6th grade Health 2nd TRI Disease_First Aid by pengxiang

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									                                                                           Chapter 11
                                                                           Preventing
                                                                           Diseases
                                                                           Lesson 1
                                                                           What Causes Disease?


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                                                                           >> Chapter 11 Assessment

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Essential Question:

Why is it important to remain germ free?

Enduring Understanding: Students will understand that

pathogens are spread through direct contact, indirect

 contact, through impure food or unclean water, and

 contact with animals or insects.
DO NOW

What can you do to remain germ free at school and away?
                    Single-celled organisms that have a
 protozoa           nucleus

§ Noncommunicable   Diseases that do not spread
  diseases
                    Primitive single- or many-celled organisms that
§fungi              cannot make their own food
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ identify the two main types of disease.

§ recognize four common disease-causing organisms.

§ describe how germs spread.
Analyzing a Graphic

Create a concept map
that shows how germs can       Germs
be spread.
Use this diagram as a guide.
What Is a Disease?

The science of fighting disease has come along way
in the past hundred years.


           disease A condition that affects the proper
                   functioning of the body or mind
Types of Diseases

The two basic categories of diseases are:
  Communicable diseases
  Noncommunicable disease

      communicable diseases Diseases that can be spread.
      Example : Cold, Flu, Fever.


      noncommunicable diseases Diseases that do not spread.
      Example: Diabetes, Cancer, Heart Disease.
Germs that Cause Disease

Pathogen is the scientific name for germ.

           pathogen A microscopic organism that causes
                    communicable diseases


                  Four Classes of Pathogens


        Viruses     Bacteria    Protozoa      Fungi
Germs that Cause Disease

Some viruses are harmless and some cause
diseases.

          viruses Tiny, nonliving particles that invade and
                  take over healthy cells



The common cold, the flu, the measles, and AIDS
are examples of diseases caused by viruses.
Germs that Cause Disease

Bacteria is everywhere.

           bacteria Extremely small single-celled
                    organisms with no cell nucleus



Strep throat, Lyme disease, and tooth decay are
examples of disease caused by bacteria.
Germs that Cause Disease

Protozoa can be harmless, but some strains can
cause serious disease.

           protozoa Single-celled organisms that
                    have a nucleus



Malaria is an example of a disease caused by
protozoa.
Germs that Cause Disease

Fungi survive by breaking down other living
organisms and absorbing their nutrients.

           fungi Primitive single- or many-celled organisms
                 that cannot make their own food



Some strains of fungi, such as molds, athlete’s foot
and ringworm.
How Germs Are Spread

          Direct              Eating or Drinking
         Contact               Contaminated
     (shaking hands)           Food or Water



                       Germ

         Indirect               Contact with
         Contact                 Animals or
       (sneezing)                 Insects
Video Activity
1. What is the number 1 rule to follow in order to
   remain germ free?
2. What are the other 4 rules to consider as well to
   remain germ free?
3. Does fitness might help you to prevent against
   disease? Why?
4. What is the percentage that you have to get sick
   if you follow all these rules according to the
   video?
                                    Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Vocabulary Define pathogen. Use the word in a
sentence.
                                   Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Recall Name a disease caused by a fungus.
                                   Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Identify Name four common disease-causing organisms.
                                    Lesson 1 Review

Thinking Critically
Explain What is the difference between a communicable
disease and a noncommunicable disease?
                                      Lesson 1 Review

Thinking Critically
Apply Should you take a bite of a friend’s sandwich if
you had seen him or her coughing and sneezing earlier
in class?
                                                                           Chapter 11
                                                                           Preventing
                                                                           Diseases
                                                                           Lesson 2
                                                                           Communicable Diseases


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                         DO NOW
Vocabulary     Meaning of the   A phrase using   A picture that represents
               Word             the Word         the word or phrase



Contagious


Immune
System

Strep Throat


Hepatitis


Vaccine
Activity: MOVE YOUR BODY.

1. Why is it important to remain germ-free? Provide examples

   (3) to support your answer.

2. Provide (2) examples for communicable and (2) examples

   for noncommunicable disease.

3. How germs can be spread?
Essential Question:

How can I protect myself from disease?

Enduring Understanding:

Communicable diseases can be prevented with good hygiene

 practices and vaccines.
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ recognize ways pathogens are spread.

§ identify common communicable diseases.

