School Self-Evaluation - School Development Planning Initiative nm by dsgerye234


									School Development Planning Initiative

          Regional Seminar 2008

          School Self-Evaluation
      Focus on Teaching and Learning
To focus on self-evaluation as a strategy for
  improving the quality of teaching and learning:
      n to explore how to foster a self-evaluation
        approach to teaching & learning as part of
        subject planning and on-going school

        U.K. . . SDP Research

n SDP does not automatically lead to school
n Needs to have focus on teaching and
  learning and pupil achievement

(MacGilchrist et al, 1995)

           Self-evaluation of
         teaching and learning
Issues to consider:
n Quality of student engagement
n Quality of learning experience
n Classroom climate

“When I go into a classroom
 where the quality of learning is
 high, I see…”

                     (Hesketh, 2008)

What teaching techniques help students
       to learn? (% very helpful)
n Teachers explain well (72%)
n Can have fun (41%)
n Express an opinion (36%)
n Group work with friends (30%)
n Practical work (30%)
n Copy notes (29%)
n Find things out (25%)
n Teacher instruction (18%)
                        (ESRI /NCCA)
Focus on Self-Evaluation

        Approaches to Self-Evaluation:
               - key aspects
A. Opportunity to Self-Evaluate:
Individual      Subject Dept       Staff

B. Process of Self-Evaluation:
Current Practice         Improved Practice

C. Success Criteria – Outcomes
Student Engagement          Achievement Gains

 What is Self-Evaluation of Teaching/
n Systematic, evidence-based inquiry into
  an aspect of teaching &learning

n Seeks to find out how well the subject
  department/teacher is doing in relation to
  accepted standards of good practice

n Guides the teacher/subject department to
  select planning priorities for improvement

    Self-Evaluation of Teaching and
n Can/should form part of developmental
  focus of subject departments

n Can be done by individual teacher to
  support a reflective practice approach to
  improving learning and teaching

n What is your experience to date?

       Areas which Subject
Departments/Teachers could focus on
        for Self-Evaluation
n   Learning outcomes
n   Success criteria
n   Pace
n   Questioning
n   Literacy strategies e.g: use of key words
n   Differentiation
n   Assessment/homework
n   Classroom organisation
n   Teacher-student relationship
n   Group work/pair work

Process of Self-Evaluation –key steps
Regarding a selected area:
n Determine what good practice is
n Gather reliable data on actual practice
n Collate and interpret the data - evidence
n Reach valid conclusions that you can
  stand over
nPrioritise for planned improvement

The Tools of Self-Evaluation
■ Questionnaires
■ Interviews
■ Observation
■ Analysis of pupils’ work
■ Spot checks
■ Critical incident analysis
■ Force field analysis
■ Posters, stickies, exit tickets
■ Photo inquiry
        See Unit 5, SDP Draft Guidelines (p. 21-24)
  Engaging with students as part of
Three sample instruments to use:

n Force field analysis
n Sport check
n Questionnaire on teaching methodologies

The following three slides are taken from
  McBeath, 2005, The Self-Evaluation File

The Force Field

Evaluating Classroom Climate
Questionnaire on teaching methodologies:
 How frequently do I use this approach?
   How well does it help you to learn?
n   Listening to the teacher
n   Answering teacher’s questions
n   Doing experiments
n   Working on the computer
n   Watching a video
n   Listening to a tape
n   Acting out a role play
n   Working in a group
n   Taking notes while the teacher talks
n   Taking notes from a book or worksheet
n   Making things
                               (MacBeath, 2005, pp 26-28)

     Quality of Teaching and Learning
      (Area 4, Looking at Our School)
Methodology                     Classroom atmosphere
  § Appropriate methodologies     §   Respect
  § Clarity of purpose            §   Interactions
  § Pace and structure of         §   Environment
    lesson                        §   Affirmation
  § Variety of strategies
  § Use of resources
                                  § Engagement
Classroom management              § Understanding
  § Discipline                    § Knowledge and competence
  § Management of learning        § Collaborative/independent
    activities                      learning
  § Challenge & motivation        § Communication

   Quality of Teaching and Learning
    (Area 4, Looking at Our School)
n Aspect B:
   Teaching and Learning
n Component iv:
n Theme:
   “How actively and independently students
     engage in learning, and how the quality of their
     understanding is reflected in their questioning
     and in their responses to questions”

 Focus on Questioning
A Teaching and Learning Strategy


•What is the purpose of your questions
during any class?

        Why do we ask questions?
n To develop interest and motivation
n To evaluate students’ preparation and pre-
n To identify, difficulties or blocks to learning
n To stimulate pupils to ask questions
n To stimulate independent learning
n To check on homework / class work
n To develop critical thinking / inquiry skills
n To evaluate achievement
What is required of students when they
         are asked a question?
n The student has to:
   o Attend/listen/absorb the question
   o Decipher the meaning
   o Generate a covert response (i.e.,
     formulate a response in one’s mind)
   o Generate an overt response … and perhaps
     revise the response due to further teacher
   o Reflect and learn through discussion

     Wait-Time: After posing a Question
n Average wait-time is 1 second
n Increasing the wait-time to 3 seconds or more
  after posing a lower order Q is related to
  achievement gains
n There appears to be no wait-time threshold
  for higher order Q’s. But the longer the wait-
  time, the better the student engagement

