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					 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING &
 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME
                                TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)

ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
                                                                               IJCET
Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp                                            ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 4.4012 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com




        TO IMPROVE ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND SECURE MULTIPATH
         COMMUNICATION IN UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORK

                                          Prathap P
    PG Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, KCG College of Technology,
                                        Chennai, India

                                            Manjula S
               Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
                            KCG College of Technology, Chennai, India




 ABSTRACT

         UWSN are attracting researchers in terrestrial radio-based sensor network development in
 order to monitor the events such as contaminants, marine life and intruders via acoustic modems and
 report it in a realtime medium through radio or wireless communication. In this, changes in ocean
 currents, weak reliability and wormhole attack are the major challenges in underwater sensor
 network. Although Multipath communication coupled by Forward Error Correction and localization
 for wormhole attack provides high performance for USNs, still there is false alarms and low
 probability of successful recovery of received packets in destination node, which in turn becomes a
 major problems for reliability and accuracy. In this paper Hamming code based segment combination
 and localization based wormhole attack has been proposed to prevent and helps to attain secure and
 efficient way of communication in acoustic modems in UWSN’s.

 Index Terms: Underwater Sensor Network, Multipath Communication, Energy Efficiency,
 Hamming Coding, Localization, Acoustic Modems.

 I. INTRODUCTION

        The unexplored vastness of the ocean, covering about two-third of the surface of the earth
 and many researchers are attracted by it. In order to monitor and explore the activities at the ocean
 underwater sensors have been established. This plays an important in supporting variety of
 applications from monitoring the real-time events at the underwater seismic or weather conditions or

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

navigation and report to the nearby data analytics centre. UWSN face variety of challenges as the
sensor have deep difference between the underwater and the terrestrial radio propagation
environment and the major reason is whether the terrestrial radio propagation can be reused for the
underwater communication.
        However in the meantime lots of researches have been done under the acoustic modems to
develop the communication. But currently available acoustic modems support low-data-rate and the
delay-tolerant. These modems were vulnerable to wormhole attacks. By using point-to-point acoustic
modems use signaling schemes which can achieve data rates of lower than 20 Kbits/s it require lots
of energy in order to achieve low bandwidth due to the medium of communication.
        Underwater acoustic modems can achieve 10-9 -10-7 Bit Error Rate as they lead to transmit of
model power in the range of 1-40w as the devices are heavy and expensive this affects the
deployment of large-scale USN’s. Major Challenges in the design of underwater acoustic networks
        Battery power is limited and usually batteries cannot be recharged, also because solar energy
cannot be exploited. The available bandwidth is severely limited. Channel characteristics, including
long and variable propagation delays, multi-path and fading problems. High bit error rates.
Underwater sensors are prone to failures because of fouling, corrosion, etc.
        In this paper, we analyze energy efficient communication and the wormhole attack in a
experimental and theoretical way. The marine environment is vulnerable to various kinds of attacks
due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delays, and low bandwidth of acoustic
channels. Achieving reliable energy efficient, inter vehicle and sensor-acoustic modems
communication are difficult due to the mobility of modems and the movement of sensors changes
according to the water currents. This paper present smooth communication between the acoustic
modems without any packet loss or low bandwidth communication. Low bandwidth is one of the
remarkable features of acoustic channels. Underwater sensor networks have some similarities with
their ground-based counterparts such as their structure, function, computation and energy limitations.
        Underwater communication systems have more severe power requirements than terrestrial
systems. The typical transmission distances in UASNs are greater, higher transmit power is required
to ensure coverage. High bit error rate causes packet errors. Therefore, significant security packets
can be lost. Wireless underwater channels can be overhearing the transmitting packets. Attackers
may intercept the information transmit and attempt to modify or packets drop frequently. Malicious
nodes can create out of band connections above the water surface via the fast radio or wired links,
which are referred to as wormholes. Since sensors are mobile, their relative distances vary with time;
the dynamic topology of the underwater sensor network not only facilitates the creation of
wormholes, but also makes difficulties their detections. As power consumption in underwater
communications is higher than the terrestrial radio communications and underwater sensors are
sparsely deployed, the energy feature attacks to consume the batteries of nodes pose a serious hazard
for the network lifetime.

II. RELATED WORK

       In this section, the major challenges of energy efficient techniques and wormhole prevention
in UWSN that has been studied earlier. The existing studies implies have shown that the PER is
extremely unreliable area for robustness, scalability and that can be simultaneously reduced if the
FEC scheme is employed. Therefore, Xie and Cui employed tornado code instead of the FEC scheme
and they have proposed a Segment data reliable transport in order to achieve the extreme bit rate.
However, SDRT leads to much long delay because Tornado code requires more redundant blocks and
thus SDRT is not utilized in the multipath communication.
       Furthermore Vishwanathy et al. proposed a single-path edge-to-edge packet-level FEC for
core networks. Cohen et al. proposed in a cross-layer hybrid FEC/ARQ reliable multi-cast scheme for

