Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 1 What Causes Disease? Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 11 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> Essential Question: Why is it important to remain germ free? Enduring Understanding: Students will understand that pathogens are spread through direct contact, indirect contact, through impure food or unclean water, and contact with animals or insects. DO NOW What can you do to remain germ free at school and away? Single-celled organisms that have a protozoa nucleus § Noncommunicable Diseases that do not spread diseases Primitive single- or many-celled organisms that §fungi cannot make their own food In this lesson, you will learn to § identify the two main types of disease. § recognize four common disease-causing organisms. § describe how germs spread. Analyzing a Graphic Create a concept map that shows how germs can Germs be spread. Use this diagram as a guide. What Is a Disease? The science of fighting disease has come along way in the past hundred years. disease A condition that affects the proper functioning of the body or mind Types of Diseases The two basic categories of diseases are: Communicable diseases Noncommunicable disease communicable diseases Diseases that can be spread. Example : Cold, Flu, Fever. noncommunicable diseases Diseases that do not spread. Example: Diabetes, Cancer, Heart Disease. Germs that Cause Disease Pathogen is the scientific name for germ. pathogen A microscopic organism that causes communicable diseases Four Classes of Pathogens Viruses Bacteria Protozoa Fungi Germs that Cause Disease Some viruses are harmless and some cause diseases. viruses Tiny, nonliving particles that invade and take over healthy cells The common cold, the flu, the measles, and AIDS are examples of diseases caused by viruses. Germs that Cause Disease Bacteria is everywhere. bacteria Extremely small single-celled organisms with no cell nucleus Strep throat, Lyme disease, and tooth decay are examples of disease caused by bacteria. Germs that Cause Disease Protozoa can be harmless, but some strains can cause serious disease. protozoa Single-celled organisms that have a nucleus Malaria is an example of a disease caused by protozoa. Germs that Cause Disease Fungi survive by breaking down other living organisms and absorbing their nutrients. fungi Primitive single- or many-celled organisms that cannot make their own food Some strains of fungi, such as molds, athlete’s foot and ringworm. How Germs Are Spread Direct Eating or Drinking Contact Contaminated (shaking hands) Food or Water Germ Indirect Contact with Contact Animals or (sneezing) Insects Video Activity 1. What is the number 1 rule to follow in order to remain germ free? 2. What are the other 4 rules to consider as well to remain germ free? 3. Does fitness might help you to prevent against disease? Why? 4. What is the percentage that you have to get sick if you follow all these rules according to the video? Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define pathogen. Use the word in a sentence. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Recall Name a disease caused by a fungus. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Identify Name four common disease-causing organisms. Lesson 1 Review Thinking Critically Explain What is the difference between a communicable disease and a noncommunicable disease? Lesson 1 Review Thinking Critically Apply Should you take a bite of a friend’s sandwich if you had seen him or her coughing and sneezing earlier in class? Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 2 Communicable Diseases Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 11 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> DO NOW Vocabulary Meaning of the A phrase using A picture that represents Word the Word the word or phrase Contagious Immune System Strep Throat Hepatitis Vaccine Activity: MOVE YOUR BODY. 1. Why is it important to remain germ-free? Provide examples (3) to support your answer. 2. Provide (2) examples for communicable and (2) examples for noncommunicable disease. 3. How germs can be spread? Essential Question: How can I protect myself from disease? Enduring Understanding: Communicable diseases can be prevented with good hygiene practices and vaccines. In this lesson, you will learn to § recognize ways pathogens are spread. § identify common communicable diseases. § demonstrate healthful behaviors that limit the spread of pathogens. Common Communicable Diseases When symptoms of a cold first appear, you are contagious. contagious Spreading a virus to others by direct or indirect contact The cold is the most common communicable disease. Common Communicable Diseases Symptoms of influenza, or “the flu,” include high fever and joint and muscle aches. Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus or a toxin and Hepatitis characterized by jaundice, liver enlargement, and fever. Disease Symptoms Treatment Weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, Rest, healthful food choices Hepatitis A, B, and C fever, yellowing of eyes, abdominal (medication for Types B and C) pain, dark urine Strep Throat It is a bacterial throat infection that can make your throat Strep throat feel sore and scratchy. Disease Symptoms Treatment Sore throat, fever, chills, body aches, Antibiotics, soft foods, liquids, Strep throat loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, gargling with salt water swollen tonsils or glands Keep it to Yourself When you have a cold, take action to prevent spreading your cold to others. Be careful to cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Avoid sharing cups, utensils, or other personal items. Your Body’s Defenses In a typical day, your body is exposed to millions of germs. You aren’t sick all the time because your body is protected by its own defense system. Keeping Pathogens Out The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens Tears Saliva Skin Mucous Stomach Acid Membranes Your Body’s First Line of Defense Body Mucous Skin Pyrogen Fluids Membranes Mucous Membranes Body Skin Fluids Pyrogen Tissues that like the as raiseyour inner organs. Tears and salivaaact inside of your mouth, throat, nose that A chemical line wall around in • Your skin isthat causes a barrier. blood temperature soand eyes act as barriers. germs have a hard time surviving. Fights are sticky • These infection. fluids that trap and destroy germs. infection The result of pathogens or germs invading the body, multiplying, and harming some of your body’s cells Your Immune System Your immune system is your second line of defense. immune system A group of cells, tissues, and organs that fight disease Your Immune System Some lymphocytes attack pathogens directly while others produce antibodies. lymphocyte A white blood cell that attacks pathogens or harmful germs antibodies Chemicals produced specifically to fight a particular invading substance Your Immune System Antibodies recognize germs that reenter the body and will attack and destroy them. This is called immunity. immunity Resistance to infection Preventing Communicable Diseases Steer clear of Get in the habit Get enough rest, people who you of washing your eat healthy foods, know are sick. hands regularly. and exercise. Preventing Communicable Diseases A vaccine triggers the immune system to make antibodies to fight the pathogen. vaccine A dead or weakened pathogen introduced into your body Preventing Communicable Diseases Vaccine The Disease It Protects Against Hep B Hepatitis B DTaP Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough) Hib Disease caused by Hemophilus influenza type B (Hib) bacteria IPV Poliomyelitis PVC Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria MMR Measles, mumps, rubella Varicella Chicken pox Hep A Hepatitis A Vocabulary Meaning of the Word A phrase using the Word Contagious Immune System Strep Throat Hepatitis Vaccine Lesson 2 Review What I Learned Describe What is the most common communicable disease? Name some other common communicable diseases. Lesson 2 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define antibodies, and use it in a sentence. Lesson 2 Review What I Learned List Name a disease that can be prevented with a vaccine. Lesson 2 Review Thinking Critically Apply Why should you avoid sharing an ice cream cone with a friend who has a cold? Lesson 2 Review Thinking Critically Analyze How does handwashing help protect the health of your school and community? Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 4 Noncommunicable and Hereditary Diseases Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 11 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> Essential Question: How can I protect myself from disease? Enduring Understanding: students will understand that to avoid diseases like cancer and diabetes, you should avoid tobacco, protect yourself from the sun’s UV rays and maintain an active, healthful lifestyle. DO NOW 1. What different ways can pathogens be spread? 2. What is the most common communicable disease? 3. Identify at least three different barriers (line of defense) that your body uses to block pathogens. § chronic Long-lasting A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow § cancer out of control The body’s sensitivity to certain § allergy substances Heart disease is a range of diseases that affect Heart disease your heart. asthma A chronic disease in which the airways become irritated and swollen. diabetes A disease that prevents the body from using the sugars and starches in food for energy In this lesson, you will learn to § identify causes of various noncommunicable diseases. § develop behaviors to keep your heart healthy. § identify ways to help prevent diseases like cancer and diabetes. What Causes Noncommunicable Diseases? Effects of a Poor Health A Person’s Present at Communicable Heredity Habits Environment Birth Disease Heart Disease Heart disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and is an example of a chronic disease. chronic Long-lasting Heart disease Diseases that affect your heart. Common causes of heart disease include the narrowing or blocking of blood vessels and high blood pressure. Healthy Habits for your Heart Eat Foods High Stay Physically Maintain a in Fiber and Active Healthy Weight Low in Salt, Fat, and Cholesterol Don’t Use Learn to Tobacco Manage Stress Products Treating Heart Disease There are medications that widen blood vessels, lower blood pressure, and control the heartbeat. For more serious problems, heart disease is treated with surgery. Cancer Cancer starts out as a tumor. cancer A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow out of control tumor A mass of abnormal cells Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer Some tumors are noncancerous, or benign. Tumors that are cancerous are call malignant. Cancer Causes of Cancer Exposure to Poor Health Heredity Cancer-Causing