§ demonstrate healthful behaviors that limit the spread of pathogens.
Common Communicable Diseases

When symptoms of a cold first appear, you are
contagious.


       contagious Spreading a virus to others
                  by direct or indirect contact


The cold is the most common communicable
disease.
Common Communicable Diseases

Symptoms of influenza, or “the flu,” include
high fever and joint and muscle aches.
Hepatitis


                   Inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus or a toxin and
Hepatitis          characterized by jaundice, liver enlargement, and fever.



Disease                 Symptoms                               Treatment


                        Weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting,
                                                               Rest, healthful food choices
Hepatitis A, B, and C   fever, yellowing of eyes, abdominal
                                                               (medication for Types B and C)
                        pain, dark urine
Strep Throat
               It is a bacterial throat infection that can make your throat
Strep throat   feel sore and scratchy.


Disease                 Symptoms                                  Treatment




                        Sore throat, fever, chills, body aches,
                                                                  Antibiotics, soft foods, liquids,
Strep throat            loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting,
                                                                  gargling with salt water
                        swollen tonsils or glands
Keep it to Yourself

When you have a cold, take action to prevent spreading
your cold to others. Be careful to cover your mouth and
nose when you cough or sneeze. Avoid sharing cups,
utensils, or other personal items.
Your Body’s Defenses

In a typical day, your body is exposed to millions
of germs.


You aren’t sick all the time because your body is
protected by its own defense system.
Keeping Pathogens Out

      The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens

    Tears                Saliva                   Skin


              Mucous
                                     Stomach Acid
             Membranes
Your Body’s First Line of Defense

                          Body                Mucous
   Skin                                                               Pyrogen
                          Fluids             Membranes



           Mucous Membranes
           Body
           Skin Fluids
           Pyrogen
             Tissues that like the as raiseyour inner organs.
             Tears and salivaaact inside of your mouth, throat, nose that
             A chemical line wall around in
           • Your skin isthat causes a barrier. blood temperature soand
             eyes act as barriers.
             germs have a hard time surviving.
             Fights are sticky
           • These infection. fluids that trap and destroy germs.


          infection The result of pathogens or germs invading the body,
                    multiplying, and harming some of your body’s cells
Your Immune System

Your immune system is your second line of defense.



            immune system A group of cells, tissues,
                          and organs that fight disease
Your Immune System

Some lymphocytes attack pathogens directly while
others produce antibodies.

            lymphocyte A white blood cell that attacks
                       pathogens or harmful germs


            antibodies Chemicals produced specifically to
                       fight a particular invading substance
Your Immune System

Antibodies recognize germs that reenter the body
and will attack and destroy them.


This is called immunity.


            immunity Resistance to infection
Preventing Communicable Diseases



    Steer clear of   Get in the habit   Get enough rest,
   people who you    of washing your    eat healthy foods,
    know are sick.   hands regularly.     and exercise.
Preventing Communicable Diseases

A vaccine triggers the immune system to make
antibodies to fight the pathogen.


            vaccine A dead or weakened pathogen
                    introduced into your body
Preventing Communicable Diseases

Vaccine     The Disease It Protects Against
Hep B       Hepatitis B
DTaP        Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough)
Hib         Disease caused by Hemophilus influenza type B (Hib) bacteria
IPV         Poliomyelitis
PVC         Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria
MMR         Measles, mumps, rubella
Varicella   Chicken pox
Hep A       Hepatitis A
Vocabulary     Meaning of the Word   A phrase using the Word

Contagious



Immune
System


Strep Throat




Hepatitis




Vaccine
                                  Lesson 2 Review

What I Learned
Describe What is the most common communicable
disease? Name some other common communicable
diseases.
                                      Lesson 2 Review

What I Learned
Vocabulary Define antibodies, and use it in
a sentence.
                                     Lesson 2 Review

What I Learned
List Name a disease that can be prevented with
a vaccine.
                                    Lesson 2 Review

Thinking Critically
Apply Why should you avoid sharing an ice cream
cone with a friend who has a cold?
                                   Lesson 2 Review

Thinking Critically
Analyze How does handwashing help protect the
health of your school and community?
                                                                           Chapter 11
                                                                           Preventing
                                                                           Diseases
                                                                           Lesson 4
                                                                           Noncommunicable and
                                                                           Hereditary Diseases

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Essential Question:

How can I protect myself from disease?

