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A Review of Binary Search Trees Dr. Gang Qian Department of Computer Science University of Central Oklahoma Objectives (Sections 10.1 and 10.2) n Binary tree q Definition q Traversal n Binary search tree q Definition q Tree search q Insertion q Deletion Binary Tree n Definition (Mathematical Structure) q A binary tree is either empty, or it consists of a node called the root together with two binary trees called the left subtree and the right subtree of the root n Note q Linked implementation is natural q Other implementation is also possible n The concept of left and right is important for binary trees q Binary trees with two nodes ¹ Not a binary tree q Binary trees with three nodes Traversal of Binary Trees n Traversal q Moving through all nodes of the binary tree, visiting each node in turn q The order of traversal should be logical n At any given node in a binary tree, there are three tasks to do: q Visit the node itself (V) q Traverse its left subtree (L) q Traverse its right subtree (R) n There are six ways to arrange the three tasks: q V L R; L V R; L R V; V R L; R V L; R L V n They are reduced to three if we always consider the left subtree before the right q Preorder: V L R q Inorder: L V R q Postorder: L R V n Example (Expression Trees) q Preorder traversal n -axbc q Inorder traversal n a–bxc q Postorder traversal n abcx– Linked Implementation of Binary Tree n Binary tree node class template <class Entry> struct Binary_node { // data members: Entry data; Binary_node<Entry> *left; Binary_node<Entry> *right; // constructors: Binary_node( ); Binary_node(const Entry &x); }; n Binary Tree Class Specification template <class Entry> class Binary_tree { public: Binary_tree( ); bool empty( ) const; void preorder(void (*visit)(Entry &)); void inorder(void (*visit)(Entry &)); void postorder(void (*visit)(Entry &)); int size( ) const; void clear( ); int height( ) const; (continued on next slide) Binary_tree (const Binary_tree <Entry> &original); Binary_tree & operator = (const Binary_tree <Entry> &original); ~Binary_tree( ); protected: // Add auxiliary function prototypes here. Binary_node<Entry> *root; }; n Implementation of inorder traversal q Use an auxiliary recursive function that applies to subtrees template <class Entry> void Binary_tree<Entry> :: inorder(void (*visit)(Entry &)) /* Post: The tree has been traversed in inorder sequence. Uses: The function recursive_inorder */ { recursive_inorder(root, visit); } template <class Entry> void Binary tree<Entry> :: recursive_inorder(Binary_node<Entry> *sub_root, void (*visit)(Entry &)) /* Pre: sub_root is either NULL or points to a subtree of the Binary_tree Post: The subtree has been traversed in inorder sequence Uses: The function recursive_inorder recursively */ { if (sub_root != NULL) { recursive_inorder(sub_root->left, visit); (*visit)(sub_root->data); recursive_inorder(sub_root->right, visit); } } Binary Search Tree n Motivation q Binary search O(log n) is much more efficient than sequential search O(n) n We can use a contiguous implementation n We cannot use linked list implementation n What if the data needs frequent updates q Need an implementation for ordered lists that n searches quickly (as with binary search on a contiguous list) n makes insertions and deletions quickly (as with a linked list) n Definition q A binary search tree is a binary tree that is either empty or in which the data entry of every node has a key and satisfies the following conditions: n The key of the left child of a node is less than the key of its parent node n The key of the right child of a node is greater than the key of its parent node n The left and right subtrees of the root are also binary search trees q Additional requirements n No two entries in a binary search tree may have equal keys Binary Search Tree Class n The binary search tree class is derived from the binary tree class q All binary tree methods are inherited template <class Record> class Search_tree: public Binary_tree<Record> { public: Error_code insert(const Record &new_data); Error_code remove(const Record &old_data); Error_code tree_search(Record &target) const; private: // Add auxiliary function prototypes here. }; n The inherited methods include the constructors, the destructor, clear, empty, size, height, and the traversals preorder, inorder, and postorder n Record class q Each record is associated with a Key q The keys can be compared with the usual comparison operators q By casting records to their corresponding keys, the comparison operators apply to records as well as to keys Tree Search n To search for the target, first compare it with the entry at the root of the tree. q If their keys match, then search finishes q Otherwise, depending on whether the target is smaller than or greater than the root, search goes to the left subtree or the right subtree as appropriate and repeat the search in that subtree n The process is implemented by calling an auxiliary recursive function n Recursive auxiliary function template <class Record> Binary_node<Record> *Search_tree<Record> :: search_for_node(Binary_node<Record>* sub_root, const Record &target) const { if (sub_root == NULL || sub_root->data == target) return sub_root; else if (sub_root->data < target) return search_for_node(sub_root->right, target); else return search_for_node(sub_root->left, target); } q Tail Recursion q Recursion tree will be a chain n Non-recursive version template <class Record> Binary_node<Record> *Search_tree<Record> :: search_for_node(Binary_node<Record>* sub_root, const Record &target) const { while (sub_root != NULL && sub_root->data != target) if (sub_root->data < target) sub_root = sub_root->right; else sub_root = sub_root->left; return sub_root; } n Public method tree_search template <class Record> Error_code Search_tree<Record> :: tree_search(Record &target) const /* Post: If there is an entry in the tree whose key matches that in target , the parameter target is replaced by the corresponding record from the tree and a code of success is returned. Otherwise a code of not_present is returned. Uses: function search_for_node */ { Error_code result = success; Binary_node<Record> *found = search_for_node(root, target); if (found == NULL) result = not_present; else target = found->data; return result; } n Analysis of tree search q The same keys may be built into binary search trees of many different shapes q If a binary search tree is nearly balanced (“bushy”), then search on a tree with n vertices will do O(log n) comparisons of keys q The bushier the tree, the smaller the number of comparisons n The number of vertices between the root and the target, inclusive, is the number of comparisons needed to find the target q If the tree degenerates into a chain, then tree search becomes the same as sequential search, doing O(n) comparisons on n vertices n The worst case for tree search q Often impossible to predict the shape of the tree q If the keys are inserted in random order, then tree search usually performs almost as well as binary search q If the keys are inserted in sorted order into an empty tree, the degenerate case will occur Insertion into A Binary Search Tree n Find the location in the tree suitable to the new record n Insertion method q Call an auxiliary recursive function template <class Record> Error_code Search_tree<Record> :: search_and_insert( Binary_node<Record> * &sub_root, const Record &new_data) { if (sub_root == NULL) { sub_root = new Binary_node<Record>(new_data); return success; } else if (new_data < sub_root->data) return search_and_insert(sub_root->left, new_data); else if (new_data > sub_root->data) return search_and_insert(sub_root->right, new_data); else return duplicate_error; } q Public method: insert template <class Record> Error_code Search_tree<Record> :: insert( const Record &new_data) { return search_and_insert(root, new_data); } q The method insert can usually insert a new node into a random binary search tree with n nodes in O(log n) steps Removal from A Binary Search Tree n Key Issue: q The integrity of the tree has to be kept after deletion n Auxiliary recursive function template <class Record> Error_code Search_tree<Record> :: search_and_delete( Binary_node<Record>* &sub_root, const Record &target) /* Pre: sub_root is either NULL or points to a subtree Post: If the key of target is not in the subtree, a code of not present is returned. Otherwise, a code of success is returned and the subtree node containing target has been removed in such a way that the properties of a binary search tree is preserved. Uses: Functions search_and_delete recursively */ { if (sub_root == NULL) return not_present; else if (sub_root->data == target) { if (sub_root->right == NULL) { // No right child Binary_node<Record> *to_delete = sub_root; sub_root = sub_root->left; delete to_delete; } (continued on next slide) else if (sub_root->left == NULL) { // No left child Binary_node<Record> *to_delete = sub_root; sub_root = sub_root->right; delete to_delete; } else { // subroot has two children // search for the immediate predecessor Binary_node<Record> * predecessor_node = sub_root->left; while (predecessor_node->right != NULL) { predecessor_node = predecessor_node->right; } // replace the target with the immediate predecessor sub_root->data = predecessor_node->data; // delete the redundant immediate predecessor search_and_delete(sub_root->left, sub_root->data); } } (continued on next slide) else if (target < sub_root->data) return search_and_delete(sub_root->left, target); else return search_and_delete(sub_root->right, target); return success; } n Public remove method template <class Record> Error_code Search_tree<Record> :: remove( const Record &target) /* Post: If a Record with a key matching that of target belongs to the Search_tree, a code of success is returned and the corresponding node is removed from the tree. Otherwise, a code of not_present is returned Uses: Function search_and_delete */ { return search_and_delete(root, target); } q Uses an auxiliary recursive function that refers to the actual nodes in the tree Building a Binary Search Tree n Build a bushy binary search tree from sorted keys n Textbook: pp. 463 -- 470 Random Search Trees and Optimality n The average binary search tree requires approximately 1.39 times as many comparisons as a completely balanced tree.