ABI_PrimingthePipeline.AddressingGenderBasedBarriersinComputing_Computer_March2013.pdf by BayAreaNewsGroup


									              C ov er F e at u re

                                                                    Priming the
                                                                    Barriers in
     Telle Whitney, Denise Gammal, Barbara Gee, Jody Mahoney, and Caroline Simard, Anita Borg Institute

     The culture must change to encourage                                  THE PIPELINE CHALLENGE
     women throughout their education to                                      Research clearly demonstrates that gender diversity
     pursue computer science and engineering                               greatly enhances innovation, decision making, profits, and
                                                                           shareholder value in the computing industry.1,2 However,
     and to welcome and support female
                                                                           there is a significant shortage of women at all stages of the
     technology workers in industry, academia,                             pipeline, along with several barriers to retaining and ad-
     and government.                                                       vancing those women who do enter the field.
                                                                              Even as the global demand for computing talent is surg-
                                                                           ing, women’s representation in the profession has steadily

                                                                           declined. The proportion of females in the US earning com-
              omputing innovation is at the heart of major                 puter science undergraduate degrees plummeted from
              advances in sectors such as scientific research,             a high of 37 percent in 1985 to 18 percent in 2009.3 At
              healthcare, education, and consumer products.                research-intensive institutions, the proportion of women
              To achieve breakthroughs, computer engineers                 earning CS bachelor’s degrees dropped from 19 percent in
     and scientists must be willing to approach a difficult tech-          2000-20014 to 11.7 percent in 2010-2011.5 For women from
     nical problem from various perspectives. Indeed, research             underrepresented minority groups, the disparity is even
     shows that for cutting-edge innovation, group diversity               more acute: African-American women earn only 4 percent
     along multiple dimensions is more important than the                  of CS bachelor’s degrees and Latina women less than 2 per-
     individual ability of group members.1                                 cent, figures that have remained flat since 1985.3 Women’s
        Realizing the benefits of group diversity, however, is             participation in advanced computer science education is
     contingent on a supportive culture that encourages and                only slightly better: the percentage of females earning CS
     leverages different views. Unfortunately, the shrinking               master’s degrees fell from 34 percent in 2000 to 27 per-
     pipeline of technical women threatens to inhibit progress             cent in 2009, while the share of women earning doctoral
     in computing and computer engineering. We discuss                     degrees has held steady at 22 percent.3
     the lost opportunities for innovation caused by a dearth                 The problem extends well beyond the US. The combined
     of women in the industry, examine the causes of this                  representation of women with CS and mathematics un-
     underrepresentation, and discuss programs and practices               dergraduate degrees is 35 percent in Germany, 26 percent
     that aim to change these trends.                                      in the UK, 24 percent in France, 25 percent in Spain, 23

30     computer                                      Published by the IEEE Computer Society                0018-9162/13/$31.00 © 2013 IEEE
percent in Australia, and 22 percent in Brazil, compared           trend continues as women enter the workplace, where they
to 25 percent in the US.3 Females earn CS degrees at sig-          often lack access to the social networks that are critical
nificantly higher rates in some countries—India, Romania,          to career advancement. People naturally tend to network
Bulgaria, Taiwan, and the Philippines, to name a few—but           with others similar to them, and because so few females
still face the same kind of career barriers and leave com-         occupy powerful positions in computing, women in the
puting in high numbers.                                            field tend to be excluded from the connections that matter.7

