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									Italian Unification
Italy had not been united since Roman times.
In the 1800s it was split between several
nations including Austria, France and Sardinia.

Most Italians lacked a national identity, but felt
regional pride:
Florence- Tuscans
Venice- Venetians
Naples- Neapolitans

Similar to northerners, southerners, etc. in the
                Nationalism grows

Nationalism grows as a result of Napoleon’s invasions and the Congress of Vienna.

   Nationalists want to unit Italy because
   of its geography, common language and
   common traditions.

   Others view unity as a practical
   economic move, eliminating trade
   barriers between the regions and
   creating a single trade system.
Camillo Cavour worked with the French to gain
support in overthrowing Austrian rule in Northern

Shortly after, Giuseppe Garibaldi created a
force of 1,000 loyal volunteers to free
southern Italy. Garibaldi and his men were
known as the Red Shirts and became a
symbol of pride for the Italians.
Hapsburg Empire
                     Absolute Rulers
                                   King- Francis I
                            Foreign Minister- Metternich

Francis and Metternich held onto
Absolute rule and avoided change.
However, the Austrian Empire was
multi-national- Over 70% of its people
were of different cultural groups. They
viciously crush revolts.

As World War I arrives, Austria is
struggling to hold onto its Empire.
Russian Reform
                   19th Century Russia
Russia in the 1800’s was the largest, most populous nation in the world.

Russia had grown over the years and included a partially European, partially Asian
Russia was untouched by the Enlightenment
and world revolutions.

Russia was economically underdeveloped. The
Czars resisted industrialization fearing it
would weaken his absolute power.

There was an outdated social system based
on Serfdom. Landowning nobles owned serfs
who were bound to the land and subject to
the master’s will.
                Czar Alexander I
   Open to Liberal ideas at the beginning of his reign:
   1) Eased censorship of the press
   2) Promoted education
   3) Proposed freeing the serfs

By the time of Napoleon's invasion in
1812 Alexander had backed off reforms
fearing he was losing power.

During the Congress of Vienna in 1815
Alexander supported the conservative
                     Czar Nicholas I
Shortly after taking the throne the
Decembrist Revolts started.

Army officers exposed to French
Revolution ideals during Napoleon’s
invasion led rioters demanding
reforms and a constitution

Nicholas refuses
              Nicholas cracks down
Czar Nicholas I cracked down after the Decembrist
- Banned books with liberal leanings
- Only approved books used in schools and
- Liberal and revolutionaries were exiled to Siberia

  Over 150,000 Russian are
  exiled to Siberia
                           New Slogan
          Orthodoxy                 Autocracy             Nationalism
     Russian Orthodox          Absolute power of the   Respect Russian
     church and the Russian    Czar                    traditions and suppress
     Government                                        others.

Nicholas used a slogan of Orthodoxy, Autocracy,
Nationalism to express his plans for Russia

He brutally dealt with anyone who dissented
                       Czar Alexander II
His father told him, “I am handing you command of the
country in a poor state”

Alexander II came to power during the Crimean War.
The war highlighted how far behind Russia was
compared to the rest of Europe. With few rail lines, little
industry and an outdated serf system, Russia was in
need of reform.

Crushing defeat in the Crimean War sparked revolts and
calls for reform

In 1861 Alexander emancipated the serfs (freed)
Emancipated the Serfs
        -the problem: The serfs were poor and couldn’t afford to buy
        enough land from their previous masters. Many left for the cities.

           -elected assemblies responsible for handling local issues such as
           road repair, schools and agriculture.

Trial by Jury
           -created new laws including trial by jury for all Russians.

       The Reforms failed to appease the masses. They wanted a Liberal
                         Constitutional government.
                            People’s Will
Radical groups demanded further
reform. One group, People’s Will,
plotted to kill the Czar.

They had many failed attempts
but in March 1881 they
successfully killed the czar by
bombing his carriage.
                        Czar Alexander III
Angry about his father’s murder, Alexander III ruthlessly cracked
down on dissent (disagreements): Strict censorship, increased
secret police activity and increased exiles of critics to Siberia.

Launched Russification aimed against the other cultures in the
Russian declared official language
Russian Orthodox Church the official Church
All others were savagely persecuted.

        What does this author think about
        Czar Alexander III? How do you
Russification allowed for the persecution of different
religious and cultural groups. The Jews became a large
-forced to live in specified areas
-only limited numbers could be doctors, lawyers, etc.

Violent persecution of the Jews was encouraged. Gangs beat and
killed Jews. Looted and burned their homes.

                                    Thousands fled Russia and became
                                    refugees- a person who flees their
                                    homeland to seek safety elsewhere.
     Industrial Developments
Despite his poor social policies, Alexander III did help
modernize Russia. With loans from France, the Russians built
the Trans-Siberian Railway. And more factories came into

Benefits- Economic growth and increased trade.

Cons- Industrialization brought the same troubles: low wages,
long hours, safety concerns and poor living conditions
Trans-Siberian Railway
                        Czar Nicholas II
Nicholas II came to the throne with discontent throughout the
nation, but he was determined to continue Russian autocracy.

   Bloody Sunday :
   Father Gapon organized workers into a peaceful march to
   the Winter Palace of Nicholas II. They sang hymns and
   carried pictures of the Czar.

 Despite the peaceful demonstration the Czar fled the palace and left
 soldiers to guard it. When the marchers arrived before the palace the
 soldiers opened fire, killing and wounding hundreds.
                      Future of Russia
• Discontent continues to grow

• By the start of WWI in 1914 Russia is headed for a
  Revolution (change)

• Czar Nicholas II will be the last Czar of Russia

• A new government will be instituted after a Russian
  Civil War
During the Age of Absolutism (1600s and 1700s),
European monarchies sought to

1)   Increase human rights for their citizens
2)   Centralize political power in their nations
3)   Develop better relations with Muslim rulers
4)   Encourage the growth of cooperative farms
Which Prussian leader followed a policy of “Blood and Iron” in order
to create a unified Germany?

   1.   Metternich
   2.   Bolivar
   3.   Bismarck
   4.   Cavour
Russia in the 1700s and Japan in the 1800s were similar
in that both countries

1)Began the process of modernization after a long period
of isolation
2)Developed democratic governments after years under
absolute monarchies
3)Refused to accept western technological ideas
4)Adopted socialist economic systems after capitalism
had failed.
A study of revolutions would most likely lead to the conclusion that
pre-Revolutionary governments.

1. are more concerned about human rights than the governments
that replace them
2. refuse to modernize their armed forces with advanced
3. attempt to bring about the separation of government from
4. fail to meet the political and economic needs of their people

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