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									CELL STRUCTURE
  & FUNCTION

 Chapter 7 – Part 1

         CP Biology
 Paul VI Catholic High School
 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

HISTORY:
   1600’S   Anton van Leeuwenhoek
   1665     Robert Hooke
   1838     Matthias Schleiden
   1839     Theodor Schwann
   1855     Rudolph Virchow
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




  Anton van Leeuwenhoek
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




    Robert Hooke 1665
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




Matthias
Schleiden
  1838
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




  Theodor Schwann 1839
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION



Rudolf
Virchow
  1855
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

             CELL THEORY:
1.All living things are composed of cells
2.Cells are the basic unit of structure &
  function in living things
3.New cells are produced from pre-existing
  cells
 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

BASIC CELL STRUCTURE:

  ALL Cells have:
     Cell Membrane
     Cytosol
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

  SOME CELLS HAVE:
     Nucleus
     Cytoplasm
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL CATEGORIES:
  EUKARYOTIC CELLS
          (Eukaryotes)
  PROKARYOTIC CELLS
          (Prokaryotes)
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

EUKARYOTES:
•Contain nucleus
•Have Cell Membrane
•Cytoplasm
•Organelles
•Include Plant, Animal, Fungi, and
many Microorganisms
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

CELL SIZE
  Average Cell 5-50μm
     Surface Area 4πr2
     Volume 4/3πr3
  Cell Surface is interface
  between internal and external
  environment
         CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
A small cell has a greater
ratio of surface area to
volume than a large cell of
the same shape.
 – This ratio limits cell size!
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURES:
1. CELL WALL:
  • Found in Plants, Algae, Fungi and
    many Prokaryotes
  • Function - Support & Protection
  • External to Cell Membrane
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

 1a. BACTERIAL CELL WALL:
    Characteristics:
        Peptidoglycan
            Gram +
            Gram –
        Encapsulated
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

1b. PLANT CELL WALLS:
   Green Plants - Primary Cellulose
   Woody Plants - Secondary Lignin
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
(CELL STRUCTURES - cont’d)
    2. NUCLEUS
         Robert Brown (1831)
         Chromatin/Chromosome
         Nucleoplasm
         Nucleolus
         Nuclear Envelope
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




Brown’s Microscope   Robert Brown
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
Additional Organelles:
You are responsible for the name,
structure, function and visual recognition
of the following organelles:

  3. Ribosome
  4. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
       Smooth ER
       Rough ER            7. Lysosome
  5. Golgi Apparatus       8. Mitochondrion
  6. Vacuole               9. Chloroplast
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
                                 Smooth endoplasmic
                                 reticulum            Nucleus
                 Rough
                 endoplasmic
                 reticulum




                 Flagellum


   Not in most
   plant cells   Lysosome

                                                                       Ribosomes
                 Centriole
                                                                 Golgi
            Peroxisome                                           apparatus


                 Microtubule
                                                                 Plasma membrane

                 Intermediate
 Cytoskeleton    filament
                                                       Mitochondrion


                 Microfilament
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
                            Rough
          Nucleus           endoplasmic
                            reticulum


                                  Ribosomes

                                              Smooth
                                              endoplasmic
                                              reticulum
          Golgi
          apparatus
                                                    Microtubule

         Central                                   Intermediate    Cytoskeleton
         vacuole                                   filament
Not in
animal   Chloroplast                               Microfilament
cells
         Cell wall




         Mitochondrion

               Peroxisome
          Plasma membrane
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CYTOSKELETON:
 a. Microtubules
 b. Intermediate filaments
 c. Actin filaments /Microfilaments

 * Know Structure and function of each
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




                          Strengthen Cell
                          Stabilize cell relative
                          to other cells




                          Most durable
 Long, thin fibers                                  Hollow tube
                          “Rope-like” Structure
 “String of Pearls”                                 MTOC
                          Provide Stability
 Concentrated in Cortex
                                   (vimentin)
 Amoeboid Motion
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

A.
Microtubules
Functions –
•Structural Role
•Movement of Chromosomes
•Structural Component of Cilia
and Flagella
•Track for motor proteins
   CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

A.
Microtubules
Plus End (+)
Away from MTOC
(Toward Nucleus)

Minus End (-)
Toward the MTOC
   CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

INTRACELLULAR MOTOR MOLECULES
      Examples-
      KINESIN:
          Move Organelles toward (+) end
      DYNEIN:
          Move Organelles toward (-) end

Kinesin Walking YouTube
The inner Life of the Cell Video
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
B. Intermediate Filaments:
   Function -
     Strengthen Cell
     Stabilize Position organelles
     Stabilize cell relative to other cells
 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
C. Actin filaments (Microfilaments)
   Function :
    • Anchor Cytoskeleton to cell membrane
    • Determine consistency of cytoplasm
    • Interact with Myosin (motor molecule)
      for muscle contraction


    Muscle Contraction Video
CELL STRUCTURE &FUNCTION
     CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL MOVEMENT:

 1. Crawling:
   Actin/Myosin
   Gel-Sol States
   Pseudopod Formation


 2. Pinching
            Actin
filaments
            Animal cells
            Cytokinesis
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




         Amoeba
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




  Cytokinesis of Animal Cell
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




                Actin filament
                 causing cell
                  separation
   CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL MOVEMENT:

3. Prokaryote Flagella
 Protein Structure (flagellin)
 Rotatory Movement
 Molecular motor in cell wall
     Basal Apparatus
     Hook
     Filament
CELL STRUCTURE &
    FUNCTION
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL MOVEMENT:
  4. Eukaryote Flagella
        Microtubular Structure
             9+2 Arrangement

        Basal Body Origin
            9 “triplet” structure

        “Whip-like” motion
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION




“9+2” arrangement microtubules
CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
   CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
CELL MOVEMENT:
 5. Cilia
   Many, Short, often in rows
   Internal structure like flagella
   Multiple functions
  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION


Structure
   Of
  Cilia

								
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