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

multiple-path communications. It is shown that multiple-path communications can eliminate
retransmission of redundant packets in high-PER networks and can perform well when the destination
nodes combine these redundant packets using the bit-based majority voting scheme. On the other
hand, Hamming Coding, especially for multiple sources, is treated as a potential solution for FEC in
the high-BER networks. Moreover, the probability of recovering the original packet in the destination
node is determined by the packet combination efficiency.
        In this Multi-path routing, plays a major role technique in UWSN the reason behind is the
adapablity of the real time application. As the node denser implies the denser of the wireless
communication to the other nodes in order to make the multipath routing more unreliable network
Further research technique made multipath routing reliable to data delivery to balance the traffic in
network among those power consumption between the nodes also to implies the end-to-end delay in
the network.
        In the previous analysed work the basic approach is to combine the large amount of corrupted
packet to one packet to recover the original packet. Sometimes researches merge the one or more
coded packet together to form the original packet from the corrupted packet. Along with the original
packet it’s necessary to find whether the received packet has been forwarded from the malicious node
or the authorized node.
        In order to find the above categories and satisify the needs of the high end packet rate,
researches cmae with the technique to received the original packet from the corrupted packet without
collecting the multiple corrupted packets. This can be done by using the hamming code using the
segement based combination technique along with the localization in order to prevent the wormhole
attack between the modems. So researches extended the packet combining scheme using voting based
technique this can be achieved through the multi-path hop wireless connection.
        As the further researches concluded that that a detection approach based on localisation of
nodes using the Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) technique of localisation is proposed, enabling
comparison to be made on the structure of the network with and without the attack. By detecting the
anomalies introduced by the fake connections, the attack is detected. It however, like many MDS
techniques has a problem of scalability since it relies on a central processing node for all the
computations. Wang et al Presents a similar approach in [15] but takes into account the existence of
more than one wormhole threat and is also robust against distance estimation errors. [16] on the other
hand concentrates on the underwater scenario. He uses ToA based technique to measure the distances
between the sensor nodes. ToA requires the sensors to be equipped with hardware components for
timing, hence is undesirable since it has a high implication on cost. MDS on the other hand
concentrates more on the general layout of the network and not the nodes position accuracy. Our
approach uses RSS for distance measurement which does not require any extra hardware, and
emphasis is put on the accuracy of the nodes positioning. This is mainly to avoid any false alarms
during our detection process.




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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

Segment-Based Combination: The M-FEC scheme accesses all the segment sets {Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ v|},
compares them in turn and chooses the segment that appears most frequently as the final data
segment in its position. If two or more segment in the same position has identical count, the one
appearing earlier is selected as the winner. Especially, if the domain “Flag” equals 1 after CRC
checking in the packet header, all the segments in the packet are right and are regarded as the final
ones. Thus, the kth final segment in the data packet is expressed as
        where Sak is an arbitrary segment in Sk, and Count (Sik, Sk) the function of counting the
number of Sik in Sk. All the final segments and the original header are combined and encapsulated
into a new packet. Furthermore, this procedure applies to al l the packet sets. The packet set is {pi| 1 ≤
i ≤ 10|}. Then the segment set,{Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ 3|}, are compared recursively. Finally, the final corrected
segments, {Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ 3|} are obtained as follows:S1= S21, S2= S12and S3 = S13.

Decision and Feedback. The M-FEC program checks the final combined packets whether they are
right or not using CRC data according to ID in the CRC packets. If all of them are right or the overall
PER is even low, the destination will send feedback to the source to decrease the number of
transmission paths. However, if the overall PER is high in an unacceptable range, the destination
wills end feedback to the source to increase the number of transmission paths. The procedure lasts
until the overall PER is within a reasonable range. Thus, the number of paths can be maintained in a
reasonable range. Additionally, the error packet swill be requested to retransmit from the source node
by giving a repeat-request.

III. PROPOSED WORK

         In the proposed work, mainly we are going to assume that distance between the two sensor
nodes and their neighboring distance. If the distance is shorter than r, r is the max transmission node
to its neighbor. In this neighbor are connected via plotted graph according to their distance.
         In order to make the nodes more reliable and energy-efficient communication in USNs will
undergo the multihop multipath communications. Furthermore they propose a novel based segment
packet combination along with the localization of the wormhole technique. In this novel based packet
combination approach the destination node as it calculates the timestamp and distance between the
source and the destination node.
         The calculation will be forwarded to the data centre in a period of the time as the nodes are
movable. The major advantage is the proposed segment combination in FEC in the destination will
improve packet recovery in order to increase efficiency to enchance the reliability along with this
localization scheme has been established as the distance between the sensor nodes are available and it
can be specifically calculated through the bilateration involves the combinations of each two
reference. Bilateration technique is employed to derive the positions of sensor nodes. It is a well-
known approach to find coordinates of an unknown point according the available information
including coordinates of two reference points and the distances of unknown point from each
reference point. It is given by the following equations:

   Eq1: (XB1– XU)2+ (YB1– YU)2= DistB1

are respectively the distances between unknown node and each beacon. As there are four equations,
then there are multi values for X U and Y U. To have an accurate estimation, we evaluate all possible
values for X and Y . Therefore, two different combinations are organized to generate all possible pairs
of X and Y.