RETENTION, AND ADVANCEMENT                                         Only 25 percent of computer scientists
    Only 25 percent of computer scientists are women, and
                                                                   are women, and their representation
their representation in the technology industry follows a
                                                                   in the technology industry follows a
pyramidal structure, with progressively fewer toward the
top. Men are 2.3 times more likely than women to hold a            pyramidal structure, with progressively
senior-level position, and women who advance are more              fewer toward the top.
likely to occupy managerial rather than creative roles.
Turnover for female computer scientists is high, with more
than half leaving companies by midcareer.6,7                          Persistent, unconscious bias. Women who do enter
    The reasons for this persistent underrepresentation            computing careers are likely to continue to experience
of women across all levels of the industry are numerous            persistent, unconscious bias, hindering their retention
and play out in different ways at the high school, college,        and advancement. Research shows that people associate
and postgraduate levels, restricting career selection and          technical and leadership competence with male traits,
advancement.                                                       resulting in implicit favorable bias toward men in the
    “Geek” stereotype. Over time, the computing discipline         technology industry.12 Female engineers report being
has developed institutional recruiting practices that              sidelined from the innovation process,7 and condescending
favor those with previous exposure to computers,                   or unfair treatment is a key cause of turnover among
disproportionately favoring male candidates and fostering          women in scientific professions.13
the image that those with “computer ability” are likely               Discouraging cultures. Technological professions
to be male, antisocial, and independent.8 This image has           typically favor assertive communication styles, reward
evolved into a strong “geek” stereotype that discourages           competitive behavior and self-promotion, and embrace
women and minority students from considering computing             “hero” cultures associated with stereotypically male work
careers and reduces the likelihood that parents, teachers,         traits.6 This puts women in a double bind—they are told
and counselors will encourage girls to pursue computing.           to be more assertive but are labeled “aggressive” if they
    Stereotypes can undermine the job performance of               follow cultural norms.
individuals from groups already subject to bias and lead              Many tech companies also fail to acknowledge their
them ultimately to quit.9 At the same time, a distorted            employees’ family responsibilities and predicate promotion
vision of a profession’s lifestyle can cause people to avoid       on having a stay-at-home partner and being available 24/7.14
it. Many women erroneously believe that to succeed in              This further discourages female advancement, as women
computing they must work extremely long hours in a                 in the computing industry are twice as likely to have a
cubicle and focus their energy on work to the exclusion            spouse who works. Indeed, research indicates that 79
of friends, family, hobbies, personal time, and recreation.        percent of female technologists have a partner who works
    Scarcity of role models and mentors. Role models in a          full time, compared to 38 percent of men.6
profession can mediate the negative effects of stereotypes,
especially in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and          OFFERING SOLUTIONS:
mathematics) disciplines.10 Women considering CS degrees           THE ANITA BORG INSTITUTE
and careers, however, have few role models in industry,               Experience shows that gender diversity will not increase
government, or academia, with even fewer role models for           unless these barriers are overcome. Individual women
female underrepresented minority students. This scarcity           must be aware of stereotypes and unconscious bias;
of role models is especially problematic considering that          demonstrate leadership; recruit, mentor, refer, and sponsor
encouragement and mentoring are significant predictors             female colleagues; and demand more equitable new-
of female student retention in STEM fields.11                      hire selection panels. At the same time, companies must
    Isolation and lack of access to influential social networks.   set real goals for gender diversity and hold leaders and
Beyond the lack of role models, women in computing                 managers accountable for progress. However, breaking
experience general isolation.6 In small schools, young             down cultural and institutional resistance is difficult, and
women are often the lone female in their classes. This             many organizations have emerged to help effect change.

