Continent of Villages - North Syracuse Central School District by pengxiang


									Chapter 1
A Continent of Villages
             In 1492 Columbus…
    • Vikings in the 11th Century
    • Zheng He and China 1421-1423

Zheng He


Migration Routes from Asia to America During the Ice Age, Asia and North America were
joined where the Bering Straits are today, forming a migration route for hunting peoples.
Either by boat along the coast, or through a narrow corridor between the huge northern
glaciers, these migrants began making their way to the heartland of the continent as much as
30,000 years ago.
time period.
came from
Asia (Three
migrations from
Asia beginning
about 30,000
years ago)
•Crossed the
Bering Strait
during the Ice
•Following a
food source
Early Human Migrations
When, in 1927, archaeologists at
Folsom, New Mexico, uncovered
this dramatic example of a
projectile point embedded in the
ribs of a long-extinct species of
bison, it was the first proof that
Indians had been in North
America for many thousands of
          Geography tied to social,
          economic, political habits
Great Plains (west)   Great Basin (desert)   East of Miss. (forest
Hunting Bison         Utah, Nevada           efficiency)
Folsom Tech           Pursuit of small       Hunted small game
                      game, foraging for     Burned woodlands to
Trapping Animals                             stimulate plant growth
Required              plant foods            & create meadows to
cooperation of        Emphasized gift-       attract animals
community             giving                 Permanent
                      Small annually         communities
Navaho, Apache,
                      migrating              Gender roles evident
Intuits (Eskimos)
  Existing N. American cultures
       were not “primitive”
• Were underestimated by contemporaries and
  –   Vast trade networks – trails or roads?
  –   Socialization – values, traditions, kinship bonds
  –   Specialization – tasks based on division of labor
  –   Political – diplomacy, rules of war
  –   Cultural – art, music, oral history
  –   Cahokia (Mississippian – mid-1200’s)
  –   Anasazis (SW farming culture – 1st century CE)
The Development of Farming 5,000 years ago
                              Mesoamerican maize
                              cultivation, as illustrated by an
                              Aztec artist for the Florentine
                              Codex, a book prepared a few
                              years after the Spanish
                              conquest. The peoples of
                              Mesoamerica developed a
                              greater variety of cultivated
                              crops than those found in any
                              other region in the world, and
                              their agricultural productivity
                              helped sustain one of the
                              world’s great civilizations.
                              SOURCE:American Museum of Natural History.

                              FARMING =
                              Communities &
                              Social Complexity
The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, the shape of an uncoiling snake more than 1,300
feet long, is the largest effigy earthwork in the world.
Monumental public works like these the Mississippian people.
SOURCE:Photo by George Gerster.Comstock Images.
The City of Cahokia, with a population of more than 30,000, was the center of a farming
society that arose on the Mississippi bottomlands near present-day St. Louis in the tenth
century CE.
Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwest Colorado, was created 900 years
ago when the Anasazis left the mesa tops and moved into more secure and inaccessible
cliff dwellings.
The New Queen Being Taken to the King, engraved by Theodor de Bry in the sixteenth
century from a drawing by Jacques le Moyne, an early French colonist of Florida.
    350+ native societies when
        Europeans arrived
• 7-10 million people
• Clovis tradition (N. Mex) demonstrated
  Indians there 12,000 yrs. Ago
• Montana to Mexico, Nova Scotia to Arizona
• Indians were VERY diverse (range of
  unique regional cultures & differences w/in
• Migration from Asia on NW land passage
  across Bering Straits (25,000-30,000 yrs.
                                                 James Fraser’s “The End of the Trail”
                                                 (1915), a monumental sculpture created for
                                                 the Panama-Pacific International
                                                 Exposition in San Francisco.