Enduring Understanding: students will understand that

to avoid diseases like cancer and diabetes, you should avoid

  tobacco, protect yourself from the sun’s UV rays and maintain

  an active, healthful lifestyle.
DO NOW
1. What different ways can pathogens be spread?
2. What is the most common communicable
   disease?
3. Identify at least three different barriers (line of
   defense) that your body uses to block
   pathogens.
§ chronic             Long-lasting

                      A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow
§ cancer
                      out of control
                      The body’s sensitivity to certain
§ allergy             substances


                      Heart disease is a range of diseases that affect
Heart disease         your heart.
asthma       A chronic disease in which the airways become irritated and
swollen.
diabetes      A disease that prevents the body from using the sugars and
starches in food for energy
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ identify causes of various noncommunicable diseases.

§ develop behaviors to keep your heart healthy.

§ identify ways to help prevent diseases like cancer and diabetes.
What Causes Noncommunicable Diseases?




                              Effects of a
 Poor Health    A Person’s                              Present at
                             Communicable    Heredity
   Habits      Environment                                Birth
                               Disease
Heart Disease

Heart disease is the number one cause of death in
the United States and is an example of a chronic
disease.           chronic Long-lasting
                      Heart disease   Diseases that affect your
                      heart.



Common causes of heart disease include the
narrowing or blocking of blood vessels and high
blood pressure.
Healthy Habits for your Heart


                                            Eat Foods High
     Stay Physically      Maintain a          in Fiber and
         Active         Healthy Weight      Low in Salt, Fat,
                                            and Cholesterol



                                     Don’t Use
                 Learn to
                                     Tobacco
               Manage Stress
                                     Products
Treating Heart Disease

There are medications that widen blood vessels,
lower blood pressure, and control the heartbeat.


For more serious problems, heart disease is treated
with surgery.
Cancer

Cancer starts out as a tumor.

      cancer A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow out of control



      tumor A mass of abnormal cells



Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the
United States.
Cancer

Some tumors are noncancerous, or benign.


Tumors that are cancerous are call malignant.
Cancer

                 Causes of Cancer

                       Exposure to
                                                    Poor Health
    Heredity          Cancer-Causing
                                                     Choices
                        Substances




               Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths.
Cancer

               Avoiding Cancer


                                              Don’t use
  Eat Well   Stay Active   Use Sunscreen
                                           tobacco or drugs
Treating Cancer

                  C   Changes in bowel or bladder habits

                  A   A sore that does not heal

                  U   Unusual bleeding or discharge
 Seven Cancer
 Warning Signs    T   Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere

                  I   Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

                  O   Obvious changes in a wart or mole

                  N   Nagging cough or hoarseness
Treating Cancer

                     Ways of Treating Cancer


                                                         Biologic
  Surgery             Radiation   Chemotherapy
                                                        Therapies




  Before the cancer has spread       After the cancer has spread
Allergies

If you sneeze when you are around cats, you may
have an allergy.

             allergy The body’s sensitivity to certain substances



A substance that causes an allergic reaction is called
an allergen.
Asthma

Asthma is a health problem related to allergies.

            asthma A chronic disease in which the airways
                   become irritated and swollen



During an asthma attack, the small airways of the
lungs become coated with a thick mucous.
Asthma
                          Asthma Triggers

                                                              Cigarette Smoke
                       Physical             Cold or
  Allergens                                                  and Other Sources
                       Activity             Damp Air
                                                               of Air Pollution




  Treatment

  Minor asthma attacks includes inhaling medication to relax the airways.
  Severe attacks may require a hospital visit.
Diabetes

Diabetes is caused when the body doesn’t produce
enough insulin.

           diabetes A disease that prevents the body from using the
                    sugars and starches in food for energy



           insulin A hormone produced by the pancreas
Diabetes
       Types of Diabetes                  Symptoms of Diabetes

    Type 1              Type 2                   Increased thirst
   Diabetes            Diabetes
                                            Frequent urine production

  The body does      The body makes
                                                 Lack of energy
   not produce         insulin but is
   insulin at all.    unable to use
                        it efficiently.
                                                 Blurred vision
Analyzing the GRAPH.
  Percentage of Obese Children and Teens Over a 40-year Time Period
Diabetes in Young People

The increase in obesity is related to the increase in
type 2 diabetes in young people.