                                                                                                                march 2013        31
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         The Anita Borg Institute (www.anitaborg.org) is a not-          Klawe, president of Harvey Mudd College, who inspire,
     for-profit 501(c)(3) charitable organization dedicated to           encourage, and model leadership;
     increasing the worldwide participation of women in              •   invited speakers and sessions that explore develop-
     computing and engineering. Founded in 1997 by computer              ments within the field of computing and highlight
     scientist Anita Borg, ABI works with industry, academia,            technical career options;
     and government to recruit, retain, and advance female           •   professional development sessions that equip women
     technologists. It also fosters community and provides               with skills to advance their careers;
     resources and tools to help women develop their                 •   a Senior Women’s Summit designed to help senior
     technology careers.                                                 women advance and network;
         ABI reaches more than 17,000 individuals every year         •   a Career Fair that provides a dynamic marketplace
     through its face-to-face and online outreach efforts, while         and resumé database for recruiters and job seekers,
     its communities connect more than 60,000 people. ABI                attended by more than 100 companies and universi-
     programs and initiatives have brought about real change in          ties interested in recruiting technical women;
     companies that care about moving the needle for women           •   poster sessions where more than 200 female technolo-
     and have raised awareness about the benefits of gender              gists present their research, constituting the largest source
     diversity in terms of both innovation and market share in           of submissions to the ACM Student Research Competition;
     the technology industry overall.                                •   awards that honor individuals and teams from around
                                                                         the world for significant contributions to the advance-
     Programs for individuals                                            ment of women in technology through leadership,
        ABI’s programs directly address the challenges technical         social impact, education, and advocacy in their
     women face at every stage of the pipeline. The programs             communities;
     are grounded in research, designed to raise awareness           •   opportunities to help attendees extend their personal
     about stereotypes and unconscious bias, and provide                 networks and make mentoring connections; and
     the technical knowledge and career advancement skills           •   Open Source Day, where women collaborate on soft-
     that enable women to fully realize their potential in the           ware development projects that benefit society.
        Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Comput-                   Sponsorship by the National Science Foundation, in-
     ing. Established in 1994, GHC (www.gracehopper.org) is        dustry, and academia enables approximately 300 female
     the largest gathering of technical women in the world. In     students to attend GHC each year on scholarship. Partici-
     the past five years alone, this signature ABI program has     pation at the conference is a unique catalyst for students
     served more than 11,600 attendees from more than 40           on multiple levels—they connect with peers, meet industry
     countries. About 40 percent of participants are college       leaders and faculty, see role models, and learn about ca-
                                                                   reers in computing. The sidebar “The Power of Mentoring
                                                                   Connections” provides an example of one student whose
     ABI reaches more than 17,000 individuals                      life was changed by GHC.
     every year through its face-to-face                               ABI’s evaluation of all attendees and an NSF-funded
     and online outreach efforts, while its                        three-year, longitudinal study of scholarship recipients15
     communities connect more than 60,000                          demonstrated that GHC motivates female students to
     people.                                                       choose computing as a major and inspires them to enter
                                                                   and then remain in technical careers:

     students, with the remainder consisting of women from           • nearly all GHC scholars were still engaged in STEM
     industry, academia, and government at all stages of their          fields 20 months after attending the conference;
     careers as well as male advocates. The hundreds of confer-      •	 GHC scholars learned about career and academic
     ence leaders, committee members, scholarship applicant             opportunities in technical fields and acquired tools
     reviewers, and speakers are all volunteers from a global           to build a successful career;
     community committed to giving technical women who               •	 about one in five GHC scholars reported receiving a
     feel isolated more opportunities to engage in a rich and           job offer through the conference.
     supportive network.                                             •	 GHC scholars reported feeling energized and confident
        Designed specifically to address gender-based barri-            about a technical career long after exposure to the
     ers to a computing career, GHC program content includes            conference environment;
                                                                     •	 20 months later, 40 percent of GHC scholars stayed
       • keynote speakers such as Sheryl Sandberg, Face-                connected with industry professionals and faculty
         book’s COO and first female board member, and Maria            whom they met at the conference; and

