                    It all starts here
Machine Guarding in the Oil and Gas
Ø Production Field Preventing Employee Exposure

Engineering Controls:
• – Guard equipment as per the government standards
• – Install barricades to control access to the hazard

Administrative Controls:
• – Develop and communicate policies, standards and
• procedures to protect workers during maintenance, starting
• up or shutting down equipment.
• – Utilize signage as per government standards such as
“equipment starts automatically” or “hot surfaces”, etc., as
                   Rule 1 Job 1
Machine Guarding in the Oil and Gas
Production Field
• Begin with a hazard assessment
– Identify recognized hazards
– Explore unrecognized hazards
– Consider severity as a consequence of exposure
– Assess hazards during the design stage
– Repeat assessments during manufacturing, delivery,
installation, during operation and after maintenance.
• Design equipment to meet regulatory standard
Workers using hand
and site tools may
be exposed to these

ØObjects that fall, fly, are abrasive, or splash
ØHarmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases
ØFrayed or damaged electrical cords, hazardous
 connections and improper grounding
ØVibration and impact
             Just the basic Please
The point of operation: that point where work is
performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring,
or forming of stock such as a grinder wheel, saw blade, etc..
• Power transmission apparatus: all components of the
mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the
machine performing the work. These components include
flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams,
spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.
• Other moving parts: all parts of the machine which move
while the machine is working. These can include
reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well
as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
   Preventive Maintenance Systems

Good preventive maintenance and regular
inspections play a major role in ensuring that
hazard controls continue to function effectively.
It also keeps new hazards from arising due to
equipment malfunction.
Metal fatigue, guards becoming loose or missing
bolts are examples of hazards which could be
corrected through preventative maintenance
   Check your moving parts
       Moving Machine Parts

Moving machine parts shall be guarded to
protect persons from contacting gears,
sprockets, chains, drive, head, tail and take-
up pulleys, flywheels, couplings, shafts, fan
blades and similar moving parts that can cause
Guards shall not be required where the
exposed moving parts are at least seven feet
away from walking or working surfaces.
    Guards are meant to protect
          persons from:
• “inadvertent, careless, or accidental
  contact” or
• “deliberate or purposeful work-related
  actions…” (inspection, testing, cleaning, maintenance,
  troubleshooting, lubrication, adjustment, servicing, etc…)

• Standard does not address deliberate or
  purposeful, NON-work-related actions
  Types of Guarding

• Point-of-contact guarding

   • Location guarding

     • Area guarding
Point-of-Contact Guards

           Securely in Place
         - not easily dislodged -

• Fastened
• Held in place by its
  own weight, bulk or
  method of attachment
                   Effective Guarding
    An effective guard should have several characteristics in
    design and construction:
•   Be considered a permanent part of the equipment
•   Afford maximum protection to operator
•   Prevent access to danger zone during operation
•   Be convenient and not interfere with efficiency of the operation
•   Be designed for each specific machine
•   Be durable and constructed strong enough to resist normal wear
•   Not present a hazard in itself

• When the installation of guards is complete, the employees
  who will work around the equipment or maintain it during
  operation should be properly trained to replace guards
  immediately after they are removed. Removal of guards
  should only take place after the equipment is properly de-
  energized and locked out. Supervisors, maintenance
  personnel, oilers, and all laborers working in the immediate
  area must be aware of the hazards around such equipment.
                Guard Selection

• The selection of a guarding method to be used may depend
  upon a number of factors such as: space limitations,
  production methods, size of available stock, frequency of
  use, and type of equipment. Moving machine parts, nip
  points, and pinch points must be guarded individually
  rather that restricting access to the areas by installation of
  a railing. Guards should never create a greater hazard to
  employees working with or near the equipment.
                 Type of Guards
• Materials for guards should be carefully selected. In most
  cases, guards of bar stock, sheet metal, perforated metal,
  expanded metal, or heavy wire mesh are more effective than
  other materials.
• Larger guards are frequently made of pipe or of a structural
  steel frame supporting wood, solid sheet metal, or wire mesh
  that will provide a positive barrier against moving parts.
                 Type of Guards