Type 2 diabetes used to occur mainly in adults.
Treatment of Diabetes

Treatments for diabetes include:
  Monitoring blood sugar levels
  Taking insulin
  Exercising regularly
  Watching weight
  Developing a good meal plan
Video

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOW7FTLcFkI&
 feature=related
                                      Lesson 4 Review

What I Learned
Vocabulary What is chronic disease?
                                   Lesson 4 Review

What I Learned
Identify Name a noncommunicable disease triggered
by an allergen.
                                   Lesson 4 Review

What I Learned
Describe What are some ways of preventing cancer?
                                    Lesson 4 Review

Thinking Critically
Synthesize Name some ways to keep your heart
healthy and lessen the risks of heart disease.
                                    Lesson 4 Review

Thinking Critically
Compare How are allergies and asthma similar?
How are they different?
                                                                           Chapter 3
                                                                           Healthy
                                                                           Relationships
                                                                           Lesson 1
                                                                           Communication Skills


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DO NOW
Directions: Write these words down:
1. What_____________________?
2. When_____________________?
3. Where_____________________?
4. Why______________________?

• Create the question related to previous information learned in
  previous classes.
• Ask the question.
• Write down the other student’s answer.
• Answer his question.
• Find another student
Essential Question:
How can my interpersonal behaviors affect my health positively or
negatively?

Enduring Understanding:

•   Students will understand that family values and responsibility

    shape their lives.

•   Family relationships and values are important in making healthy

    choices.

•   Successful communication is at the root of healthy relationships.
§ communication The sharing of thoughts and feelings between
                two or more people

§ body language Facial expressions, eye contact, gestures,
                and posture
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ explain different ways people communicate.

§ describe how you can be a better speaker and listener.

§ identify the three styles of communication.

§ develop skills to communicate safely online.
Organizing Information         Headings in this Lesson:

Write the major and minor      • What is Communication?

headings from this lesson      • Different Ways to Communicate
onto a sheet of paper. Write
                               • Using Good Communication Skills
a sentence that summarizes
                               • Communication Styles
the ideas of each heading.
What Is Communication?

Successful communication is at the root of healthy
relationships.

            communication The sharing of thoughts and feelings
                          between two or more people


            relationship A connection you have with another
                         person or group
What Is Communication?




         Person                Messages                    Person

When you communicate, you send or receive messages. Both the sender of the
message and the receiver should have good communication skills.
Different Ways to Communicate

The main way people communicate is
through language.

Another way to communicate is through
body language.

              body language Facial expressions, eye contact,
                            gestures, and posture
Different Ways to Communicate

Different ways to communicate include:
  Face-to-face
  Written messages
  Telephone
  E-mail
  Text messaging
  Sign language
Different Ways to Communicate

There are advantages and disadvantages to different
kinds of communication.


When talking on the telephone or sending e-mail,
visual clues such as facial expressions are absent.
Using Good Communication Skills

 Outbound (“Sending”)              Inbound (“Receiving”)

 P Think, then speak               P Listen actively

 P Use “I” messages                P Ask questions

 P Make clear, simple statements   P Mirror thoughts and feelings

 P Be honest with your thoughts
                                   P Use appropriate body language
   and feelings

 P Use appropriate body language   P Wait your turn
Communication Styles

 An aggressive communicator might say
 something rude.
 A shy (passive) communicator may say
 nothing at all.
 An assertive communicator isn’t shy or
 aggressive about expressing him or herself.
Safety Online

    Make sure that a parent or guardian gives you permission
    to communicate with others online.

    Never give out information about yourself or your family.

    Stay out of unsupervised chat rooms.

    Never agree to meet anyone in person.

    If an online conversation makes you feel uncomfortable,
    exit and tell a parent or other adult.
                                                                           Chapter 3
                                                                           Healthy
                                                                           Relationships
                                                                           Lesson 3
                                                                           Your Friends and Peers


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Essential Question:


Enduring Understanding:

Students will understand that choosing friends who have positive
  values and attitudes is important to a
healthy peer relationship.
                    The influence that people your age may
§ peer pressure     have on you

empathy The ability to identify and share another person’s feelings
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ identify the qualities of a good friend.

§ recognize character traits found in friends.

§ understand the two kinds of peer pressure.
Organizing Information       Positive traits of   Ways peers can
                             friends              be negative
Make two lists. One should                        influences
contain the positive
character traits of good
friends. The second should
contain the ways peers can
be negative influences.
Who Are Your Friends?

A friendship is an important
relationship.


      friendship A special type of
                 relationship between
                 people who enjoy
      being      together
Who Are Your Friends?