32     computer
  • 61 percent of GHC scholars mentored others in their          The Power of Mentoring
    field, and 49 percent reached out to high schools to
    encourage more girls to pursue a computing career.           Connections
   Grace Hopper India. In 2010, ABI brought the benefits
of the GHC program to India, establishing the yearly GHCI
                                                                 S  arah Loos, a doctoral candidate in computer science at
                                                                    Carnegie Mellon University, shared the following story about
                                                                 how participating in a Grace Hopper regional computing
conference in Bangalore (http://gracehopper.org.in) to ad-       conference changed her career trajectory:
dress global barriers to gender diversity, especially those         I first met Fran Allen in 2007, when I was 19 years old and just
unique to India. In developing countries like India, where          starting my junior year of undergrad studies. Fran gave a key-
often there are deep-seated perceptions that a woman's              note talk at a conference on research in CS, then she hung
main responsibility is to her family, technical women               around to hear a few of the undergraduate presentations,
                                                                    including mine on my improved version of the Strassen-
generally face more resistance than in western countries.
                                                                    Winograd algorithm for matrix multiplication. After the session,
GHCI has served nearly 2,700 women, mostly from India,              she came up to me and told me that my research was interesting
during the past three years.                                        and that she would have to tell Shmuel about it when she got
   Grace Hopper Regional Consortium. Led by the                     back to IBM. I had to ask who Shmuel was—and Fran said his full
ACM Committee on Women in Computing (ACM-W)                         name: Shmuel Winograd. Coming from a math background
                                                                    where all the famous names—Lagrange, Gauss, Euler, Fermat,
in collaboration with ABI and the National Center for
                                                                    etc.—have been dead for centuries, I was actually shocked to
Women & Information Technology (NCWIT), GHRC                        find that Winograd was still doing research at IBM, and I couldn’t
(http://ghregionalconsortium.org) supports one- and two-            even process the fact that he was going to hear about my
day regionally focused conferences modeled after GHC.               summer research project.
Faculty from CS university programs in a designated                  In 2006, Frances Allen became the first woman to receive a
region organize 10 to 12 events per year, each attended by       Turing Award, the highest honor in computer science. The value for
100 to 150 local students. These conferences provide inti-       a young female colleague to meet someone like Fran Allen, much
mate settings to strengthen local communities of technical       less have her work connected with another role model at the top of
women, connect them with mentors, and encourage their            his field, is incalculable. Fran kept in touch with Sarah at subse-
                                                                 quent conferences and advocated for her to join the ABI Board of
participation in computing careers.                              Trustees as its first student member.
   ABI Women of Vision Awards. Each year, some 800                   Sarah stated, “What the Grace Hopper Celebration and other
women and men gather to honor three women who have               ABI programs have done for me is to provide a community where
made major contributions in the areas of technical leader-       these kinds of relationships can form.… Having encouragement
ship, innovation, and social impact. This inspirational event    from mentors who know you helps to even the playing field.”
showcases the personal stories of accomplished female role
models and provides networking opportunities for attendees.
   Systers and other ABI communities. ABI fosters com-
munities designed to decrease isolation and increase                 ABI research. ABI translates findings from the best ac-
access to social networks. Established in 1987, Systers is       ademic studies into practical, actionable solutions. For
the oldest and largest online community of female tech-          example, the seminal report “Climbing the Technical
nologists. It provides a safe and confidential environment       Ladder: Obstacles and Solutions for Mid-Level Women in
where more than 4,000 women with like interests discuss          Technology,” by researchers at ABI and Stanford Univer-
sensitive challenges they face, engage in technical and          sity’s Michelle R. Clayman Institute for Gender Research,
career discussions, and help each other learn new skills.        is the only large-scale study to focus on gender diversity
ABI also offers numerous social media tools to cultivate         in the tech industry.6 ABI also documents emerging best
additional networks and connect them to news and re-             practices and makes recommendations that individuals,
sources that engage more than 60,000 individuals in more         managers, and organization leaders can implement to
than 180 countries.                                              bring about change in the workplace.
                                                                     Anita Borg Top Company for Technical Women Award.
Initiatives to change the culture                                Assessing successful change requires metrics and account-
   Helping individual women to succeed is critical but will      ability, and this annual award recognizes an organization
not alone bring about gender diversity in the computing in-      that has demonstrated measurable improvement in the
dustry. At a time when organizations are hungry for highly       representation and advancement of technical women at
trained technical talent, an increasing number of leaders        all workforce levels based on rigorously developed indus-
are recognizing the importance of changing their institu-        try and peer data. The inaugural winner was IBM in 2011,
tional culture and are taking active steps to recruit, retain,   followed by American Express in 2012 and Intel in 2013.
and advance skilled female technologists. ABI has devel-         The award recipient, along with other companies that have
oped several initiatives to further these goals.                 committed to gender diversity, are featured at a workshop

