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					      Increasing Our Impact:
   Promising Trends in Training
     and Practice of Related
      Services and Specialized
   Adaptive Physical Education
             Personnel
        Emily Kinsler, CCC-SLP-D
      Erin Lundblom, PhD CCC-SLP
             Mark Fugate, PhD
Rebecca Lytle, PhD and Robert Arnhold, PhD
            Juliann Woods, PhD
           The Context

• Personnel in Related Services and Adaptive PE
  continue to be critical shortages in many states
  nationwide

• Each area has unique expertise to contribute to young
  children and students

• However, as education embraces new initiatives, the
  roles/responsibilities of related service and adaptive
  PE personnel can be challenged by the shifts to find
  their place as members of the team
               Our Goals

Presenters will illustrate examples of:

1) Coordinated University and LEA personnel
   preparation

2) Integrated clinical and academic models

3) Use of data to drive practice

4) Strategies for infusing systems change content into
   personnel preparation
                  Format

• Emily will set the stage for us from an LEA perspective

• Each OSEP funded project will share a brief synopsis
  of their approach to implementation

• Q&A

• Large group idea exchange addressing challenges
CHANGING PRACTICES
 OF SLPS IN SCHOOL
     SETTINGS

  Emily Kinsler, CCC/SLP.D.
  Howard County, Maryland
    Public School System
        Unique Roles of an SLP
• Provide appropriate assessment and
  treatment of students in all educational
  settings ranging from pre-kindergarten
  through high school, including transitional
  programs.




                                            6
Different Perspective




                        7
               Current Trends
•   Integration of services
•   Inclusive practices
•   Data driven decision-making
•   Accountability
•   Collaboration
•   Evidence Based Practices
•   RTI
My Kids…Your Kids…Our Kids
    Educational Reform and SLPs
• Closing the gap
• Changing demographics
• Improving educational outcomes for diverse
  learners
• College and Career Ready
      Presuming Competence

“IF YOU WANT TO SEE COMPETENCE, IT IS
HELPFUL IF YOU LOOK FOR IT.”
--Douglas Biklen

          “She was unaware of
my
           limitations”
                     ~Helen Keller
             Seven Tenets
       the mindset for all providers
• PRESUMED COMPETENCE
• ONLY AS SPECIAL AS NECESSARY
• QUESTION EVERYTHING
• PROVIDE ACADEMIC CHALLENGE TO ALL
• PRACTICE RADICAL AND RELENTLESS ROLE
  SHARING
• BURN THE CHAIR
• SEE INCLUSION AS A PROCESS NOT A PLACE
21st Century Skills for Service Providers
           in Public Schools
• What are we looking for in our Clinical
  Fellows?
• What skills and experiences would be
  beneficial for them in their preparatory
  programs?
  COLLABORATIVE SERVICE DELIVERY:
FROM INSTRUCTION TO IMPLEMENTATI
      Erin E.G. Lundblom, Ph.D. CCC-SLP
                  Associate In
            Florida State University
              elundblom@fsu.edu
Mismatch?
• IDEA encourages new approaches.
      • Need for collaboration and classroom based services to support RTI.
• Service delivery models have not changed.
      •   Primary model continues to be PULL-OUT
      • ASHA survey reports from the 1990s and 2000s

   Average (Mean) Hours Spent by ASHA-Certified, School-Based SLPs per Week Using Models of Service, 2000, 2006,
   and 2008 (Not reported 2010)



Model of Service                       2000                      2006                   2008
Classroom-based                        3.5                       3.8                    4.7
Collaborative consultation             2.8                       2.3                    2.7
RTI                                    *                         2.4                    1.6
Resource room                          0.7                       0.9                    1.0
Self-contained                         1.1                       3.5                    3.7
Traditional pull-out                   21.3                      21.4                   21.9
How do we change practice?
• Implementation: a specified set of activities designed to put into
  practice an activity or program
      • Missing link between research and practice.