Choices Substances Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths. Cancer Avoiding Cancer Don’t use Eat Well Stay Active Use Sunscreen tobacco or drugs Treating Cancer C Changes in bowel or bladder habits A A sore that does not heal U Unusual bleeding or discharge Seven Cancer Warning Signs T Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere I Indigestion or difficulty swallowing O Obvious changes in a wart or mole N Nagging cough or hoarseness Treating Cancer Ways of Treating Cancer Biologic Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Therapies Before the cancer has spread After the cancer has spread Allergies If you sneeze when you are around cats, you may have an allergy. allergy The body’s sensitivity to certain substances A substance that causes an allergic reaction is called an allergen. Asthma Asthma is a health problem related to allergies. asthma A chronic disease in which the airways become irritated and swollen During an asthma attack, the small airways of the lungs become coated with a thick mucous. Asthma Asthma Triggers Cigarette Smoke Physical Cold or Allergens and Other Sources Activity Damp Air of Air Pollution Treatment Minor asthma attacks includes inhaling medication to relax the airways. Severe attacks may require a hospital visit. Diabetes Diabetes is caused when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. diabetes A disease that prevents the body from using the sugars and starches in food for energy insulin A hormone produced by the pancreas Diabetes Types of Diabetes Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1 Type 2 Increased thirst Diabetes Diabetes Frequent urine production The body does The body makes Lack of energy not produce insulin but is insulin at all. unable to use it efficiently. Blurred vision Analyzing the GRAPH. Percentage of Obese Children and Teens Over a 40-year Time Period Diabetes in Young People The increase in obesity is related to the increase in type 2 diabetes in young people. Type 2 diabetes used to occur mainly in adults. Treatment of Diabetes Treatments for diabetes include: Monitoring blood sugar levels Taking insulin Exercising regularly Watching weight Developing a good meal plan Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOW7FTLcFkI& feature=related Lesson 4 Review What I Learned Vocabulary What is chronic disease? Lesson 4 Review What I Learned Identify Name a noncommunicable disease triggered by an allergen. Lesson 4 Review What I Learned Describe What are some ways of preventing cancer? Lesson 4 Review Thinking Critically Synthesize Name some ways to keep your heart healthy and lessen the risks of heart disease. Lesson 4 Review Thinking Critically Compare How are allergies and asthma similar? How are they different? Chapter 3 Healthy Relationships Lesson 1 Communication Skills Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 3 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> DO NOW Directions: Write these words down: 1. What_____________________? 2. When_____________________? 3. Where_____________________? 4. Why______________________? • Create the question related to previous information learned in previous classes. • Ask the question. • Write down the other student’s answer. • Answer his question. • Find another student Essential Question: How can my interpersonal behaviors affect my health positively or negatively? Enduring Understanding: • Students will understand that family values and responsibility shape their lives. • Family relationships and values are important in making healthy choices. • Successful communication is at the root of healthy relationships. § communication The sharing of thoughts and feelings between two or more people § body language Facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and posture In this lesson, you will learn to § explain different ways people communicate. § describe how you can be a better speaker and listener. § identify the three styles of communication. § develop skills to communicate safely online. Organizing Information Headings in this Lesson: Write the major and minor • What is Communication? headings from this lesson • Different Ways to Communicate onto a sheet of paper. Write • Using Good Communication Skills a sentence that summarizes • Communication Styles the ideas of each heading. What Is Communication? Successful communication is at the root of healthy relationships. communication The sharing of thoughts and feelings between two or more people relationship A connection you have with another person or group What Is Communication? Person Messages Person When you communicate, you send or receive messages. Both the sender of the message and the receiver should have good communication skills. Different Ways to Communicate The main way people communicate is through language. Another way to communicate is through body language. body language Facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and posture Different Ways to Communicate Different ways to communicate include: Face-to-face Written messages Telephone E-mail Text messaging Sign language Different Ways to Communicate There are advantages and disadvantages to different kinds of communication. When talking on the telephone or sending e-mail, visual clues such as facial expressions are absent. Using Good Communication Skills Outbound (“Sending”) Inbound (“Receiving”) P Think, then speak P Listen actively P Use “I” messages P Ask questions P Make clear, simple