                                                                                                                        march 2013       33
       C ov er F e at u re

     Recruiting and Retaining Technical Women
     m      any top companies have made serious efforts to recruit
            and retain technical women. The following are among
     many examples documented in Solutions to Recruit Women
                                                                              referrals of diversity candidates—the amount of the
                                                                              incentive varies by country;
                                                                           •	 offering a strong infrastructure to support technical
     (C. Simard and D.L. Gammal, Anita Borg Institute, 2012).                 women within the organization, making existing employ-
                                                                              ees more likely to refer others for employment; and
     Retention programs increase recruitment                               •	 closely monitoring referral success rates.
        In recent years, Intel has invested significantly in work-life
     programs to enhance retention and recruitment of women                  Outcome: IBM estimates that it hires close to 30 percent of
     beyond the entry level.                                             its professional women worldwide through these
        Key elements of these programs include                           connections.

       •	 a paid eight-week sabbatical program for US and                One manager can change mind-sets
          Canadian employees for every seven years of service;               Regardless of whether a company has a formal policy on
       •	 compressed work weeks, part-time work options, and             diversity, individual leaders can have a significant impact by
          telecommuting privileges;                                      making the hiring of qualified women a priority. When an
       •	 family support such as homework help and tutoring for          engineering executive at Intuit needed to grow her team in
          children of Intel employees; and                               India, which was initially all male, she pushed to represent
       •	 paid parental leave and a “new parent reintegration pro-       women in numbers comparable to those of the broader Intuit
          gram” allowing for gradual return to full-time work.           engineering community—a significant increase from the typi-
                                                                         cal percentage on teams in India.
        Outcome: Between 2004 and 2010, Intel increased its rep-             Key elements include
     resentation of mid- and senior-level technical women by 24
     percent.                                                              •	 securing an executive commitment to ensure that the
                                                                              pool of candidates has a fair representation of women;
     Companies can leverage networks                                       •	 setting goals to guide managers;
         IBM has made internal networks a cornerstone of its diver-        •	 educating managers about the value of hiring diverse
     sity recruitment. The company actively encourages technical              teams; and
     women to refer female colleagues for employment at IBM.               •	 extending recruitment efforts to attract qualified female
         Key elements include                                                 candidates.

       •	 leveraging employee networks to make recruitment                  Outcome: Through this one leader’s commitment to
          more personal;                                                 change, the percentage of women in the group increased
       •	 providing incentives such as bonuses to encourage              from 0 to 20 percent in six months.

     where company leaders and managers gather to share their                  Science Foundation, the National Security Agency, NetApp,
     experiences and ideas.                                                    SAP, Symantec, Broadcom, EMC, Neustar, Raytheon, Sales-
        The Technical Executive Forum. This invitation-only                    force.com, VentureLoop, Xerox, and Yahoo.
     program convenes technology executives in a confidential                     These organizations develop transparent technical
     and private setting to engage in frank discussion, exchange               tracks, demand diverse candidate slates for open posi-
     best practices, and build a community of technical leaders                tions, build training and supportive networks to address
     who are working to make their corporate cultures more                     gender-specific barriers, and set explicit internal or public
     welcoming to women. Each year, leaders of more than 40                    goals to increase women’s representation at all levels. The
     companies gather to hear about new research, learn from                   “Recruiting and Retaining Technical Women” sidebar pro-
     peers, and advocate change.                                               vides some examples.
        ABI partnerships. ABI works with more than 200
     companies and government institutions to bring about                      WHAT CAN YOU DO?
     gender diversity and help technical women advance                            Broadening participation in computing will spur innova-
     in their careers including partners Google, Microsoft,                    tion and produce technological solutions that improve our
     Hewlett-Packard, Cisco, Thomson Reuters, Amazon, CA                       world as well as a company’s bottom line. Despite more
     Technologies, Dell, eBay, Facebook, IBM, Intel, Intuit,                   than a decade of efforts by ABI and other like organizations,
     Juniper Networks, Lockheed Martin, Marvell, the National                  however, gender-based barriers in the industry persist.