  • Stages of Implementation

  • Implementation Drivers
      • Competency
         • Training
         • Coaching
      • Organization

  • Purposes and Outcomes of Implementation
      • Paper
      • Process
      • Performance
• Fully-accredited part-time master’s degree program online for
  Florida students seeking speech-language pathology certification.
• 38 students participated.
  • All received funding from a personnel preparation grant.
  • Course-work and practica occurred “on the job.”
      • Number completing a school based practicum: 14
      • Number employed in a school setting: 24

• A unique advantage exists with practicing SLPs concurrently enrolled
  in graduate training programs.
  • Learners bring the educational content they are learning to their
    workplaces (Kazmer & Haythornthwaite, 2001; Kazmer, 2005).
DL graduate student demographics
Number completing both questionnaires        38 (73.1%)

Number completing a school based practicum   14 (36.8%)

Number employed in a school setting          24 (63.2%)
Years of related experience in the field
                             0-1 years       14 (36.8%)
                             2-4 years       20 (52.6%)
                             5-10 years      4 (10.5%)
School setting               Elementary      35 (92.1%)
                             Middle School   3 (7.9%)
Caseload Size                1-20            4 (10.5%)
                             20-40           6 (15.8%)
                             40-50           7 (18.4%)
                             50-60           6 (15.8%)
                             >60             15 (39.5%)
   “How to…” facilitate change
                  Semester 1 – coursework with practicum

• 4 online learning modules
  •   Evidence-based practice
  •   Collaboration and service delivery
  •   Problem-solving and response to intervention
  •   Embedding communicative skills in the curriculum

• Each module = two course weeks
  • Approximately equal in time requirements (i.e. 6 hours weekly; 12 total
    hours)

• Structure based upon the R2D2 model proposed by Bonk and Zhang
  (2006).
  • Reading/listening (4 hours)
  • Reflecting/writing (4 hours)
  • Displaying (2 hours) and Doing (2 hours)
     “How to…” facilitate change
                     Semester 2 – practicum with coursework

• A classroom-based intervention to meet the individualized communicative needs
  of a student.
   • Identified a student with communication needs.
      • Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2; Bishop, 2006)
      • Classroom observation
      • Teacher input
   • Developed 2 communicative goals based on Common Core Standards.
   • Created an intervention plan for classroom implementation.


• Features of the action research project.
    • Multiple baseline design
    • Generalization probes
    • Fidelity checklist
    • Social validity measure
What we learned…
1. Content knowledge improved.
2. Graduate students applied course content during the
   course.
     • 2 communicative goals aligned with the Common Core Standards
       were identified for implementation by 29 graduate student (71%).
     • 35 graduate students (85%) provided intervention for a minimum of
       1 communicative goal aligned with the Common Core Standards.
     • 34 of 41 projects(83%) were implemented in the classroom.
     • 38 of 41 projects(92%) maintained a fidelity protocol.
     • 33 of 41 projects(92%) had positive outcome measures of social
       validity
What the students learned…
• The mean ratings from an initial to final questionnaire were higher
  for each of the following items indicating that differences were
  captured on the questionnaire following application of the course
  content.
                                                 M         M        df    t      p       d
                                               October    April 
                                                2010      2011

I am familiar with the Common Core                 3.53      4.03   37   3.24   .003**       .46

Standards.
I examine curriculum materials when                3.47      3.87   37   2.66    .012*       .39

designing interventions.
I am able to write instructional objectives.       3.61      4.00   37   2.75   .009**       .46

I know how to plan lessons.                        3.89      4.21   37   2.09     .04*       .26

I know how to plan for different academic          3.68      4.08   36   2.85   .007**       .45

levels.
I can embed communicative goals in the             3.76      4.13   37   2.89   .006**       .41

classroom.
I can implement communicative goals in             3.82      4.13   37   2.51    .016*       .39

the classroom.
               Changes in practice?
                                 How many hours do you spend in
                                 collaboration with teachers per week?

                                 October 2010 1.22
                                 January 2012 2.64




Figure 2: Mean weekly hours reported by graduate students across service delivery models.
       Performance Implementation
 Describe how you collaborate.

       Graduate Students                           School Personnel
• discussion                                • discussion
• discussion of student                     • discussion of student
  needs                                       needs
Talk to them about students that we         We meet together about student
have in common.                             concerns as needed.