                  Tips for Making Friends


    Get to know      Break the   Join a club      Offer a
     yourself           ice       or group     helping hand
Character Traits of Good Friends

Good friends have the following character traits:

  Reliable          reliable Dependable



  Loyal             loyal Faithful



                    empathy The ability to identify and
  Empathy                   share another person’s feelings
Building Strong Friendships

You can build stronger friendships through
cooperation.

           cooperation Working together for the common good




Another way of making friendships stronger is
through mutual respect and support.
Peer Pressure

Peers can give you support and confidence during
your transition to adulthood.


      peers Friends and other people in your age group
Positive Peer Pressure

Positive peer pressure can influence healthful
choices and inspire you to improve yourself or do
something worthwhile.


           peer pressure The influence that people your age
                         may have on you
Positive Peer Pressure

Positive peer pressure can inspire you to improve
yourself or do something worthwhile.


Inspiring you to improve your health and
appearance, or to perform well on a team, are
ways to be positive influences.
Negative Peer Pressure

Daring someone to behave in a dangerous or
illegal way is an example of negative peer
pressure.


A challenge to go against your beliefs or values is
another example of negative peer pressure.
                                                                           Chapter 3
                                                                           Healthy
                                                                           Relationships
                                                                           Lesson 3
                                                                           Your Friends and Peers


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DO NOW

A. Provide at least 2 safe advises for someone who is

    underage and likes to navigate online (facebook, twitter, chat

    rooms, and so on).

B. Draw a picture that represents one way to effectively

    communicate with someone.
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ recognize different types of family units.

§ identify your role within your family.

§ explain how family members care for each other.

§ develop effective communication skills for family meetings.
Organizing Information
                                Types of       Roles People
                                Family Units   Play
Make two lists. One list
should contain types of
family units. The other
should list roles people play
within a family.
Family Relationships

                A family includes two or more
                people brought together by blood,
                marriage, adoption, or a desire
                for mutual support.


                       family The basic unit of society
Family types include:
  Couple
  Nuclear family: Two parents and
  one or more children                  Foster family
  Extended family: A nuclear            Adoptive family
  family plus other relatives such as
  grandparents                          Joint-custody family
  Single-parent family: One             Single-custody family
  parent and one or more children
  Single-parent family
  Blended family: Two people, one
  or both with children from previous
  marriages
Roles and Responsibilities in the Family

Parents are responsible for making sure the basic
needs of the family are met and encouraging good
communication and health.


Children are responsible for some household chores
and showing appreciation.
Building Strong Families

The main job of any family is to nurture the needs of
its members.


              nurture To fulfill physical, mental/emotional,
                      and social needs
Teaching Character

One of the biggest responsibilities parents have is to
help their children develop good character. They do this
through their words and actions.
Coping with Family Changes

Two difficult changes in the family are separation
and divorce.


Children are never the cause of separations or
divorce.
Coping with Family Changes

Among the hardest changes to cope with is the
death of a family member.


Expressing your feelings is an effective
communication strategy for managing grief caused
by disappointment, separation, or loss.
Serious Family Problems

Abuse is a serious problem that can have long-
lasting effects on all family members.

               abuse A pattern of mistreatment
                     of another person
Serious Family Problems

Types of abuse include:

  Physical abuse             physical abuse The use of physical force


                          sexual abuse Any mistreatment of a child or
  Sexual abuse                         adult involving sexual activity


                 neglect The failure of parents to provide their children
  Neglect                with basic physical and emotional care and
                         protection
Help for Troubled Families

Seek help by speaking with an adult you can trust
such as a teacher or school counselor.


Social workers are professionals trained to help
families with problems.
Help for Troubled Families
                                     Crisis
         Social
                                  Intervention
        Workers
                                    Hotlines


        Religious    Sources of     School
        Leaders        Help       Counselors



        Crises
                                    Doctors
        Centers
                                                                           Chapter 8
                                                                           Growth and
                                                                           Development
                                                                           Lesson 1
                                                                           Adolescence: A Time
                                                                           of Change

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DO NOW

§ Write down 3 things that you learned with
 the videos last class.
Essential Question:

What changes can I expect during the adolescence years?
How might my thoughts about myself and others change during
adolescence?

Enduring Understanding: students will understand that
Adolescence brings about social, mental/emotional, and physical
 changes, many of these caused by hormones.
§ adolescence   The period between childhood and adulthood

§ puberty       The time when you start developing the
                physical characteristics of adults of your
                gender
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ describe three kinds of changes you go through during the
  teen years.