statements P Mirror thoughts and feelings P Be honest with your thoughts P Use appropriate body language and feelings P Use appropriate body language P Wait your turn Communication Styles An aggressive communicator might say something rude. A shy (passive) communicator may say nothing at all. An assertive communicator isn’t shy or aggressive about expressing him or herself. Safety Online Make sure that a parent or guardian gives you permission to communicate with others online. Never give out information about yourself or your family. Stay out of unsupervised chat rooms. Never agree to meet anyone in person. If an online conversation makes you feel uncomfortable, exit and tell a parent or other adult. Chapter 3 Healthy Relationships Lesson 3 Your Friends and Peers Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 3 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> Essential Question: Enduring Understanding: Students will understand that choosing friends who have positive values and attitudes is important to a healthy peer relationship. The influence that people your age may § peer pressure have on you empathy The ability to identify and share another person’s feelings In this lesson, you will learn to § identify the qualities of a good friend. § recognize character traits found in friends. § understand the two kinds of peer pressure. Organizing Information Positive traits of Ways peers can friends be negative Make two lists. One should influences contain the positive character traits of good friends. The second should contain the ways peers can be negative influences. Who Are Your Friends? A friendship is an important relationship. friendship A special type of relationship between people who enjoy being together Who Are Your Friends? Tips for Making Friends Get to know Break the Join a club Offer a yourself ice or group helping hand Character Traits of Good Friends Good friends have the following character traits: Reliable reliable Dependable Loyal loyal Faithful empathy The ability to identify and Empathy share another person’s feelings Building Strong Friendships You can build stronger friendships through cooperation. cooperation Working together for the common good Another way of making friendships stronger is through mutual respect and support. Peer Pressure Peers can give you support and confidence during your transition to adulthood. peers Friends and other people in your age group Positive Peer Pressure Positive peer pressure can influence healthful choices and inspire you to improve yourself or do something worthwhile. peer pressure The influence that people your age may have on you Positive Peer Pressure Positive peer pressure can inspire you to improve yourself or do something worthwhile. Inspiring you to improve your health and appearance, or to perform well on a team, are ways to be positive influences. Negative Peer Pressure Daring someone to behave in a dangerous or illegal way is an example of negative peer pressure. A challenge to go against your beliefs or values is another example of negative peer pressure. Chapter 3 Healthy Relationships Lesson 3 Your Friends and Peers Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 3 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> DO NOW A. Provide at least 2 safe advises for someone who is underage and likes to navigate online (facebook, twitter, chat rooms, and so on). B. Draw a picture that represents one way to effectively communicate with someone. In this lesson, you will learn to § recognize different types of family units. § identify your role within your family. § explain how family members care for each other. § develop effective communication skills for family meetings. Organizing Information Types of Roles People Family Units Play Make two lists. One list should contain types of family units. The other should list roles people play within a family. Family Relationships A family includes two or more people brought together by blood, marriage, adoption, or a desire for mutual support. family The basic unit of society Family types include: Couple Nuclear family: Two parents and one or more children Foster family Extended family: A nuclear Adoptive family family plus other relatives such as grandparents Joint-custody family Single-parent family: One Single-custody family parent and one or more children Single-parent family Blended family: Two people, one or both with children from previous marriages Roles and Responsibilities in the Family Parents are responsible for making sure the basic needs of the family are met and encouraging good communication and health. Children are responsible for some household chores and showing appreciation. Building Strong Families The main job of any family is to nurture the needs of its members. nurture To fulfill physical, mental/emotional, and social needs Teaching Character One of the biggest responsibilities parents have is to help their children develop good character. They do this through their words and actions. Coping with Family Changes Two difficult changes in the family are separation and divorce. Children are never the cause of separations or divorce. Coping with Family Changes Among the hardest changes to cope with is the death of a family member. Expressing your feelings is an effective communication strategy for managing grief caused by disappointment, separation, or loss. Serious Family Problems Abuse is a serious problem that can have long- lasting effects on all family