• discussion of                             • c. discussion of
  therapeutic intervention                    therapeutic intervention
Discuss lesson plans, child progress, and   Discussion regarding needs and
goals for the week.                         interventions.
What’s next for SLP personnel preparation…

• Curriculum modifications
  • Provide instruction on collaboration and fundamental skills.
• Practicum modifications
  • Provision of intervention within the classroom
Training School Psychologists to Participate in
      Multi-Tiered Educational Systems

                 Mark Fugate Ph.D.
   Division of Counseling and School Psychology
                 Alfred University
                  Similarity and Variability in
                  School Psychology Training
• NASP approved school psychology training programs
  must provide training across 10/11 domains of practice
  (http://www.nasponline.org/standards/2010standards1_Graduate_Preparation.pdf).



• All school psychology students receive some level of
  training in skills necessary to successfully participate in
  multi-tiered service delivery.

• However, the emphasis on skill development across the
  domains is quite variable among individual training
  programs
               RtI Grant & Schools
• OSEP Personnel
 Preparation Grant:
 Training School
 Psychologists to
 Facilitate Response
 to Intervention in
                                Partner
 Schools                     School District



• Provides Pre-            Partner
                        School District
 Service Training
 for 12 School                   Partner
                              School District
                                                                            Partner

 Psychologists                                                           School District


                                             Partner         Alfred
                                          School District   University
• Implementing RtI in
 5 partner schools
                                                         Elements of the RTI Model
     Student
                                               RTI Phase       RTI Tier        RTI Activities                     Core Competencies
      Skills
                                                                Tier 3:




                                                                            Focused Intvn.
                                               Ongoing




                                                                                              Frequent (Weekly)
                                                                                               Progress Monitor
                                                                More




                                                                             Individually
                                               Support
                                                              Restrictive




                                                                                                                  Effective instruction & Intervention
                                                Phase




                                                                                                                                                         Screening; Progress Monitoring;
                                                             Environment




                                                                                                                                                                                           Collaborative Problem Solving
                                                                                                                                                           Program Evaluation; & FBA
                                                                 Tier 3:
                        Social & Behavioral




                                                               Intensive




                                                                                                                                                                                                  & Consultation
          Mathematics




                                                Targeted




                                                                            Protocol Intvn.
                                                             Intervention
Reading




                                                                               Standard
                                              Intervention




                                                                                              Prg. Mon.
                                                                Tier 2:




                                                                                               Monthly
                                                 Phase
                                                               Strategic
                                                             Intervention
                                                                                  Universal
                                                               Tier 1:            Screening
                                              Benchmark
                                                                Core
                                                Phase                       Evidence-based
                                                             Instruction
                                                                            Core Curriculum
            Key Components of Training

• Effective Instruction/Modification
   – Identifying elements of effective instruction; Evidence-
     based academic interventions; Evidence-based behavioral
     interventions
• Data-Based Decision Making
   – Screening, Diagnostic, and Progressing Monitoring
     Assessments; Functional Academic Assessment; Functional
     Behavior Assessment; Using Data for Individual Decisions
     and Program Evaluation
• Consultation & Collaboration
   – General Processes and Specific Strategies for
     Administrators, Teacher, and Related Services
          The Role of Practica and Internship

• It is not enough to teach skills in isolation

• Students need to learn to apply skills within the socio
  -political matrix of real world educational settings

• Practica and internships need to:
   –   be of sufficient length and intensity
   –   provide structured/prescribed learning opportunities
   –   provide appropriate levels of supervision and feedback
   –   occur in educational sites that support best practices
              The AU School Psychology
              Practica/Internship Model
• All AU School Psychology Students
   – Students participate in off campus field experiences and
     class related practica during each of the 4 semesters of
     training prior to internship
   – Field placement site supervisors are typically AU grads
     who have had substantial positive influence on school
     culture and practices
   – Students meet as a group with AU faculty at least 1 hour
     per week for group supervision
   – AU field experience visit training sites a minimum of once
     per semester
   – Site supervisors come to campus annually
             The AU School Psychology
             Practica/Internship Model
• RTI Grant AU School Psychology Students
  – Have additional elective coursework (1st year) and practica
    (2nd year) focusing on advanced learning and application of
    key RTI elements
  – 2nd Year practica occur in a partner school committed to
    RTI implementation with direct supervision from AU
    faculty
  – 3rd year internships occur in the remaining RTI partner
    schools.
  – In addition to typical school psychology internship activities,
    RTI grant students spend a minimum of 20% of their time
    working within the school to improve RTI implementation
          Building School System Support