John Vanderlyn’s “The Death of Jane McCrea”
(1804) depicted an incident of the Revolution,
the murder and scalping of a Patriot woman by
warriors fighting with the British.
 Chapter 2
When Worlds Collide
Western Europe in the Fifteenth Century
    Europe on the Eve of Contact
•   Feudalism/Hierarchy
•   Catholic Church/Anti-Semitism
•   Famine/ Disease/ Black Death/ Violence
•   Crusades
•   Renaissance/ Technology
•   Protestant Reformation
A French peasant labors in the field before a
spectacular castle in a page taken from the
illuminated manuscript Tres Riches Heures,
made in the fifteenth century for the duc de Berry.
In 1580 the essayist Montaigne talked with
several American Indians at the French court who
“noticed among us some men gorged to the full
with things of every sort while their other halves
were beggars at their doors, emaciated with
hunger and poverty” and “found it strange that
these poverty-stricken halves should suffer such
injustice, and that they did not take the others by
the throat or set fire to their houses.”
SOURCE:Photograph by Giraudon,Art Resource,N.Y.
 Causes of European Exploration
• Merchants & New Monarchs (Commercial
  Revolution) = capital
• Centralized Governments
• Renaissance>inventions from Asia (compass,
  gunpowder, movable type) + humanism > drive to
  explore + knowledge of eastern riches
• Protestant Reformation
• Land Scarcity
• Capture of Constantinople in 1453 by Ottoman
New Maritime Technologies
                      Better Maps

Hartman Astrolabe

  Mariner’s Compass

New Weapons
     Explorers Sailing For Portugal
• Portugal – took lead in 15th C exploration caravel (faster
• Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal - Funded Exploration
  down coast of Africa - 1419-1460
• Dias - Portugal - Rounded the Cape of Good Hope - 1488
• da Gama - Portugal - Opened trade with India - Placed
  Portugal in position to dominate trade with India - 1498
• Cabral - Portugal - Claimed present day Brazil for Portugal -
                     Direct Causes = 3 G’s

 • Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and
                          land. (GLORY)
• Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to
  Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their
  nations (GOLD)
• Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern
  Muslims. (GOD)

      The 3 motives reinforce each other
Columbus’ Four Voyages
Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods
involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa

  * Squash      * Avocado      * Peppers        * Sweet Potatoes
  * Turkey      * Pumpkin      * Tobacco        * Quinine
  * Cocoa       * Pineapple    * Cassava        * POTATO
  * Peanut      * Tomato       * Vanilla        * MAIZE       * Syphillis

  * Olive         * Coffee Beans * Banana        * Rice
  * Onion         * Turnip       * Honeybee      * Barley
  * Grape         * Peach        * Sugar Cane    * Oats
  * Citrus Fruits * Pear         * Wheat         * HORSE
  * Cattle        * Sheep        * Pig           * Smallpox
  * Flu           * Typhus       * Measles       * Malaria
  * Diptheria      * Whooping Cough
    The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434
& The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493
       European Colonization
          European Colonization

• Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four
  European countries begin competing for control of
  North America and the world….
  – Spain
  – England
  – France
  – Portugal

• This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.
F/I War 1750
– Frontier of (forced) Inclusion
– Marched across Caribbean islands (1492+)
– Gold & riches
– Botolome de la Casas – Span Catholic Priest –
  wrote Destruction of the Indies (1552)
– Why destroyed? – not war, rather starvation,
  disease (small pox, measles, malaria, typhoid),
  lower birthrate
– Height of Spanish Power = 16th century
     Cycle of Conquest &

     Explorers                stadore

                                              a rie
                                          i on
European                                 s
  Colonial                          M
  Empire         Permanent
   The Colonial Class System

     Spanish              Creoles
    ancestory           Spanish and
                        Spanish and

 Spanish                   Mulattos
and Indian
and Indian                   White
 mixture                   American
                           and Black
                           and Black

  Native Indians   Black Slaves
 First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs

Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in 1519
and took control of modern day Mexico.


    Hernando Cortés
    Hernando Cortés         Montezuma II
                            Montezuma II
The Death of Montezuma II
Mexico Surrenders to Cortés
First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

Pizarro conquered Incan Empire in
     modern day Peru in 1532


   Francisco Pizarro
   Francisco Pizarro         Atahualpa
This drawing of victims of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Aztec capital of
Tenochtitlán in 1520 is taken from the Florentine Codex.
Father Bartolomé de Las Casas
                   •Believed Native
                   Americans had been
                   treated harshly by the
                   •Indians could be
                   educated and
                   converted to
                   •Believed Indian
                   culture was advanced
                   as European but in
                   different ways.