34     computer
Comparatively few women choose computing careers, and             with organizations like ABI, NCWIT, ACM-W, IEEE Women
those who do leave the field at higher rates than men.            in Engineering (WIE), the Computer Research Association’s
    The culture must change to encourage women to pursue          Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research
computer science and engineering throughout their edu-            (CRA-W), and the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) to
cation and to welcome and support female technology               access resources and talent that can help you and your
workers in industry, academia, and government. To create          organization change the culture of computing to welcome
a tipping point, leaders in companies committed to gender         women and meet the demands of our industry’s future.
diversity must take action on a large scale.
    Some solutions are relatively resource intensive, such
as modifying hiring and promotion processes or develop-           References
ing formal programs. Other solutions, however, can be              1. S.E. Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Cre-
implemented easily by individuals willing to take action.             ates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton
    If you are a technical woman or man:                              Univ. Press, 2007.
                                                                   2. C. Herring, “Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender, and the
  • Be your own advocate—proactively seek mentors                     Business Case for Diversity,” Am. Sociological Rev., vol. 74,
    and sponsors, network with your peers, and find                   no. 2, 2009, pp. 208-224.
    opportunities to demonstrate leadership or seek                3. Nat’l Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources
                                                                      Statistics, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities
                                                                      in Science and Engineering: 2011, special report NSF 11-309,
  • Advocate for technical women—refer them in your                   2011; www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.
    network for promotions or open positions and serve             4. J. Vegso, “CRA Taulbee Trends: Female Students & Faculty,”
    on interview committees.                                          17 June 2008, Computing Research Assoc.; http://archive.
  • Be a mentor, sponsor, and role model for technical                cra.org/info/taulbee/women.html.
    women—this does not require a formal program, and you          5. S. Zweben, Computing Degree and Enrollment Trends from
    will gain as much as or more than those you work with.            the 2010-2011 CRA Taulbee Survey, Computing Research
                                                                      Assoc., 2011; http://cra.org/uploads/documents/resources/
   If you are a manager:
                                                                   6. C. Simard et al., Climbing the Technical Ladder: Obstacles
                                                                      and Solutions for Mid-Level Women in Technology, Anita
  • Ensure that every slate for promotion or open position            Borg Inst., 2008.
    includes a qualified technical woman.                          7. S.A. Hewlett et al., The Athena Factor: Reversing the Brain
  • Mentor and sponsor high-potential technical women,                Drain in Science, Engineering, and Technology, Center for
    giving them opportunities to lead within your team                Work-Life Policy, 2008.
    or business.                                                   8. N.L. Ensmenger, The Computer Boys Take Over: Comput-
  • Encourage a flexible, welcoming workplace culture                 ers, Programmers, and the Politics of Expertise, MIT Press,
    and develop “gender intelligence” to mitigate uncon-              2010.
    scious biases in your team.                                    9. C.M. Steele, “A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape
                                                                      Intellectual Identity and Performance,” Am. Psychologist,
                                                                      vol. 52, no. 6, 1997, pp. 613-629.
   If you are a company executive committed to organi-
                                                                  10. S. Cheryan et al., “Ambient Belonging: How Stereotypical
zational change:                                                      Cues Impact Gender Participation in Computer Science,”
                                                                      J. Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 97, no. 6, 2009,
  • Know your data on representation and promo-                       pp. 1045-1060.
    tions and hold your managers accountable for                  11. D. Cole and A. Espinoza, “The Post-Baccalaureate Goals of
    resolving pain points in recruiting, retention, and               College Women in STEM,” New Directions for Institutional
    advancement.                                                      Research, no. 152, 2011, pp. 51-58.
  • Address barriers by developing employee resource              12. B.A. Nosek et al., “National Differences in Gender-Science
    groups, mentoring programs, flexible practices, and               Stereotypes Predict National Sex Differences in Science
                                                                      and Math Achievement,” Proc. Nat’l Academy of Sciences,
    transparent technical career tracks.
                                                                      vol. 106, no. 26, 2009, pp. 10593-10597.
  • Model diversity from the top by advancing technical
                                                                  13. N.A. Fouad and R. Singh, Stemming the Tide: Why Women
    women to your executive team and board.
                                                                      Leave Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2011.
                                                                  14. A.H. Eagly and L.L. Carli, Through the Labyrinth: The Truth