§ identify the structure and function of the endocrine system.

§ analyze how a teen is influenced by peers.
Organizing Information

Divide a sheet of paper into three columns. Name each
column for one of the sides of the health triangle. Write two
changes that occur on each side.
Changes During Adolescence

          Differences in how younger or
          older teens may look are caused
          by adolescence.

                adolescence The period between
                            childhood and adulthood




              Mood swings are a normal part of adolescence.
Changes During Adolescence

Hormones are produced in the endocrine system.


       endocrine system A body system containing glands that
                        regulate growth and other important activities
Changes During Adolescence

These glands make up the endocrine system:


                                             Ovaries /
  Pituitary   Thyroid   Adrenal   Pancreas
                                              Testes
Physical Changes

Physical changes that occur during puberty include
the growth of body hair and increased sweating, or
perspiration.

        puberty The time when you start developing the physical
                characteristics of adults of your gender
Mental/Emotional Changes

Changes in hormones can affect your feelings as
well as your thoughts.


You may experience mood swings.
Social Changes

Adolescence brings more responsibility.


As your friends become more important, choose
friends that will support you and influence you in a
positive way.
                                      Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Vocabulary Define endocrine system.
                                    Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Recall Name two physical changes that occur during
puberty.
                                     Lesson 1 Review

What I Learned
Identify What are some social changes that occur
during adolescence?
                                      Lesson 1 Review

Thinking Critically
Apply Richard feels funny about his voice changing.
What advice might you give him to make him feel less
awkward?
                                    Lesson 1 Review

Thinking Critically
Evaluate How do you think the changes you
experience during puberty help you prepare
for adulthood?
                                                                           Chapter 8
                                                                           Growth and
                                                                           Development
                                                                           Lesson 2
                                                                           Human Reproduction


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                        The body system that makes it possible
§ reproductive system
                        to create offspring
In this lesson, you will learn to


§ identify the parts and functions of the male and female
  reproductive systems.

§ explain how to care for the reproductive system.
Comparing and Contrasting

As you go through this lesson, compare the female and
male reproductive systems. How are they similar?
How are they different?
Human Reproduction

The male reproductive system is different
than the female reproductive system.


          reproductive system The body system that makes it
                              possible to create offspring
The Female Reproductive System

The two main functions of the female
reproductive system are:

  Storing egg cells
  To reproduce

                 egg cell The female reproductive cell
The Female Reproductive System

The process of reproduction begins when the egg
cell joins with a male reproductive cell.


The ovaries are the two female reproductive glands
that store the egg cells.
The Female Reproductive System

After fertilization, an egg will travel to the uterus,
the organ in which the baby will develop.


           fertilization The joining of a female egg with a male
                         reproductive cell
The Female Reproductive System

Menstruation is often referred to as a “period.”



           menstruation Blood, tissue, and the unfertilized eggs
                        flow out of the body
The Male Reproductive System

Sperm cells are made inside the testes.

              sperm The male reproductive cells




The testes begin making sperm cells during puberty.
                                                                           Chapter 11
                                                                           Preventing
                                                                           Diseases
                                                                           Lesson 3
                                                                           Understanding STDs


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§ Essential Question

What is HIV and how does it leads to AIDS?

§ Enduring Understanding

HIV/AIDS is only one of many sexually transmitted infections that
are avoidable
§ sexually
  transmitted     Communicable diseases spread from one
  diseases (STDs) person to another through sexual activity

§ HIV               A virus that causes AIDS

                    A condition characterized by life-ending
§ AIDS
                    infections and a T-cell count under 200

§ abstinence        Not participating in high-risk behaviors
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ identify common STDs.

§ describe how HIV and other STDs are spread.

§ access current information on HIV and AIDS.