      ► New Laws --> 1542
 The Destruction of the Indies
            Conquest not colonization

The Cruelties Used by the Spaniards on the Indians, from a 1599 English
edition of The Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas. These
scenes were copied from a series of engravings produced by Theodore de
Bry that accompanied an earlier edition. SOURCE:British Library.
        Changing of the Guard
• Spain (15th-16th century) – gold & later planting
  sugar & enslaved Indians
   – Ex. Cortez (Mex 1519-21), Pizarro (Peru 1531-35)
• 17th C – Spanish civ. in New World declines by
  1600 due to overworked land & Indian labor force
  dying off from disease
• Defeat of Spanish Armada by English (1588)
  destroys Spanish monopoly on New World
• Positive legacy? – frontier of inclusion = mixing
  between male colonists & native women
• French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal
  (1642) and what would become Canada
  – Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior
    of North America
  – Develop a fur trade
  – Couier do Bois
  – Frontier of Inclusion
The French, under the command of Jean Ribault, land at the mouth of the St. Johns River in
Florida. The image shows the local Timucua people welcoming the French, It is likely that the
Timucuas viewed the French as potential allies against the Spanish, who had plundered the
coast many times in pursuit of slaves.
SOURCE:Colored engraving,1591,by Theodor de Bry after a now lost drawing by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues;The Granger Collection.
            European Colonization

• Like French, Dutch focus on fur trade & send
  only a few men to settlements
  – Found Albany (New York, 1614) on Hudson River
  – New Netherland (becomes New York) is an extension
    of the Dutch global trade system

• Dutch & French form alliances with Native
  Americans—increase warfare & Iroquois (Dutch
  ally) defeat Hurons- Frontier of Inclusion
        Protestant Reformation
• 1517 – Martin Luther
• Calvin – few predestined for heaven
   – Challenged dominance of Catholic Church
• King Henry VIII couldn’t get annulment of
  marriage from Catherine from Pope
   – Formed Church of England & forged alliance with
     wealthy merchant class
   – Queen Elizabeth more moderate but periods of
     persecution during the 17th century push English
     Protestants to New World
The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I, painted by an unknown artist in 1648. The queen places
her hand on the globe, symbolizing the rising seapower of England. Through the open
windows, we see the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and the destruction of the
Spanish ships in a providential storm, interpreted by the queen as an act of divine
intervention. SOURCE:Elizabeth I ,Armada portrait,ca.1588 (oil on panel),by English School.Private collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International,Ltd.
• Motives
  – Economic
     • Enclosure movement led to dislocation of farmers
     • Indian markets for British goods – grow tropical
  – Religious
     • Anglican Church (Church of England) – Protestants
  – Strategic
     • Bases to raid Spanish in Caribbean
• Began by Plundering & Privateering
   – Sir Francis Drake (1567)
   – “Sea Dogs”
• Focused on settling mid-latitudes
   – Roanoke, VA “The Lost Colony”(1584-87) – Walter
      • English v Algonquin
      • Sir Walter Raleigh hoped to find fur for sale, develop
        plantations and find gold & silver, privateering
      • Wanted Indians as labors – Indians resisted – by 1590 all
        colonists gone
          – Where’s Greenville?
          – “Croatoan?”
Roanoke Island
• Jamestown 1607
  – VA Company
  – Powhatan Confederacy – expel Europeans or
    exploit them?
  – John Smith
  – Winter 09-10 – tastes like chicken > 400 of 40
  – Brutal warfare until 1613 – Pocahontas
    Intercontinental Exchange
    Intercontinental Exchange
       (Cultural Diffusion)
• From New World to Old: gold, silver,
  corn potatoes, beans, chocolate, cotton,
• From From Old to New: horses, cows,
  pigs, disease, manufactured goods
• From Old World to Africa: guns, beer,
  cloth, iron
• From Africa to New World: enslaved
FIGURE 2.1 North America’s Indian and Colonial Populations in the Seventeenth and
Eighteenth Centuries The primary factor in the decimation of native peoples was epidemic
disease, brought to the New World from the Old. In the eighteenth century, the colonial
population overtook North America’s Indian populations.
SOURCE:Historical Statistics of the United States (Washington,DC: Government Printing Office,1976),8,1168;Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival (Norman:University of Oklahoma Press,1987),32.
FIGURE 2.2 The African, Indian, and European Populations of the Americas In the 500
years since the European invasion of the Americas, the population has included varying
proportions of Native American, European, and African peoples, as well as large numbers of
persons of mixed ancestry. SOURCE:Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones,Atlas of World Population History (New York:Penguin,1978),280.

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