Chapter 1 A Continent of Villages In 1492 Columbus… • Vikings in the 11th Century • Zheng He and China 1421-1423 Zheng He Columbus BERINGIA Migration Routes from Asia to America During the Ice Age, Asia and North America were joined where the Bering Straits are today, forming a migration route for hunting peoples. Either by boat along the coast, or through a narrow corridor between the huge northern glaciers, these migrants began making their way to the heartland of the continent as much as 30,000 years ago. •Pre- Columbian time period. •First Americans came from Asia (Three migrations from Asia beginning about 30,000 years ago) •Crossed the Bering Strait during the Ice Age •Following a food source •Gradual migration Early Human Migrations CLOVIS TECHNOLOGY GLOBAL WARMING CHANGES CLIMATE& GEOGRAPHY 15,000 YEARS AGO! GEOGRAPHY = SOCIAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL EXISTENCE When, in 1927, archaeologists at Folsom, New Mexico, uncovered this dramatic example of a projectile point embedded in the ribs of a long-extinct species of bison, it was the first proof that Indians had been in North America for many thousands of years. Geography tied to social, economic, political habits Great Plains (west) Great Basin (desert) East of Miss. (forest Hunting Bison Utah, Nevada efficiency) Folsom Tech Pursuit of small Hunted small game game, foraging for Burned woodlands to Trapping Animals stimulate plant growth Required plant foods & create meadows to cooperation of Emphasized gift- attract animals community giving Permanent Small annually communities Navaho, Apache, migrating Gender roles evident Intuits (Eskimos) communities Existing N. American cultures were not “primitive” • Were underestimated by contemporaries and historians – Vast trade networks – trails or roads? – Socialization – values, traditions, kinship bonds – Specialization – tasks based on division of labor – Political – diplomacy, rules of war – Cultural – art, music, oral history – Cahokia (Mississippian – mid-1200’s) – Anasazis (SW farming culture – 1st century CE) The Development of Farming 5,000 years ago Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex, a book prepared a few years after the Spanish conquest. The peoples of Mesoamerica developed a greater variety of cultivated crops than those found in any other region in the world, and their agricultural productivity helped sustain one of the world’s great civilizations. SOURCE:American Museum of Natural History. FARMING = Settled Communities & Social Complexity Cahokia The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, the shape of an uncoiling snake more than 1,300 feet long, is the largest effigy earthwork in the world. Monumental public works like these the Mississippian people. SOURCE:Photo by George Gerster.Comstock Images. The City of Cahokia, with a population of more than 30,000, was the center of a farming society that arose on the Mississippi bottomlands near present-day St. Louis in the tenth century CE. Cahokia Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwest Colorado, was created 900 years ago when the Anasazis left the mesa tops and moved into more secure and inaccessible cliff dwellings. The New Queen Being Taken to the King, engraved by Theodor de Bry in the sixteenth century from a drawing by Jacques le Moyne, an early French colonist of Florida. 350+ native societies when Europeans arrived • 7-10 million people • Clovis tradition (N. Mex) demonstrated Indians there 12,000 yrs. Ago • Montana to Mexico, Nova Scotia to Arizona • Indians were VERY diverse (range of unique regional cultures & differences w/in regions) • Migration from Asia on NW land passage across Bering Straits (25,000-30,000 yrs. ago) James Fraser’s “The End of the Trail” (1915), a monumental sculpture created for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. John Vanderlyn’s “The Death of Jane McCrea” (1804) depicted an incident of the Revolution, the murder and scalping of a Patriot woman by warriors fighting with the British. Chapter 2 When Worlds Collide Western Europe in the Fifteenth Century Europe on the Eve of Contact • Feudalism/Hierarchy • Catholic Church/Anti-Semitism • Famine/ Disease/ Black Death/ Violence • Crusades • Renaissance/ Technology • Protestant Reformation A French peasant labors in the field before a spectacular castle in a page taken from the illuminated manuscript Tres Riches Heures, made in the fifteenth century for the duc de Berry. In 1580 the essayist Montaigne talked with