Science OGT Review - ScienceSpeights

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					Science OGT Review
     Earth Science
Content Standard: Earth and Space
Ø   Benchmarks:
Ø   Explain how evidence from stars and other celestial objects provide
    information about the processes that cause changes in the
    composition and scale of the physical universe.
Ø   Explain that many processes occur in patterns within the Earth’s
Ø   Explain the 4.5 billion year history of Earth and the 4 billion year
    history of life on Earth based on observable scientific evidence in
    the geologic record.
Ø   Describe the finite nature of Earth‘s resources and those human
    activities that can conserve or deplete Earth’s resources.
Ø   Explain the processes that move and shape Earth’s surface
Ø   Summarize the historical development of scientific theories and
    ideas, and describe emerging issues in the study of Earth and space
                  Earth Science
Ø   There are four areas of study that contribute to Earth
Ø   Geology
Ø   Astronomy
Ø   Hydrology
Ø   Meteorology
The Big Bang Theory
          Ø   Explosion 13.7 billions
              years ago
          Ø   Galaxies are moving
              away from central
          Ø   Red-shift- the light most
              galaxies gives off is close
              to the red end of the
              spectrum because energy
              weakens as it is stretched
       How is a star formed?
Ø Nebula- dust and gas get pulled together
  by gravity in space.
Ø Extreme heat is produced, causing
  nuclear fusion, which causes hydrogen
  protons to join together producing the
  massive energy just as our sun does.
Ø The nebula depending on the size,
  becomes a massive star or a low mass
The Lifecycle of Stars
        The Life Cycle of a Star
Ø    Main sequence stars convert hydrogen to
    helium in their cores. When the star runs
    out of hydrogen, the helium can be
    changed into heavier elements. The cores
    of the stars shrink and their surfaces
    expand and become cooler.
Ø Large group of stars; billions in the
Ø Our solar system- sun, Earth and 8 other
  planets belong to the Milky Way Galaxy.
Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular
                 The Planets

Ø   Does the sun revolve around the earth, or does
    the earth revolve around the sun?
Ø   What causes all the planets, sun and the moon
    to not come crashing down on us?
Law of Universal Gravitation
              Ø   The planets revolve around the
                  sun due to gravity!
              Ø   Newton proposed between any
                  two objects there is attraction
                  that is proportional to the
                  masses of the objects and the
                  distances between them.
              Ø   In English: the more mass an
                  object has, the stronger gravity
                  pulls on the object with less
                  mass than itself.
              Ø   For example, Earth has more
                  mass than our moon, this is
                  why the moon revolves around
                  our Earth.
The Reason We Have Night & Day
Ø   The earth rotates on its axis
    which brings different parts of
    the earth in contact with the
    sun at certain times.
Ø   The reason the sun appears to
    “rise in the east” is because
    that’s the way our earth
    rotates, bringing the eastern
    part of the U.S. in contact with
    the sun first.
Ø   FYI- 1 day is 1 rotation of the
    Earth. 1 year is 1revolution of
    the Earth around the sun.
Tools Used By Astronomers
             Ø   Telescopes
             Ø   Spaceship
             Ø   Satellites
             Ø   Probes
             Ø   Rover

