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Wave - Particle Duality Evidence ; Wave Model Particle Model Diffraction Photoelectric Effect Interference Spectrometry Polarisation Refraction Reflection => QUANTUM THEORY OF RADIATION Duality z ALL physical entities may be described as either WAVES or PARTICLES (Duality) z Linked by two equations ; E = hf p = h/l (De Broglie equation) E, p - particle phenomena f, l - wave phenomena as predicted by Einstein Special Theory of Relativity, h = Planck constant = 6.6 x 10-34 Js Some more Maths z consider a photon ; p = h/l, E = hf, c = fl p = h/l = hf/c = E/c => E = pc but, p = mc (momentum = mass x velocity) => E = mc2 What does it mean ? z When a photon is considered as a particle, its mass may be taken as equal to ; z m = E/c2 = hf/c2 z this ‘mass/energy equivalence’ is only significant in nuclear physics.
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