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Cold War Powerpoint

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 32

									                Chapter 23

   THE COLD WAR ERA: THE
UNITED STATES AFTER WORLD
     WAR II (1946-1960)
Post-War Economy
 Baby boom throughout the 1950s
 Rapid process of reconverting factories
  back to producing consumer goods
 Result: Americans begin to spend more
  freely and the economy recovers
Post-War Economy
 GI Bill: Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
   Provided low interest home loans and money for
    college education
   Still in use today, extremely important and
    provides opportunity for many to get a college
    education
   Part of the movement of readjustment back to
    peace in America
   Resulted in a housing shortage that mass
    produced remedied
   Helped reinforce the typical “middle class
    values” that were revered throughout the 1950s
The Cold War: Soviet
Containment
 Post-war period ushers in years of
  tension between the US and the Soviet
  Union known as the Cold War
 As Stalin tried to expand to Eastern
  Europe, Soviet expert George Keenan
  outlined a policy of “Soviet Containment”
   Blocking the expansion of communism at all
    costs
The Cold War: Soviet
Containment
Post-War Strategy
   Russians occupy Eastern Europe –
    greatly concerned about national security
   ○ The invasion of Poland by Germany was the
     primary reason for occupation
   ○ Wanted to establish regimes that were friendly
     and/or subservient to Russia
   ○ Russia is frightened of the U.S. utilizing an
     atomic bomb and retaining them
      Begins to build their own, starts the arms race
The Cold War: Soviet
Containment
 Post-War Strategy
   US troops occupy Western Europe
    ○ Did not like Russia’s national security emphasis
      through occupation
       They wanted to keep free elections throughout Europe and
        promote democracy
    ○ U.S. already utilized an atomic bomb
       They were stockpiling and beginning to build the hydrogen
        bomb to keep up in the arms race
   Civil war in Greece and Turkey provide an
    opportunity for the U.S. to try out their policy
    of containment
Truman Doctrine
 First application of the containment
  doctrine – written in 1947 as a result of the
  civil war in Greece and Turkey
 Truman asks Congress to supply funds to
  keep Greece and Turkey within the western
  sphere of influence
   Used the defense of freedom as reasoning
 Also an informal declaration of Cold War
  against the Soviets
 Truman’s rhetoric suggested that the U.S
  had assumed a permanent global
  responsibility
The Marshall Plan
 U.S. attempted to prevent the spread of
  Soviet/Communist influence in western
  Europe by economic means
 1947 – Secretary of State George Marshall
  proposed an economic aid package to help
  Europe rebuild their industries
 Soviets decline this aid because of the
  political agenda attached to it (democracy
  for all)
 Fosters prosperity in Western Europe that
  in turn helped stimulate the American
  economy in the post-war period
NATO
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 Military alliance between the U.S., Canada,
  and most of Western Europe
   Soviets and Communists were left out
 Pledged mutual defense against any future
  Soviet attack
 Third and final step in the first large-scale
  phase of containment
 U.S. troops began to be stationed in western
  Europe in 1949
   Greatly enhanced the Russian fear of Western
    expansion
Cold War Expansion
Russians’ response is to cut off
 access to Berlin
   Truman refuses to withdraw American
    troops and orders an airlift to supply the
    city
   Truman is reelected in 1948, Russia
    retreats and ends their blockade in 1949
   This sets the stage for the West/East
    Berlin animosity that lasts until the 1980s
Cold War Expansion
US improves its security after WWII
   National Security Act of 1947 – unified
    armed forces, CIA, National Security
    Council (advisors to the President)
   U.S. puts their defense budget into the
    Air Force
   U.S. seems determined to win the Cold
    War at all costs
Cold War Expansion
 Problems in Asia
   Both the U.S. and Soviets have large stakes
    in Asia after WWII
   U.S. moves to consolidate its influence over
    Japan and the Pacific Islands
   China (between the U.S. and Soviet spheres
    of influence) is torn between pro-Western
    Chiang Kai-shek and pro-Soviet Mao Tse
    Tung (future Chairman of China and
    genocidal maniac throughout the 1960s)
Chairman Mao
Chiang Kai-shek
Cold War Expansion
Problems in Asia
   Mao wins over in China, Chiang Kai-shek
    is exiled from China for the rest of his life
   China is clearly within the influence of the
    Soviets and Communism
    ○ Truman is attacked for losing China
    ○ As a result, he begins to build up U.S.
      influence in post-war Japan
The Korean War
America becomes involved with
 South Korea in 1950 as Communist
 forces in North Korea begin to invade
 the south
   The 38th parallel becomes the dividing
    line between the two groups
The Korean War
 General Douglas MacArthur pushed to
  take the war into China after the U.S.
  gets involved
   Wanted to achieve a total victory and to
    demonstrate American military superiority
    (much like Patton in WWII)
   Wanted to make future wars less likely
   Truman disagrees, feared Russia and
    nuclear holocaust
   MacArthur pushes Truman too far and is
    relieved of command in Korea
The Korean War
U.S. involvement in South Korea
 becomes a United Nations effort
   The majority of troops, supplies, and
   strategy is supplied by the U.S. though
The Korean War becomes a
 stalemate due largely to guerilla
 warfare on both sides
The Korean War
The war continues into Dwight D.
 Eisenhower’s presidency
Most significant result of the war was
 the massive American rearmament
   Americans felt they were now ready to
    stop Soviet expansion anywhere in the
    world
The Communist Threat
 The Cold War encouraged a culture of
  secrecy and dishonesty
 Freedom of speech and dissent comes
  under attack again in a new “Red Scare”
  after America wins the war for freedom
 Those who could be linked to
  communism (no matter how absurd the
  link) were considered enemies of
  freedom
The Communist Threat
 Essentially turned into another witch
  hunt that had the potential to tear the
  country apart
 The entire country became gripped in
  this phenomena
   As much of a local threat as it was national
   Local anticommunist groups would readily
    storm public libraries and destroy “un-
    American” books
   The courts did nothing to stop this type of
    behavior
The Communist Threat
Why do we favor fascism over
 communism?
   Traces its roots back to the Civil War
   Americans prefer order over anarchy
   We eerily respect the staunch militarism
    (conservatism) of the Germans over the
    idea of absolute social and economic
    revolution
The Communist Threat
Joseph McCarthy
  Announced in 1950 that he had a list of
   205 communists working for the State
   Dept.
  Really working for his own fame and
   glory; didn’t care who he stepped on to
   make sure he was #1
The Communist Threat
Joseph McCarthy
   Gained a ton of support from Midwestern
    Republicans, Irish, Poles, and Italians as
    he lambasted privileged bureaucrats
   His demise (and embarrassment) finally
    came as he tried to take on the US Army,
    claiming that a great percentage of them
    were communists in disguise
The new “Red Scare” takes place
 during the election of 1952

								
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