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					 RURAL ACCESS AND MOBILITY: A CASE OF
MANAGING INDIVIDUALIZED MOBILITY NEEDS
 THROUGH INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT IN
               NW USA
                      Sen, Lalita Ph.D.
         Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, US
                     Sen_LX@tsu.edu

                   Johanson, Karl, Ph.D.
                     Pullman, WA, US
            Council on Aging & Human Services
               karlmjohanson@gmail.com

               Majumdar, Sarmistha R., Ph.D.
                Texas Southern University
                  smajumdr@gmail.com
     Providing Subsidized Transportation
  Services for Sparsely Populated Rural Areas
• US Rural transportation has a history of challenges and
  success requiring innovation

• Service to agriculture or forested areas with little or no
  services or infrastructure to support the population

• Early examples of such rural service is Access Transportation
  Services, serving Allegheny County started in the early 1970s
  to serve the larger rural areas around Pittsburg
Case of Rural Transportation in NW US
           Characteristics of Case Service Area
§   Sparse population density
§   Large expanse of forests and/or agricultural land
§   Little or no service infrastructure
§   Aging population
§   Lower income of residents
§   Need for innovation and sustenance of transit
    service to provide mobility to the rural
    population
   COAST-Serving Eastern Washington and
              Western Idaho
• Council of Aging & Human Services
  Transportation (COAST) provides an example of
  innovative transportation service to the rural
  area with
     v   Sparse rural population
     v   No major cities/ towns
     v   Low income population
     v   Older population who are aging in place
                 Case of COAST

• The Council on Aging & Human Services (COAST)
  provides transportation services and serves an area
  of over 17,000 square miles, much of which is
  designated as wilderness

• Service area includes three rural counties in the
  eastern part of Washington State and five mostly
  rural counties in the north central parts of Idaho.
        Case Study Service Area of Rural
                   Transport
           Source:http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-633-1
            Source:
Parts of Washington & Idaho             Two State Service Area
Served by COAST
 Socio Economic Characteristics of WA Service Area
 http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/53000.html
Counties in                 Asotin        Garfield    Whitman
Washington State


Population for 2010         21,623.0      2,266 .0    44,776 .0
% Population 65+                19.4         23.1          9.8
% Females                       52           51.2          49
% High School Grad.              88.9        91.7          95.7
Per capita income ($)        23,731 .0    22,825 .0    19,506.0
% Pop below poverty level         13.5        15.7         27.6
Federal Spending ($)         179,208 .0   42,362.0    445,578 .0
Land Area (in sq. miles)         636.21     710.69       2,159.09
Persons per sq. mile                 34        3.2           20.7
  Measures of Characteristics Associated with
   Per Capita Subsidy in Washington State
             Source: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/16000.html
Counties in            Asotin              Garfield             Whitman
Washington State

Pop. Below poverty          13.5               15.7                    27.6
(%)

Per capita Income       23,731             22,825                19,506


Population              21,623              2,266                44,776

Federal Spending ($)   179,208             42,362               445,578

Per Capita Subsidy              8.28            8.69            9.95

Nearby                  Lewiston/ID,WA           _                Pullman
micro/metropolitan
cities
           Eastern Washington State


 Whitman
 County




Garfield
County

                                      Asotin
                                      County
Socio Economic Characteristics of ID Service Area
        Source: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/16000.html

Counties in Idaho           Clear       Idaho       Latah       Lewis      Nez
                            Water                                          Perce
Population for 2010           8,761      16,267      37,244       3,822     39,265

% Population 65+               23.2        21.7        10.4        23          18.1
% Females                      45.7        47.6        48.7        50           50.5
% High School Grad.            84.7        85.7        93.5        90.2         89.7

Per capita income ($)          20,507      18,980      20,218     18,580      23,899

% Pop below poverty level      11.7         19.1        21.5       16           11.6
Federal Spending ($)          130,195     183,126     289,005     83,360     422,695

Land Area (in sq. miles)    2,457.27     8,477.35    1,076        478.8        848.09

Persons per sq. mile            3.6          1.9        34.6        8           46.3