several American Indians at the French court who “noticed among us some men gorged to the full with things of every sort while their other halves were beggars at their doors, emaciated with hunger and poverty” and “found it strange that these poverty-stricken halves should suffer such injustice, and that they did not take the others by the throat or set fire to their houses.” SOURCE:Photograph by Giraudon,Art Resource,N.Y. Causes of European Exploration • Merchants & New Monarchs (Commercial Revolution) = capital • Centralized Governments • Renaissance>inventions from Asia (compass, gunpowder, movable type) + humanism > drive to explore + knowledge of eastern riches • Protestant Reformation • Land Scarcity • Capture of Constantinople in 1453 by Ottoman Turks European movement New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant New Weapons Technology Explorers Sailing For Portugal • Portugal – took lead in 15th C exploration caravel (faster vessel) • Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal - Funded Exploration down coast of Africa - 1419-1460 • Dias - Portugal - Rounded the Cape of Good Hope - 1488 • da Gama - Portugal - Opened trade with India - Placed Portugal in position to dominate trade with India - 1498 • Cabral - Portugal - Claimed present day Brazil for Portugal - 1500 Direct Causes = 3 G’s • Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY) • Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD) • Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD) The 3 motives reinforce each other Columbus’ Four Voyages Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa * Squash * Avocado * Peppers * Sweet Potatoes * Turkey * Pumpkin * Tobacco * Quinine * Cocoa * Pineapple * Cassava * POTATO * Peanut * Tomato * Vanilla * MAIZE * Syphillis * Olive * Coffee Beans * Banana * Rice * Onion * Turnip * Honeybee * Barley * Grape * Peach * Sugar Cane * Oats * Citrus Fruits * Pear * Wheat * HORSE * Cattle * Sheep * Pig * Smallpox * Flu * Typhus * Measles * Malaria * Diptheria * Whooping Cough The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493 European Colonization European Colonization • Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world…. – Spain – England – France – Portugal • This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars. F/I War 1750 Spanish – Frontier of (forced) Inclusion – Marched across Caribbean islands (1492+) – Gold & riches – Botolome de la Casas – Span Catholic Priest – wrote Destruction of the Indies (1552) – Why destroyed? – not war, rather starvation, disease (small pox, measles, malaria, typhoid), lower birthrate – Height of Spanish Power = 16th century Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Conqui Explorers stadore s s a rie i on European s is Colonial M Empire Permanent Settlers The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Peninsulares Spanish Spanish Creoles Creoles ancestory ancestory Spanish and Spanish and Black Black mixture. mixture. Mestizos Mestizos Spanish Spanish Mulattos Mulattos and Indian and Indian White White mixture mixture American American and Black and Black mixture mixture Native Indians Black Slaves First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in 1519 and took control of modern day Mexico. vs. Hernando Cortés Hernando Cortés Montezuma II Montezuma II The Death of Montezuma II Mexico Surrenders to Cortés First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Pizarro conquered Incan Empire in modern day Peru in 1532 vs. Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa Atahualpa This drawing of victims of the smallpox epidemic that struck the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán in 1520 is taken from the Florentine Codex. Father Bartolomé de Las Casas •Believed Native Americans had been treated harshly by the Spanish. •Indians could be educated and converted to Christianized. •Believed Indian culture was advanced as European but in different ways. ► New Laws --> 1542 The Destruction of the Indies Conquest not colonization The Cruelties Used by the Spaniards on the Indians, from a 1599 English edition of The Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas. These scenes were copied from a series of engravings produced by Theodore de Bry that accompanied an earlier edition. SOURCE:British Library. Changing of the Guard • Spain (15th-16th century) – gold & later planting sugar & enslaved Indians – Ex. Cortez (Mex 1519-21), Pizarro (Peru 1531-35) • 17th C – Spanish civ. in New World declines by 1600 due to