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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

  i. 6 different combinations available among the equations because there are states for n equations.
     Therefore, bilateration method has to be applied for six pairs of reference nodes.
 ii. From the bilateration results, there are two X and Y values for each pair of equations. Hence, a
     combinations of all X and Y derived from the bilateration Equations are produced.
     Accordingly, there are totally 24 pairs of different X and Y values.

        Once all possible values are extracted, the right coordinates are determined through the
refinement process, which is divided into two different stages. The flowchart below represents a
complete view of the refinement section in details. There are two refinement levels which are simply
called first and second refinement.
        As the the below equations calculate the wormhole attack in the further proecures of
timestamps with the help of the bilateration method. And it will be applied to all the nodes as te pairs.
This refinement process also includes the values of both X an Y values.
        Along with this novel based Multiple-path FEC approach will be proposed along with the
hamming coding in order to improve the reliability The dense node deployment makes multipath
routing a natural and promising technique to cope with the unreliable network environments and
large end-to-end packet delays. Thus, multipath communication enables to improve the robustness
and reduce end-top-end delays for USNs.
        As illustrated in Figure.4.1, the broadcast technology is handled in the source node to deliver
the same packets to the same destination in multiple paths. Specifically, in the source node, the data
packet is encoded using Hamming Coding approach and is delivered using Multicast Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) protocol to establish multipath routing through the intermediate
nodes. In each intermediate node, the data packet will be dropped without any further processing if
any error occurs in its header. Otherwise, the used decoder of Hamming Coding will recover some
corrupted segments into the original one




                                   Figure. 4.1 System Architecture

IV. RESULTS

       The simulation result are in the order to compare the decoding efficiency for M-FEC, MPC,
and single-path communications impartial, all nodes in the simulation experiments are deployed as
the maximum transmission power so that they can provide best-effort communication in Scenario-2.
Fig. 5 depicts the results of the overall PER versus the number of retransmission, u. In this figure, the
X-axis represents u and the scale of Y-axis is log10 of the overall PER.

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME




     It can be seen that the overall PER of M-FEC(7-4) is less than those of MPC and single-path
communications. With the increase of u, the overall PER of all the curves in the figure decreases.

A. Nodes And Energy Saving
       The 7-4 Hamming Coding-based M-FEC schemes are compared with the bit-based FEC in
single-path communications and in multiple-path communications to demonstrate the advantages of
decreasing packet delay and saving energy in different scenarios.




      Noting that A, B, C on the X-axis denotes the results when these simulation experiments are
conducted with PREQ 0:001;0:0001;0:00001.

B.CONSUMED ENERGY COMPARISON
      The below figure reveals the comparison of energy consumption per each packet achieved by
M-FEC (7-4), single-path communications, and MPC for both scenarios based on segment packet
combination and bit packet combination in the destination.




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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

       Thus, the payload of the three schemes is the same. Moreover, theenergy consumption for
transmission of feedback messages in M-FEC(7-4) communication is set to be 8 mW per 100
packets.




ACKNOWLEDGMENT

        In this project, a novel FEC approach has been performed, namely M-FEC, designed with
Hamming Coding for multiple path communications along with the localization of the wormhole
attack in USNs. This kind of segment-based packet combination and recovery technology for FEC
with Hamming Coding which can improve both energy efficiency and reliability in USNs.
        The proposed M-FEC integrates multiple-path communications and Hamming Coding to
eliminate retransmission and enhance reliability. To reduce the consumed energy of transmission, the
Markovian model is used to calculate the overall PER in order to make a decision for the number of
multiple paths guaranteeing the desirable PER.
        Extensive simulation experiments based on NS-2 have shown that the proposed approach
can significantly outperform conventional multiple-path communications and single-path
communications in terms of an energy efficiency and reliability.

REFERENCES

 [1]   D. Pompili and I.F. Akyildiz, “Overview of Networking Protocols for Underwater Wireless
       Communications,” IEEE Comm. Maga-zine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 97-102.
 [2]    J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. Levine, “A Survey of Practical Issues in Underwater Networks,”
       ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev.,vol. 11, pp. 23-33.
 [3]   K. Park and V. Rodoplu, “Uwan-Mac: An Energy-efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater
       Acoustic Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.,vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 710-720.
 [4]   “Soundlink Underwater Acoustic Modems,” http://www.link-quest.com/.
 [5]   U. Lee, P. Wang, Y. Noh, L.F.M. Vieira, M. Gerla, and J.-H. Cui, “Pressure Routing for
       Underwater Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’.
 [6]   D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, “A CDMA-Based Medium Access Control for
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 [7]   H. Yang, B. Liu, F. Ren, H. Wen, and C. Lin, “Optimization of Energy Efficient
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 [8]   V. Rodoplu and M.K. Park, “An Energy-Efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater Wireless
       Acoustic Networks,”Proc. IEEE/MTS OCEANS,pp. 1198-1203.


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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME

 [9]    P. Casari and A.F. Harris, “Energy-Efficient Reliable Broadcast in Underwater Acoustic
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