Chpt 20 Part 1

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					 WORLD WAR II
  1939 - 1945
(U.S. 1941-1945)




   Chapter 20
The Impact Today

Many changes that began in World War II are
still shaping our lives today.
  * The United Nations was founded.
  * Nuclear weapons were invented.
  * The United States became the most
  powerful nation in the world.
 Converting the Economy
 • Industrial output during the war:


 U.S.
Germany the tide in favor of an Allied victory.
 • This turned

 Japan
• How did the U.S.
  produce so much?
• Cost-plus contracts -
  the
  government
  guaranteed industries
  a profit if they
  would manufacture
  what was needed for
  the war.
American Industry Gets the Job Done

                    • After Pearl Harbor,
                      almost all major
                      American industries
                      converted to war
                      production.
                    • Example: automobile
                      factories turned to the
                      production of trucks,
                      jeeps, and tanks.
American industry
“re-tooled” and
converted from peace
-time production to
war-time production.
• Henry Ford created an assembly line for B-24
  bombers.
• The War Production
  Board (WPB) set
  priorities and
  production goals and
  controlled the
  distribution of raw
  materials and supplies.
• Government and
  industry cooperated
  with each other.
Building an Army
• To win the war, the U.S. had
  to build up its armed forces.
• The Selective Service and
  Training Act created the
  first peacetime draft in
  American history.
• GIs, named after the initials on
  their uniforms meaning
  “Government Issue,” went
  through basic training for eight
  weeks.
• For most of the war, the U.S. military was
  completely segregated.
• An African American newspaper, the Pittsburgh
  Courier, launched the “Double V” campaign
  stating that black Americans should join the war
  because a                   win would be a
  double               victory over racism
  abroad and at home.
• The army air force created the 99th Pursuit
  Squadron, an African American unit.
• They were known as the Tuskegee Airmen.
•   Congress established
    the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps
    (WAACs) in May
    1942.

•   Each branch of the
    Armed Forces set
    up its own women’s
    organization.
Holding the Line Against Japan

• After Japan attacked
  Pearl Harbor, the
  commander of the
  United States Navy
  in the Pacific, Admiral
  Chester Nimitz, could
  do little at first to stop
  the advancing Japanese
  into Southeast Asia.
• The commander of the
  Americans and Filipinos
  defending the Philippines,
  Gen. Douglas MacArthur,
  decided to take his badly
  outnumbered troops and
  retreat to the Bataan
  Peninsula.
• Roosevelt ordered
  MacArthur to evacuate
  to Australia. Not wanting
  to leave, MacArthur vowed,
  “I shall return!”
• Allied defenders of Bataan
finally had to surrender.
Thousands died on the Bataan
Death March to a Japanese
prison camp.
• In early 1942, B-25 bombers replaced aircraft
  carriers’ short-range bombers because they could
  attack from farther away.
• Lt. Colonel James Doolittle                was
  put in command of the                mission
  that bombed Japan                    on April 18.
• “Doolittle’s Raid”            made Japanese
          leaders change                their
  strategy.
• Turning point in the war against Japan - Battle of
  Midway; Americans shot down 38 Japanese
  planes and destroyed four Japanese carriers.
• This halted the Japanese advance in the Pacific.
Turning Back the German Army

• Soviet leader Joseph Stalin
  urged other Allied leaders to
  open a second front in Europe.
• Churchill wanted to be more
  cautious and attack the
  periphery (edges) of Germany.
• Ex: North Africa…..

                                   Stalin
Although Stalin
pushed the Allies
to invade Europe
from the west, the
U.S. and Britain
felt the best first
invasion would be
in North Africa.
 Invasion through
France would have
to wait.
                 • November 8, 1942 - American
                   invasion of North Africa began
                   under the com Dwight D.
                   Eisenhower.
                 • Gen. George Patton led U.S.
                   forces in Morocco and
 Eisenhower        captured the city of Casablanca.
                 • At the Battle of Kasserine Pass,
                   Americans suffered huge losses.