• Guards of wood have limited application because their
  durability and strength, high replace cost and flammability
  may pose greater risk to employees who must work on or
  around equipment with this type of material construction.
• Guardrails and toeboards are frequently installed around
  flywheels, hoisting and other equipment where a hazards
  from falling objects exist, provide additional safeguards
  around moving parts and machinery.
                Type of Guards

• The application of guards constructed using expanded
  metal or mesh has several advantages over other materials.
• The area guarded can be inspected without removing the
• Grease fittings and oil cups can be placed through openings
  without cutting large holes in the guard.
• Smaller particles of spilled materials (fines) can pass
  through the guard with minimal build-up of materials.
          Ask the BIG questions on your sites
1. Is there employee exposure to a
   machine guarding hazard?
     What is the hazard?
2.   What is the exposure?
3.   What are the violated standards?
4.   What is the abatement?
5.   What are the applicable reference
                   Machine Guarding Safety
• Basics of Machine Safeguarding

Where Mechanical        Hazardous         Requirements
 Hazards Occur          Mechanical       For Safeguarding
                     Motions & Actions
        Machine Guarding Safety
                   n The Point of Operation:
Where Mechanical
 Hazards Occur        n Performing on the material such as
                        cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of
n Power Transmission:
  n Include components such as flywheels, pulleys, belts,
    connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks,
    and gears.
n Other Moving Parts:
   n All parts of the machine which move while the machine is
     working. These can be reciprocating, rotating, and
     transverse moving parts.
         Machine Guarding Safety
nTypes of Hazardous mechanical:
                n Motions:
                    n Rotating Motion - can be dangerous
Motions & Actions     because it can grip clothing, and through
                      mere skin contact force an arm or hand
                      into a dangerous position. These
                       nCollars, couplings, cams, clutches, flywheels,
                        shaft ends, spindles, meshing gears.
      Machine Guarding Safety
nTypes of Hazardous mechanical Cont.
             n Motions Cont.
                n In-running nip point hazards – can be
                  caused by the rotating parts on machinery.
   Hazardous      There are 3 major types of in-running nips:
   Mechanical       nParts rotating in opposite directions such as:
Motions & Actions      n Gear wheels, rolling mills, mixing rolls, between
                         material and a roll where material is being drawn
                         between two rolls.
                    nRotating & tangentially moving parts such as:
                       n A belt & any of its pulleys and a rope and its
                         storage reel.
                    nRotating & fixed parts
                       n Create a shearing, crushing, or abrading action
           Machine Guarding Safety
nTypes of Hazardous mechanical Cont.
                n Motions Cont.
   Mechanical       n Reciprocating motions
Motions & Actions      nCreate hazards during their back and forth or
                        up and down motion that may strike a worker.
                    n Transverse motion
                       nMoving in one direction, straight, and
                        continuous line.
                       nCreates a hazard because employee may be
                        struck or caught in a pinch or shear point by a
                        moving part .
     Machine Guarding Safety
• Types of Hazardous mechanical Cont.
  – Actions:

           Cutting                     Punching
        Exposure                        Action
                     Motions & Actions
       Exposure                              Action
     Machine Guarding Safety
            • The danger exists at the
              point of operation where
              flying chips or scrap
              material can strike the head,
              particularly in the area of
              the eyes or face
              – Example: cutting metal, or
                other materials
      Machine Guarding Safety
           • Results when blanking, drawing,
             or stamping metal or other
           • Danger occurs at the point of
             operation where stock is
             inserted, held, and withdrawn
             by hand
             – Example: power press
       Machine Guarding Safety
           • Involves trimming or shearing
             metal or other materials
             – Example: machinery used for
               shearing operations are
               mechanically, hydraulically, or
               pneumatically powered shears
      Machine Guarding Safety
           • Results when power is applied
             to a slide in order to draw or
             stamp metal or other materials
           • Hazard occurs when stock is
             inserted, held, and withdrawn
             – Example: power presses, press
              brakes, & tubing benders
     Machine Guarding Safety
• Methods of Machine Safeguarding
  –To determine the proper safeguarding
   method, determine:
    • Type of operation
    • Size & shape of stock
    • Method of handling
    • Physical layout of work area
    • Type of Material
    • Production requirements or limitations
       Machine Guarding Safety
• Methods of Machine Safeguarding Cont.

                     5 General
                 Classifications of
  Guards            Safeguards             Devices

                  Feeding &
    Location &     Ejection
     Distance      Methods
            Machine Guarding Safety
    nThere are four general types of guards:
      • Fixed Guard:
      – Acts as a barrier, protection fingers from
        exposure to the blade
Guards      – Example: use fixed guard on a press brake to
                  protect the operator from the unused portion of
n Interlocked:    the die

  n When opened or removed, automatic shut off or disengages
    machine power until guard is put back in place.
  n May use electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic or any
    combination of these.
          Machine Guarding Safety
nThere are four general types of guards Cont.
     • Adjustable:
        – Allow flexibility in accommodating various
          sizes of stock being machined.
Guards      • Example: a band saw with an adjustable guard to
              protect the operator form the unused portion of
              the blade. This guard can be adjusted according to
              the size of stock
n Self-Adjusting:
  n As the operator moves the stock into the danger area, the
    guard is pushed away, providing an opening only large enough
    for the stock to be machined
  n This guard protects the operator by placing a barrier between
    the danger area and operator.
          Machine Guarding Safety
     • May perform several functions:
          – Stop machine automatically
          – Prevent access to danger areas
          – Provide barrier that is synchronized with
            machine operating cycle to prevent
            access to danger area during the
            hazardous part of the cycle
          – Types of Devices:
             nPresence-Sensing    nSafety Controls
             nPullback            nGates
             Machine Guarding Safety
Location &    • Makes it virtually impossible to contact
 Distance       moving parts
              • Separates operators from the equipment
              • Limited by the available workspace
              • Examples:
                 – Building enclosures
                 – Putting a wall between machine & operator
                 – Designing a safe location for the machine to
                   prevent access
         Machine Guarding Safety
• Requirements for Safeguards
                    Prevent                 Remain
                    Contact                 Secure
                            Six General
   Protect from                                       Create no
  Falling Objects         Requirements of            new Hazards

                 Create no             Allow Safe
                Interference           Lubrication
            Machine Guarding Safety
• Training should involve the following areas:
   – A description and identification of the potential
     hazards associated with the machine.
   – A description of the safeguards and their functions.
   – Instruction on how to use the safeguards.
   – Precautions to take when machine is unguarded
     during maintenance and repair.
   – Instruction on what to do if a safeguard is missing,
     damaged, or inadequate.

Note: Employees shall be trained upon initial assignment or when any
  new guards are put in place.
                       Working Smart

•   Examine each work area at the start of each shift for guards that may need
    to be replaced.
•   Lock and TAG out all power switches before you work on any machinery.
•   Align belts from a safe location where the belt can’t grab you.
•   Stay clear of suspended loads during installation of repair of a machine.
•   Check stop cords periodically to see if they work.
•   Use a safety belt and harness when working from elevated work areas.
•   Keep all walkways free and clean of hazards.
So are you looking at
prevention or injuries
• Safeguards are essential for protecting
  workers from unwanted and preventable
  machinery-related injuries
• The point of operation, as well as all parts of
  the machine that move while the machine is
  working, must be safeguarded
• A good rule to remember is: Any machine part,
  function, or process which may cause injury
  must be safeguarded

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