members. abuse A pattern of mistreatment of another person Serious Family Problems Types of abuse include: Physical abuse physical abuse The use of physical force sexual abuse Any mistreatment of a child or Sexual abuse adult involving sexual activity neglect The failure of parents to provide their children Neglect with basic physical and emotional care and protection Help for Troubled Families Seek help by speaking with an adult you can trust such as a teacher or school counselor. Social workers are professionals trained to help families with problems. Help for Troubled Families Crisis Social Intervention Workers Hotlines Religious Sources of School Leaders Help Counselors Crises Doctors Centers Chapter 8 Growth and Development Lesson 1 Adolescence: A Time of Change Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 8 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> DO NOW § Write down 3 things that you learned with the videos last class. Essential Question: What changes can I expect during the adolescence years? How might my thoughts about myself and others change during adolescence? Enduring Understanding: students will understand that Adolescence brings about social, mental/emotional, and physical changes, many of these caused by hormones. § adolescence The period between childhood and adulthood § puberty The time when you start developing the physical characteristics of adults of your gender In this lesson, you will learn to § describe three kinds of changes you go through during the teen years. § identify the structure and function of the endocrine system. § analyze how a teen is influenced by peers. Organizing Information Divide a sheet of paper into three columns. Name each column for one of the sides of the health triangle. Write two changes that occur on each side. Changes During Adolescence Differences in how younger or older teens may look are caused by adolescence. adolescence The period between childhood and adulthood Mood swings are a normal part of adolescence. Changes During Adolescence Hormones are produced in the endocrine system. endocrine system A body system containing glands that regulate growth and other important activities Changes During Adolescence These glands make up the endocrine system: Ovaries / Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Testes Physical Changes Physical changes that occur during puberty include the growth of body hair and increased sweating, or perspiration. puberty The time when you start developing the physical characteristics of adults of your gender Mental/Emotional Changes Changes in hormones can affect your feelings as well as your thoughts. You may experience mood swings. Social Changes Adolescence brings more responsibility. As your friends become more important, choose friends that will support you and influence you in a positive way. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Vocabulary Define endocrine system. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Recall Name two physical changes that occur during puberty. Lesson 1 Review What I Learned Identify What are some social changes that occur during adolescence? Lesson 1 Review Thinking Critically Apply Richard feels funny about his voice changing. What advice might you give him to make him feel less awkward? Lesson 1 Review Thinking Critically Evaluate How do you think the changes you experience during puberty help you prepare for adulthood? Chapter 8 Growth and Development Lesson 2 Human Reproduction Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 8 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> The body system that makes it possible § reproductive system to create offspring In this lesson, you will learn to § identify the parts and functions of the male and female reproductive systems. § explain how to care for the reproductive system. Comparing and Contrasting As you go through this lesson, compare the female and male reproductive systems. How are they similar? How are they different? Human Reproduction The male reproductive system is different than the female reproductive system. reproductive system The body system that makes it possible to create offspring The Female Reproductive System The two main functions of the female reproductive system are: Storing egg cells To reproduce egg cell The female reproductive cell The Female Reproductive System The process of reproduction begins when the egg cell joins with a male reproductive cell. The ovaries are the two female reproductive glands that store the egg cells. The Female Reproductive System After fertilization, an egg will travel to the uterus, the organ in which the baby will develop. fertilization The joining of a female egg with a male reproductive cell The Female Reproductive System Menstruation is often referred to as a “period.” menstruation Blood, tissue, and the unfertilized eggs flow out of the body The Male Reproductive System Sperm cells are made inside the testes. sperm The male reproductive cells The testes begin making sperm cells during puberty. Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 3 Understanding STDs Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 11 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> § Essential Question What is HIV and how does it leads to AIDS? § Enduring Understanding HIV/AIDS is only one of many sexually transmitted infections that are avoidable § sexually transmitted Communicable diseases spread from one diseases (STDs) person to another through sexual activity § HIV A virus that causes AIDS A condition characterized by life-ending § AIDS infections and a T-cell count under 200 § abstinence Not participating in high-risk behaviors In this lesson, you will learn to § identify common STDs. § describe how HIV and other STDs are spread. § access current information on HIV and AIDS. § explain how to protect yourself from STDs. Organizing Information HIV There are many myths and Myths Facts facts about the spread of HIV. As you read, keep a list of both in your notebook. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Anyone who is sexually active can get sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). sexually transmitted Communicable diseases spread from one diseases (STDs) person to another through sexual activity Another name for STDs is STIs (sexually transmitted infections). Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs can cause: Damage to menstrual health Damage to the reproductive system An inability to have children Death Sexually Transmitted Diseases STD Common Symptoms Pain or burning feeling during urination; unusual discharge from penis or Chlamydia vagina; often has no symptoms but can still be spread Pain or burning during urination; unusual discharge from penis or vagina; Gonorrhea abdominal pain; sometimes has no symptoms but can still be spread Red, wet, painless sores at place where virus enters body, followed by rash and Syphilis flu-like symptoms; can lead to brain damage and other serious health problems, especially in infants Small pink or red bumps in genital area; can increase risk of certain cancers Genital warts in women Itching or pain followed by painful, itchy sores in genital area; symptoms come Genital herpes and go, but virus is still present and able to spread Weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, fever, yellowing of eyes, abdominal pain, Hepatitis B dark urine HIV and AIDS HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV The virus that causes AIDS The HIV virus replaces a T-cell’s genetic information with its own and then multiplies. This compromises the body’s ability to fight pathogens. HIV and AIDS When the T-cell count drops so low that the immune system can no longer protect the body, AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome develops. AIDS A condition characterized by life-ending infections and a T-cell count under 200 Drugs can delay the onset of AIDS, but there is no cure. How HIV Spreads HIV is spread through the following bodily fluids: Semen Fluid from the vagina Blood Breast milk How HIV Spreads HIV is spread from person-to-person: Through sexual contact Sharing needles When an infected mother passes it on to her developing baby 1 2 The virus attacks and damages T-cell HIV enters the lymphocytes. These bloodstream. cells are an important part of the immune system. 3 As the virus multiplies, 4 Death occurs when the immune system more and more is too weak to fight off lymphocytes are infections that a destroyed. The immune healthy immune system gets weaker system could easily and weaker. resist. HIV T-cell Dead T-cell Pathogen How HIV Spreads You cannot get HIV from: The air Mosquito bites Sweat or tears Touching objects Shaking hands or hugging Treatment for People with HIV and AIDS Medical technology has slowed down the effects of HIV and allow infected people to live longer. There is no cure for HIV or AIDS. Detecting HIV People with HIV often show no symptoms for a long time, but the virus can still be passed on to others. Laboratory tests are the only way of knowing if a person has HIV. Preventing HIV and STDs You can avoid HIV and STDs by: Choosing abstinence Not sharing needles Saying no to alcohol and drugs abstinence Not participating in high-risk behaviors Getting Help The most difficult step in getting help is talking to a parent or trusted adult, but this is a necessary step because an untreated STD can cause permanent damage to your health. Chapter 3 Healthy Relationships Lesson 4 Refusal Skills Click for: >> Main Menu >> Chapter 3 Assessment Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. Next >> Essential Question: How can my interpersonal behaviors affect my health positively or negatively? Enduring Understanding: Abstinence from drugs and sexual activity can help teens focus on fulfilling their dreams and goals. § refusal skills Ways of saying no In this lesson, you will learn to § identify how to use refusal skills to resist peer pressure. § demonstrate refusal skills to resist negative peer pressure. § explain the importance of abstinence during the teen years. Identifying Problems and Solutions After this lesson, give examples of peer pressure. Tell how you might say no in each situation. What Are Refusal Skills? When peer pressure builds, use refusal skills to avoid potentially harmful situations. refusal skills Ways of saying no What Are Refusal Skills? s Say no in a firm voice. T Tell why not. O Offer other ideas. P Promptly leave. What Is Abstinence? Abstinence protects your health and the health of others. abstinence Not participating in health-risk behaviors Abstinence shows you have self-control. What Is Abstinence? Abstaining from Protects your lungs and heart. tobacco use… Abstaining from Protects your body and mind. alcohol and other drugs… Abstaining from Protects you against pregnancy and sexual activity… sexually transmitted diseases.
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