Ø Answer the following questions
Ø   1. Name 4 areas of study that contribute to Earth
Ø   What does red-shifting mean?
Ø   How is a star formed?
Ø   What is the core of the sun made of?
Ø   Name 3 types of galaxies?
Ø   What type of galaxy is Earth from?
Ø   How many planets are recognized?
Ø   Does the sun revolve around the earth or does the moon
    revolve around the earth?
Ø   What causes night and day on earth?
Ø   What are tools used by an astronomer?
Ø   Earth is tilted as it
    revolves around the
    sun which allows
    various places to
    have a certain
    weather during the
Ø   4 Seasons
                Seasons Cont.
During winter for Cleveland and other places in the
  Northern Hemisphere, we are tilted out of contact with
  these hottest rays from the sun. This is why it is cold.
Places along the equator are hot year round because they
  are in direct contact with the sun’s hottest rays or very
  close to them
When the Northern Hemisphere is having winter, the
  Southern Hemisphere is having summer. This is
  because the Earth’s tilt brings the S. Hemishere in
  contact with the hottest direct rays.
Places along the equator are warm year round because the
  hot direct rays never move far from the equator.
Places close to the N. & S. Pole never get the sun’s direct
  hot rays. This is why its never warm in these areas.
The Moon
Solar Eclipse
       Ø   Occurs when the
           moon either partially
           or completely blocks
           the sun from the
           Earth’s view.
       Ø   The last total eclipse
           was the solar eclipse
           of July 11, 2010. The
           next will be the solar
           eclipse of November
           13, 2012.
Lunar Eclipse
          Plate Tectonics Theory
Ø   Theory that the Earth’s crust is made up of many plates
    that are floating on top of the Earth’s mantle layer that is
    molten liquid rock. These plates interact with each other
    in many ways…
Ø   1) When plates slide past each other creating friction,
    earthquakes occur.
Ø   2) When Earth’s plates collide and push up they can
    create mountain ranges
Ø   3) Magma from mantle can erupt passed space between
    2 plates or melt through a soft crustal plate.
Ø   4) The crustal plates sit on the mantle layer of the Earth.
    The mantle is liquid hot rock that convection currents.
    These convection currents push the plates around
    causing continents to drift and seafloors to spread.
        Plates & Boundaries
The Continental Drift Theory
              Ø   Alfred Wagener proposed that
                  at one time all continents
                  joined together in a single
                  land mass.
              Ø   Evidence to support theory is
              Ø   1) identical fossils of an
                  animal were found on
                  different continents
              Ø   2) identical rock layers were
                  found on many continents
              Ø   3) continents fit together like a
                  jigsaw puzzle.
               Cross Section
Ø   Rock sediments get laid down where the oldest
    rock is at the bottom.
Ø   Which layer is the youngest?
Ø   Due to plates moving, sometimes layers of the
    earth get folded or faulted.
                 Fossil Fuels
Ø   Fossil layers are a source of fossil fuels
Ø   Organisms turned into carbon which we use as
    fuel, including gasoline, oil and coal.
Ø   Nonrenewable Resources- cannot be ever
    replaced or renewed; took millions of years to
Ø   Renewable Resources- can be renewed and
    replaced. Sunlight, water power, wind, wood,
    crops are all renewable
Ø   Sunlight never runs out!
Ø   Crops and wood can be grown constantly
What is a downside to fossil fuels?

Ø They will run out one day soon
Ø They cause Global Warming
              Global Warming
Ø   Global warming is the planet becoming warmer
    throughout the years.
Ø   Greenhouse Effect- The Earth has an insulation
    layer of CO2 in its atmosphere that helps keep
    warmth from the sun. The layer is thin enough to
    let some heat escape so our planet does not get
    too hot.
Ø   When fossil fuels & wood are burned they give
    off carbon dioxide (CO2) which causes the
    insulation layer to be too thick so not too much
    heat is trapped not being allowed to escape.
    This causes Global Warming!
            What Can We Do?
Ø   We can use clean alternative energy sources
    (non carbon dioxide producing sources)
Ø   We can conserve resources
Ø   Recycle
Ø   Car pool
Ø   Riding a bicycle instead of driving
Ø   Use public transportation
Ø   Turn off water and electricity when not in use
Ø Idea of protecting our resources and
Ø Natural places that must be protected can
  be grouped into different biomes.
Ø Biomes are places that have distinct
  climate (how much rainfall they receive
  and their temperatures) and types of
  plants and animals that thrive in these
  specific climates.
Type of Biome                           Climate
Desert              Little rain & large daily change in temperature (hot
                    in day & cold at night)

Rainforest          Lots of rain with hot temperatures
Tundra              Has dry & wet seasons, but very cold

Grasslands          Has dry & wet season. Temperature is hot.

Deciduous Forest    Moisture evenly distributed throughout the year.
                    Has warm summers and cold winters.

Coniferous Forest   Moisture varies throughout the year. Has cool
                    summers and cold winters.
Biomes of the World
Rainforest Biome
Major Rainforest
Major Deserts
Major Grasslands
Deciduous Forest
Coniferous Forest
Temperate Biomes
Ø   Conditions in our atmosphere such as
    temperature, sunshine, rain, snow and clouds.
Ø   Sun is main cause for weather
Ø   Certain materials heat up differently. Darker
    objects absorb heat from the sun better than
    light ones, which reflect heat better. This is why
    asphalt parking lots can be so hot in summer.
Ø   Different surfaces heat differently, causing hot
    air to rise and cooler air to sink. When this
    happens wind occurs.
Ø   Amount of precipitation and the temperature an
    area gets throughout the year.
Ø   Cleveland’s weather for today may be warm and
    sunny and tomorrow it could be cold & rainy.
Ø   Cleveland’s climate however is warm summers,
    cold winters and moisture throughout the year.
Ø   Why is this so??
   Ø   The distance around Earth's orbit
       is 584 million miles Earth travels in
       its orbit at 66,700 miles an hour,
       or 18.5 miles a second.
   Ø   Layers of the Earth
   Ø   Atmosphere: 78% Nitrogen, 21%
   Ø   Sediment Rocks erode, wear
       away, reform
   Ø   Metamorphic Rock- inside earth
   Ø   There are many cycles on and
       within Earth. A few of the most
       important are (1) atmospheric
       circulation, (2) ocean currents, (3)
       the global heat conveyor, (4) the
       hydrologic cycle, and (5) the rock
The Rock Cycle
The Water Cycle

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