§ explain how to protect yourself from STDs.
Organizing Information                   HIV

There are many myths and         Myths         Facts
facts about the spread of HIV.
As you read, keep a list of
both in your notebook.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Anyone who is sexually active can get sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs).

      sexually transmitted Communicable diseases spread from one
      diseases (STDs)      person to another through sexual activity



Another name for STDs is STIs (sexually transmitted
infections).
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

STDs can cause:
  Damage to menstrual health
  Damage to the reproductive
  system
  An inability to have children
  Death
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
STD              Common Symptoms
                 Pain or burning feeling during urination; unusual discharge from penis or
Chlamydia
                 vagina; often has no symptoms but can still be spread

                 Pain or burning during urination; unusual discharge from penis or vagina;
Gonorrhea
                 abdominal pain; sometimes has no symptoms but can still be spread
                 Red, wet, painless sores at place where virus enters body, followed by rash and
Syphilis         flu-like symptoms; can lead to brain damage and other serious health problems,
                 especially in infants
                 Small pink or red bumps in genital area; can increase risk of certain cancers
Genital warts
                 in women

                 Itching or pain followed by painful, itchy sores in genital area; symptoms come
Genital herpes
                 and go, but virus is still present and able to spread

                 Weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, fever, yellowing of eyes, abdominal pain,
Hepatitis B
                 dark urine
HIV and AIDS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.


                HIV The virus that causes AIDS



The HIV virus replaces a T-cell’s genetic information
with its own and then multiplies. This compromises
the body’s ability to fight pathogens.
HIV and AIDS

When the T-cell count drops so low that the immune
system can no longer protect the body, AIDS, or
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome develops.

              AIDS A condition characterized by life-ending
                   infections and a T-cell count under 200


Drugs can delay the onset of AIDS, but there is
no cure.
How HIV Spreads

HIV is spread through the following bodily fluids:
   Semen
   Fluid from the vagina
   Blood
   Breast milk
How HIV Spreads

HIV is spread from person-to-person:
  Through sexual contact
  Sharing needles
  When an infected mother passes it on to her
  developing baby
1                                    2             The virus attacks
                                                   and damages T-cell
          HIV enters the                           lymphocytes. These
          bloodstream.                             cells are an important
                                                   part of the immune
                                                   system.

3         As the virus multiplies,   4             Death occurs when
                                                   the immune system
          more and more
                                                   is too weak to fight off
          lymphocytes are
                                                   infections that a
          destroyed. The immune
                                                   healthy immune
          system gets weaker
                                                   system could easily
          and weaker.
                                                   resist.

    HIV            T-cell            Dead T-cell              Pathogen
How HIV Spreads

You cannot get HIV from:
  The air
  Mosquito bites
  Sweat or tears
  Touching objects
  Shaking hands or hugging
Treatment for People with HIV and AIDS

Medical technology has slowed down the effects of
HIV and allow infected people to live longer.


There is no cure for HIV or AIDS.
Detecting HIV

People with HIV often show no symptoms for a long
time, but the virus can still be passed on to others.


Laboratory tests are the only way of knowing if a
person has HIV.
Preventing HIV and STDs

You can avoid HIV and STDs by:
  Choosing abstinence
  Not sharing needles
  Saying no to alcohol and drugs

      abstinence Not participating in high-risk behaviors
Getting Help

The most difficult step in getting help is talking to a
parent or trusted adult, but this is a necessary step
because an untreated STD can cause permanent
damage to your health.
                                                                           Chapter 3
                                                                           Healthy
                                                                           Relationships
                                                                           Lesson 4
                                                                           Refusal Skills


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                                                                           >> Chapter 3 Assessment

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Essential Question:

How can my interpersonal behaviors affect my health positively or
negatively?



Enduring Understanding:
Abstinence from drugs and sexual activity can help teens focus on
  fulfilling
their dreams and goals.
§ refusal skills   Ways of saying no
In this lesson, you will learn to

§ identify how to use refusal skills to resist peer pressure.

§ demonstrate refusal skills to resist negative peer pressure.

§ explain the importance of abstinence during the teen years.
Identifying Problems and Solutions

After this lesson, give examples of peer pressure.

Tell how you might say no in each situation.
What Are Refusal Skills?

When peer pressure builds, use refusal skills to
avoid potentially harmful situations.

                  refusal skills Ways of saying no
What Are Refusal Skills?

          s     Say no in a firm voice.


          T     Tell why not.


          O     Offer other ideas.


          P     Promptly leave.
What Is Abstinence?

Abstinence protects your health and the health
of others.

              abstinence Not participating in health-risk
                         behaviors



Abstinence shows you have self-control.
What Is Abstinence?


  Abstaining from
                             Protects your lungs and heart.
  tobacco use…


  Abstaining from
                             Protects your body and mind.
  alcohol and other drugs…


  Abstaining from            Protects you against pregnancy and
  sexual activity…           sexually transmitted diseases.

								
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