china.pptx - SLAC

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					      China 2.0 The Rise of a Digital Superpower, Beijing and
                     Stanford, Oct 18-19 2010

   First Internet Link
  between SLAC (US)
   and IHEP (China)

    Les CottrellSLAC, Xu Rong ShengIHEP
                     Early History

u 1987 BEPC2 (VAX 785) @ IHEP linked to
  CERN via packet switched data network
u May 1990 changed to CNPac (X.25 at 4.8kbps)
  from Ministry of Telecommunication, China
u Provided Email connectivity via CERN VAX
  VXNODE in Geneva

Les Cottrell, SLAC                      Slide: ‹#›
u Chinese scientists from IHEP, visit SLAC in April/May
u They were interested in computing and networking
  and as assistant director of computing I was invited to
  attend a meeting with them
u They were particularly interested in a network
  connection to SLAC to support the Beijing Electron
  Spectrometer collaboration between IHEP, SLAC and
  other US institutions
u With a meeting in Tokyo on Computing in High Energy
  Physics starting May 11, I suggest extending
  trip to a visit to IHEP in Beijing
u IHEP were very supportive, invite me
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                Slide: ‹#›
                     Be Careful what you ask for…
u Not knowing what to expect in Beijing
   n Just 2 years after the Tianamen Square
   n What was the technology available in IHEP
   n I was worried…
u I met with Pief Panofsky the Emeritus Director of
   n He was very encouraging
   n He had this vision of how excellent networking could make a
     worldwide physics collaboration really work well
u But outbound IHEP international calls needed an
u How to make this work with a digital network …
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                      Slide: ‹#›
                        Pief to the Rescue
u Pief called Nobel laureate T. D. Lee of Columbia for
   n Request top priority to installation of 3 phones with
     unattended international access.
   n Get me visa
u 3 weeks later after the CHEP conference in Tokyo I
  was met at the old Beijing airport
   n Taken to the Friendship Hotel used to be for Russian experts

Les Cottrell, SLAC                                           Slide: ‹#›
                     Working with IHEP staff
u I was amazed to find the phone lines in place and
u They were excited about working with
  western “experts”
   n Determined not to let knowledge of English impede things
   n I was flattered to be considered an “expert”,
     and by their attention, friendliness and
u However, soon found that despite nods
  and smiles I was talking way too fast
   n So wrote everything down as I talked, this forced me to go
     slowly and provided a written record

Les Cottrell, SLAC                                       Slide: ‹#›
                     Accomplishment while there
u Hooked up a 9600bps modem between phone & VAX
  11/785 IHEP

              VAX                                SLAC

u Used 2nd phone line to call Charley Granieri at SLAC
  (15 hours apart)
   n Set up asynchronous DECnet dial-up connection SLAC –
   n Effective 400 bits/sec, very noisy and hard to use
      l Often unable (no international line available) to make
      lFrequent disconnects in mid-session
   n $3.0/min
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                       Slide: ‹#›
                             On return to US

u Setup Tymnet connection via LLNL and CNPac
   n $100/hour used for email (~$1 each) & remote logon
   n Typically5-10 emails/day and 5-20 mins for remote logon
   n Very sluggish for remote logon (1.5 sec response time)
   n Transfer rate few hundred kbits/s
   n Cost ~ $5K/month for US end and $7K for Chinese end
u Interest from DoE community & the NSF
u Convinced US/DoE needed upgrade to a
  permanent link
   n Chose AT&T Skynet satellite
   n For DoE: SLAC and SSC with SLAC taking US lead
   n DoE approved proposal 1991
   n Contract signed with AT&T January 1992
   n $US cost $5k install & $5.5K/month, similar for IHEP
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                          Slide: ‹#›
                     So then we had or were
                        working towards
u Original drawing from paper in 1994

Les Cottrell, SLAC                        Slide: ‹#›
                     Now it gets really hard
u US downstation Point Reyes north of San Francisco
u China downstation Beijing airport
u From airport microwave to BTA bldg 801
  35km away in center of Beijing
u BTA 801 to 821 exchange bldg 2 blocks from IHEP
   n Tried infrared, the microwave but error rates to0 high,
     eventually got a fibre route
   n Last 2 blocks there was copper, but problems with
     converting fibre to copper
   n March 1st 1993 acceptable error rates, handed over to IHEP
   n Seconds later monitor program showed the SLAC
     DECrouter adjacent to IHEP
u DoE/SLAC paid $50K/yr, similar from China
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                      Slide: ‹#›
                     How did it work & for what
u Ten times better:
   n 42kps file transfer
   n Echo time < 1 second
   n Error rate 1 in 10 million
   n 1-2 unscheduled outages/month
   n Twice yearly occulted by sun directly in line with satellite
u How was it used:
   n Transfer physics data: 200MB/day (equivalent to that era’s
     tape cartridge – IBM 3480)
   n 2500 emails/day 400 sites in 21 countries via SLAC gateway
   n News groups, collaboration coordination, code management
   n Copying files, remote login, real-time communication

Les Cottrell, SLAC                                           Slide: ‹#›
                     Daily Utilization 1993-1994

Les Cottrell, SLAC                             Slide: ‹#›
                     Connecting to the Internet
u Once 64kbps link established many Chinese institutions wanted
  to connect to IHEP to get access to Internet
u Dec 1994 Visit by US congressman George Brown to IHEP
  increased US government interest
u Jan 1994 meeting to recommend China domain naming
u Proposed replacing DEC routers with Cisco routers
   n Got export licenses from US DOC
   n Received in Beijing Feb 1994, installed in March
   n Worldwide HEPnet connected
u Agreement for Internet to carry Chinese traffic (DOC, DoD,
   n Required Internet wide-area email sent April 18, 1994, saying China
     connection April 25, 1995
u IHEP fully Internetted via US West Coast interconnection point
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                                 Slide: ‹#›
                        More Information
u Overview
u 1994: Academic paper on connection:
u 2005: Essay on bringing the Internet to China
u 2006: Contributions of HEP to China Internet:
u 2010: You Tube video
Les Cottrell, SLAC                                       Slide: ‹#›

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