Kasserine Pass
                Rommel




Hitler’s best general,
Erwin Rommel, was given
the nickname “The
Desert Fox”
• Under Patton,
  American and
  British forces finally
  pushed the
  Germans back.            Gen. George Patton

• On May 13, 1943,
  German forces in
  North Africa
  surrendered.
• German submarines began sinking American
  cargo ships along the U.S. East Coast.
• Result: U.S. Navy set up a convoy system, where
  cargo ships in groups were escorted by navy
  warships.
• From spring 1942                         on,
  American                        shipyards
  produced more                        ships than
  German subs                          could sink.
• The Germans
tried to capture the
Russian city of
Stalingrad, but the
Soviets held their
ground.
• Hitler had
misjudged the
Soviet people's will
to fight.
• The Germans were surrounded and forced to
  surrender.
• The Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point. It
  put the Germans on the defensive.
• Compared to the devastation in Europe and Asia,
  WW II had a positive effect on
  American society.
• It put an end to the              Depression.
• The War created
  almost 19 million new
  jobs and doubled the
  income of most                      American
  families.
• Labor shortage
  hiring of married
  women for “men’s
  work.”
• “Rosie the Riveter”
  became a symbol for
  the campaign to hire
  women.
• 2.5 million women
  entered the
  manufacturing
  workforce.
      Women jobs




American women were urged to
 “do their part” by taking jobs
    normally held by men.
• African Americans still
  had some problems
  getting hired.
• In 1941, FDR ordered no
  discrimination in the
  employment of workers
  in defense industries or
  government.
• Bracero Program - arranged for Mexican
  farmworkers to come to the U.S. to help harvest
  fruits and vegetables on farms.
• More than 200,000 Mexicans came to help with
  the harvest and to build and maintain railroads.
A Nation on the Move

• 15 million Americans moved west and south
  for jobs during the war.
• This created a            new industrial
           region called                the
  Sunbelt.
• Great Migration, (started during WWI) as they
  left the South and headed to cities in the North
  and West for factory jobs.
• Sometimes led to racial violence.




                                           Detroit riots
                                              1943
• Crimes committed by
  youths rose dramatically.
• The zoot suit, baggy pants
  and overstuffed, knee-
  length jacket with wide
  lapels, seemed unpatriotic
  to many that were saving
  fabric for the war effort.
• The zoot suit was worn by
  many Mexican American
  teens.
• When zoot suiters were rumored to have
  attacked several sailors, 2,500 soldiers and
  sailors stormed into Mexican American
  neighborhoods in Los Angeles.




                        The "Zoot-Suit Riots
• In early 1942, FDR declared the West Coast a
  military zone, and all people of Japanese ancestry
  were evacuated to 10 internment camps.
• Rationing went into
  effect as demand for raw
  materials and supplies
  increased and created
  shortages.
• Each month a book of
  ration coupons was given
  to each household for
  processed foods and
  meats, fats, and oils.
                  Rationing     Meat was
                              tagged by the
                                number of
                              points needed
                              for purchase.




 No matter how much
cash you had, if you had
used all your points -- no
          sale!!!
• Victory gardens were planted to produce more
  food for the war effort.




• Scrap drives were organized to collect spare rubber,
  tin, aluminum, and steel.
• To raise money for the
  war…..
• The government raised
  taxes, covering about
  45 percent of the cost
  of the war.
• E-bonds were sold to
  Americans. By buying
  bonds, Americans were
  loaning money to the
  government.
• Most Americans were united in the goal of
  winning the war.
Striking Back at the Third Reich
• January 1943 - FDR met with Churchill to plan the
  next stage of war (“Europe First” policy).
• Casablanca Conference - decided to increase
  bombing of              Germany, trying to
  destroy its industrial,                military, and
  economic                       system.
• Would attack Axis on the                  island of
  Sicily. (“soft              underbelly of Europe”)

				
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