overworked land & Indian labor force dying off from disease • Defeat of Spanish Armada by English (1588) destroys Spanish monopoly on New World • Positive legacy? – frontier of inclusion = mixing between male colonists & native women • French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become Canada – Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North America – Develop a fur trade – Couier do Bois – Frontier of Inclusion The French, under the command of Jean Ribault, land at the mouth of the St. Johns River in Florida. The image shows the local Timucua people welcoming the French, It is likely that the Timucuas viewed the French as potential allies against the Spanish, who had plundered the coast many times in pursuit of slaves. SOURCE:Colored engraving,1591,by Theodor de Bry after a now lost drawing by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues;The Granger Collection. European Colonization • Like French, Dutch focus on fur trade & send only a few men to settlements – Found Albany (New York, 1614) on Hudson River – New Netherland (becomes New York) is an extension of the Dutch global trade system • Dutch & French form alliances with Native Americans—increase warfare & Iroquois (Dutch ally) defeat Hurons- Frontier of Inclusion Protestant Reformation • 1517 – Martin Luther • Calvin – few predestined for heaven – Challenged dominance of Catholic Church • King Henry VIII couldn’t get annulment of marriage from Catherine from Pope – Formed Church of England & forged alliance with wealthy merchant class – Queen Elizabeth more moderate but periods of persecution during the 17th century push English Protestants to New World The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I, painted by an unknown artist in 1648. The queen places her hand on the globe, symbolizing the rising seapower of England. Through the open windows, we see the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and the destruction of the Spanish ships in a providential storm, interpreted by the queen as an act of divine intervention. SOURCE:Elizabeth I ,Armada portrait,ca.1588 (oil on panel),by English School.Private collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International,Ltd. English • Motives – Economic • Enclosure movement led to dislocation of farmers • Indian markets for British goods – grow tropical products – Religious • Anglican Church (Church of England) – Protestants flee – Strategic • Bases to raid Spanish in Caribbean English • Began by Plundering & Privateering – Sir Francis Drake (1567) – “Sea Dogs” • Focused on settling mid-latitudes – Roanoke, VA “The Lost Colony”(1584-87) – Walter Raleigh • English v Algonquin • Sir Walter Raleigh hoped to find fur for sale, develop plantations and find gold & silver, privateering • Wanted Indians as labors – Indians resisted – by 1590 all colonists gone – Where’s Greenville? – “Croatoan?” Roanoke Island VA • Jamestown 1607 – VA Company – Powhatan Confederacy – expel Europeans or exploit them? – John Smith – Winter 09-10 – tastes like chicken > 400 of 40 starve – Brutal warfare until 1613 – Pocahontas Intercontinental Exchange • Intercontinental Exchange (Cultural Diffusion) • From New World to Old: gold, silver, corn potatoes, beans, chocolate, cotton, tobacco • From From Old to New: horses, cows, pigs, disease, manufactured goods • From Old World to Africa: guns, beer, cloth, iron • From Africa to New World: enslaved persons FIGURE 2.1 North America’s Indian and Colonial Populations in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries The primary factor in the decimation of native peoples was epidemic disease, brought to the New World from the Old. In the eighteenth century, the colonial population overtook North America’s Indian populations. SOURCE:Historical Statistics of the United States (Washington,DC: Government Printing Office,1976),8,1168;Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival (Norman:University of Oklahoma Press,1987),32. FIGURE 2.2 The African, Indian, and European Populations of the Americas In the 500 years since the European invasion of the Americas, the population has included varying proportions of Native American, European, and African peoples, as well as large numbers of persons of mixed ancestry. SOURCE:Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones,Atlas of World Population History (New York:Penguin,1978),280.
Pages to are hidden for
"Continent of Villages - North Syracuse Central School District"Please download to view full document