  What type of questions do you ask?
(See Bloom’s Taxonomy of Questioning)

n Knowledge
n Comprehension
n Application
n Analysis
n Synthesis
n Evaluation

         Planning for Questioning
         Adapted from E C Wragg

Identify the key questions in relation to the learning
  intentions for the lesson

Decide on the level, order and timing of questions
Extend the questioning - thinking of subsidiary
  questions to ask

Analyse anticipated answers and responses you might

                  Classroom Questioning
                     Issues to consider

n   Identify current range/variety of questions
n   Cognitive requirement – recall or creative/evaluative
n   Wait time 1 and wait time 2
n   How is respondent chosen?
n   Answers formulated by pairs, groups etc
n   ‘No hands’ answering
n   How are ‘incorrect answers’ dealt with?
n   Answering ‘culture’ of classroom – ‘safe’ to answer
n   How are ‘questioning sessions’ built upon?
n   Questions constructed by students – (incl test Q’s)

      Process of Self-Evaluation
Key steps regarding questioning:
n Determine what good practice in questioning is
n Gather reliable data on your actual use of
  questioning (How would you do this?)
n Collate and interpret the data you have gathered
  about your use of questioning - evidence
n What conclusions can you reach from this
  evidence about your use of questioning
n Prioritise new approaches for planned


  Having implemented changes in your
  approach to questioning over time how
  would you evaluate its effectiveness?

n What evidence/indicators might you look for
  to indicate that new approaches were making
  a difference?

        Improved Questioning Strategies:
n Questioning strategy in place – (frequency, ability
  appropriate, HO, LO, etc)
n Greater student engagement - (greater participation in oral
  questioning routines)
n Weaker students more responsive
n More able students using more higher thinking skills
n Improvements in achievement – gain in test scores
n Less class disruption
n Superior engagement re Homework
n Improved quality Homework
n Positive teacher-student interaction
n Greater teacher satisfaction
n Other?
        How can you promote/embed a
          self-evaluation approach to
     teaching and learning in your school?
n Encourage each department to select an area for
  development/evaluation each year
n Explore what a systematic approach to self-evaluation would
  look like with staff
n Emphasise the importance of using research/ theory on the
  chosen area
n Encourage a collaborative approach – sharing theory,
  developing common evaluation instruments, using peer
n Identify pockets of good practice and find ways of sharing
n Encourage each department to give a report to colleagues on
  the outcomes of the evaluation process – what          the
  department learned as a result of their work             31
Additional Materials

       NCCA/ESRI: Gearing up for the Exam
   Aspects of student experience which generated
        positive interactions with teachers

n Being able to ask questions in class
n Being praised for answers in class/ good written
n Being treated fairly and with respect
n Positive feedback
n Consulting students about their learning/ issues
  that relate to their school experience
n Including them in decision-making process

      NCCA/ESRI: Gearing up for the Exam
  Aspects of student experience which generated
       negative interactions with teachers

n Not receiving any positive feedback on their work
n Being given out to frequently for misbehaviour in
  class or not having their work done
n Not enough encouragement or challenge to
  maintain interest/engagement
n Favouring one student over others (being less
  strict on girls than boys)

More than 10%students did not find school work

              Classroom Strategies
To encourage students to
  participate and to deal with
  pupils’ answers                  To help pupils to generate
  productively consider the          their own questions:
n Think, pair, share, square       n Model questioning for
n Prompt pupils                      pupils.
n Use a pupil’s wrong answer       n Provide opportunities for
  to develop understanding.          pupils to practice their skills.
n Involve more than one            n Plan time for pupils’
  student / whole class in the       questions and for dealing
  answer                             with them effectively.
n Listen and respond positively.
  (pause, prompt, praise)
               Question Stems
n   How can we be sure that ...?
n   What is the same and what is different about …?
n   Is it ever/always true/false that …?
n   Why do ____, ____ and ____ all give the same
n   How do you ….?
n   How would you explain …?
n   What does that tell us about …?
n   What is wrong with …?
n   Why is _____ true?
Some general findings on questioning
n Posing questions during lessons is more
  effective in producing achievement gains than
  lessons without questions
n Oral questioning during class is more effective in
  fostering learning than written questions
n Questions that focus on key/salient elements
  promote better comprehension
n Asking questions frequently during class
  discussions is positively related to learning facts

            Further findings
n With weaker ability groups – the frequent
  use of lower order questions is positively
  associated with achievement
n Increasing the use of higher order
  questioning (beyond 20%) produces
  learning gains
n Increasing the use of higher order
  questioning to 50% enhances teacher
  expectation in relation to those regarded
  as slow/poor learners
   Quality of learning in the classroom?
           (John West Burham)
                SHALLOW         DEEP         PROFOUND
                  (WHAT)        (HOW)          (WHY)
MEANS           Memory        Reflection     Intuition

OUTCOMES        Information   Knowledge      Wisdom

EVIDENCE        Replication   Understanding Meaning

MOTIVATION      Extrinsic     Intrinsic      Authentic

ATTITUDES       Compliance Interpretation    Creativity

RELATIONSHIPS   Dependence Interdependence   Independence
   Sample Comments – SI Reports 08

n …written, oral, and pictorial questioning
n …questions were directed at specific
n …students were given time to formulate
  their answers and were encouraged to put
  up their hands before a respondent was


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