                                                                      about How Women Become Leaders, Harvard Business
       educing leaks at every stage in the pipeline is critical       School Press, 2007.
       to meet the rising demand for skilled technologists        15. S.K. Gilmartin, “Grace Hopper Celebration Scholarship
       and to ensure that all perspectives help shape inno-           Program,” unpublished external evaluation report, Anita
vation. Regardless of your gender or position, get involved           Borg Inst., 2012.

                                                                                                                   march 2013         35
       C ov er F e at u re

     Telle Whitney is president and CEO of the Anita Borg In-         Jody Mahoney is vice president of business development at
     stitute and cofounder of the Grace Hopper Celebration of         the Anita Borg Institute, where she is responsible for find-
     Women in Computing Conference. She also serves on the            ing and developing sponsors and partners in support of
     advisory boards of Caltech’s Information Science and Tech-       advancing technical women. Mahoney received a BFA from
     nology, California Institute for Telecommunications and          Antioch College and an MFA from Warren Wilson College.
     Information Technology, and Illuminate Ventures. Whitney         Contact her at jodym@anitaborg.org.
     received a PhD in computer science from Caltech. Contact
                                                                      Caroline Simard is an associate director of diversity and
     her at tellew@anitaborg.org.
                                                                      leadership at the Stanford University School of Medicine,
     Denise Gammal is director of research and corporate              where she is implementing a career customization program
     partnerships at the Anita Borg Institute. She leads ABI’s        for faculty flexibility. Prior to joining Stanford, she was at
     research agenda, documenting best practices emerging             the Anita Borg Institute, where she led the creation and
     from industry and undertaking primary research to un-            dissemination of solutions to further diversity in scientific
     derstand gender barriers and develop solutions to increase       and technical careers in industry and academia. Simard
     the representation and advancement of women technolo-            received a PhD in communication studies from Stanford
     gists. Gammal received a PhD in social and political sciences    University. Contact her at csimard@alumni.stanford.edu.
     from Cambridge University, UK. Contact her at deniseg@
     Barbara Gee is vice president of programs at the Anita
     Borg Institute. After working with Hewlett-Packard and
     Silicon Graphics, she started her own consulting prac-
     tice in the private, nonprofit, and government sectors and
     has served on various boards and commissions. Gee re-
     ceived a BA in electrical engineering and computer sciences
     from the University of California, Berkeley, and an MA
     from the MIT Sloan School of Management. Contact her at                Selected CS articles and columns are available
     barbarag@anitaborg.org.                                                for free at http://ComputingNow.computer.org.

                                                     Latin American
                                                     Workshop 2013
                                                     Sponsored jointly by Microsoft Research and FAPESP
                                                     May 13 – 15, 2013 – São Paulo, Brazil
                                                     In Brazil, researchers have been working together to increase
                                                     our understanding of tropical ecosystems, human impact on
                                                     the environment, biogenetics, and biodiversity. These efforts
                                                     are providing new opportunities to improve our capabilities in
                                                     data-intensive research and strengthen the eScience research
                                                     community. From May 13 to 15, 2013, we will host a special
                                                     eScience Workshop in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The event
                                                     will bring together more than 150 participants, including
                                                     students and researchers from all over the world, to explore
                                                     collaboration and research opportunities in areas such as
                                                     environmental sciences, bioenergy, biodiversity, health and
                                                     digital humanities. More information about the workshop and
                                                     the registration can be found at the workshop website.

       ad-IEEE-latam2013.indd 1                                                                                         2/7/13 5:15 PM

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