• While we have more control over the choice of field
  placement sites during on campus training,
  influencing the quality of 3rd year internship sites is a
  challenge

• All AU internship sites
   – Students have substantial flexibility in choosing sites
   – All internship sites need to be approved by AU internship
     coordinator
   – Use of portfolio to structure internship activities
   – AU intern supervisors make a minimum of one site visit to
     ensure quality of internship experience
       Building School System Support/Change

• RTI grant partner school internship sites
   – Meet the typical AU internship site requirements


• Additional steps to facilitate quality RTI
  implementation in the partner school districts
   –   Work with broad-based RTI teams
   –   Establish best practices framework
   –   Teams evaluate the quality of RTI implementation (RIMS)
   –   Teams set annual implementation goals and action plans
   –   RTI grant faculty assist schools in implementing plans
   –   Evaluation and planning process occurs annually
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION


   Personnel Preparation Programs Developing
         Highly Qualified Practitioners


  Rebecca Lytle, University of California – Chico
  Robert Arnhold, Slippery Rock University of PA
Objectives
 Clarify definitions of Special Education and Physical Education.

 Describe the coordinated multi-tiered school-based approach
  for service delivery of adapted physical education.

 Describe adapted physical education personnel preparation and
  evidence-based practices for students with disabilities.

 Multidisciplinary practice of APE with Related Services.

 Building highly qualified capacity of scholars in adapted
  physical education.
Physical Education defined in Special Education
The term ‘special education’ means specially designed
 instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique
 needs of a child with a disability, including –

         (A)         instruction conducted in the classroom, in
                     the home, in hospitals, and institutions,
                     and in other settings; and

         (B)         instruction in physical education.

20 U.S.C. 1401(29)
Definition of Physical Education Services
34CFR 300.108 Physical Education:

 (a) General. Physical education services, specially
 designed if necessary, must be made available to
 every child with a disability receiving FAPE.
Coordinated, Multi-tiered Service Delivery Model

     Assessment of students with disabilities by
      highly qualified APE personnel;

     Partner with related service personnel;

     Educational placement through continuum of
      physical education services;

     Considering needs of LEAs.
The Need for Highly Qualified
Adapted Physical Education Specialists

 Increased incidence of overweight/obesity among
  students with disabilities.

 Increased secondary health risks, reduced quality
  of life.

 Lack of highly qualified APE specialists in the
  schools.
Goals and Outcomes of APE in the Schools

 Prepare highly qualified APE specialists to work in
  multidisciplinary service delivery model.

 Prepare highly qualified APE specialists to
  increase physical activity and health outcomes of
  students with disabilities.
Communicating the Need to
LEA Personnel

 Translating the role of APE personnel to the
  cognitive, health, and wellness of students with
  disabilities.

 Development of transition skills including
  independence, health, fitness, social,
  communication, job-skills, and quality of life to
  students with disabilities.
Evidence-based Practices in
Adapted Physical Education Service Delivery

 APE teaches and implements Universal Design for
  Learning (UDL) principles;

 APE is beginning to implement Response to
  Intervention (RTI) strategies.
Criteria for Highly Qualified APE Personnel
   17 states with certification

   Adapted Physical Education National Standards
    Examination leading to Certified Adapted Physical
    Education Specialist (CAPE).

   Many state report general physical education
    teachers as highly qualified because of lack of
    certification.

   Needs to be addressed.
Cross-disciplinary Coordination

 APE works collaboratively with:
     Physical therapists
     Occupational therapists
     Speech/language therapists
     Transportation
     Psychology, and other related service personnel

				
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