Metro/ Micropolitan          None        None       Moscow       None      Lewiston
   Measures of Characteristics Associated with
          Per Capita Subsidy in Idaho
Counties in Idaho       Clear       Idaho        Latah          Lewis      Nez Perce
                        Water

Pop. Below poverty           11.7       19.1        21.5           16          11.6


Per capita Income ($)    20,507     18,980       20,218         18,580     23,899


Population                8,761     16,267       37,244          3,822     39,265


Federal Spending ($)    130,195     183,126      289,005        83,360     422,695


Per capita subsidy           14.8           11           7.75       21.8        10.7


Nearby                                            Moscow                   Lewiston
micro/metropolitan
cities
               Western Idaho
 Latah                         Clearwater
 County                        County




Nez Perce
County

Lewis County
                                   Idaho
                                   County
Federal Subsidy Programs for Transportation
• 5310 -contract for expanded services-Capital funds for
  vehicles for E/H transport

• 5311- Non urbanized area formula funding for transportation
  services-allowing 80% subsidy for administration and capital
  costs

• 5316- Job Access Reverse Commute Program

• 5317- New Freedom Program for transportation alternative
  that improves mobility for individuals with disabilities

• Medicaid- Medical Transportation Program ensures that
  individuals enrolled in Medicaid and Healthy Kids Gold have
  access to necessary medical services.
    Funding Source for COAST’s Operation
                                  Source: COAST
Funding Source         Idaho FY 2011   Idaho FY 2012   WA FY 2011   WA 2012

5310 POS Contract ( for 105,000        114,800
expanded service area)
5316                   0               16,500

5317                   41,000          30,000

5311                   0               49,800          137,000

Medicaid               48,000          48,000          100,000      128,000

State                  0               0               137,000      251,000

Area Agency on Aging   0               0               36,000       36,000

Volunteer Drivers      48,000          48,000          90,000       90,000
(in kind)
Total (excluding in    194,000         259,100         410,000      415,000
Vehicles used by COAST to serve Clients
Securement system for the seat inside
  Other Methods of Innovation Introduced by COAST
SHARING RESOURCES
• Purchase / maintenance of vehicles for other agencies, retains title,
  and once FTA reverts the vehicles to COAST, who will then turn over
  the vehicle to the host agency to operate.

• Coast has directly/ indirectly secured funding for services in an area
  to an agency who may have been denied further funding (Canyon
  Area Bus Service-CABS) through successfully obtaining funding and
  then contracting CABS personnel &pay for their operating expense

• In turn All of CABS’s funding and in-kind service has been pledged to
  COAST for FTA proposal match, freeing up more funds for more
  services with CABS.
            Value of Innovation
COAST has generated revenue through a
variety of complementary activities which
include:
 ü vehicle insurance pool;
 ü acquiring and loaning vehicles;
 ü operating van pools;
 üsupporting volunteer car pools;
 üproviding training services;
 ümaintaining vehicles;
 üoperating eight county Information & referral;
 üdispatching rides throughout the region.
  Value of Innovation ………………continued
• Annual budget of $1,200,000 (recently reduced to
  $900,000) due to the loss of the “Information and Assistance” contract
   for care management in Whitman County


• Anticipating further federal funding cutbacks , COAST is
  seeking ways to cover costs (volunteers etc)to maintain
  services essential to the local population

• Important to allow people to age in place and not be forced to
  relocate and further endanger their independence
Transportation Services Provided by COAST
•   COAST provides demand response services

•   serves as broker for van pools and car pools

• Provides coordination between fixed route services along the US
  Highways

• Provides more personalized cost efficient service using
  volunteers to meet the demand for accessible transportation
  services

• Coast provides door to door services for the special needs
  population to connect to the fixed route services to the nearest
  towns
        Global Value of Innovative Services
• Combining subsidies, good will, and volunteers to meet and
  sustain transportation services in remote communities while
  serving a genuine need, is effective

• This example provides the nature and form of services, the
  operations and the equipment used, and lends itself to flexibility
  of location and service design based on local conditions and other
  resources available

• This case demonstrates that rural accessibility do not require
  huge resources

• Such strategies could be applied by the SAARC member nations
  to their own rural operations.

				
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