Project and Change Management Overview.ppt by hcj


									  Software Project
Management Overview
         What is a Project ?
• PMI definition
  – A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken
    to create a unique product or service

• Progressively elaborated
  – With repetitive elements
 What is project management?
• Project management brings together a set
  of tools and techniques to describe,
  organise and monitor the work of project
• Project managers are people responsible
  for managing project processes, and
  applying the tools used to carry out the
  project activities
 Project within the organisation
• Projects usually part of organisation larger
  that the project
• Project will be influence by the
• Project can be influenced by the
  organisational structure, culture, and the
  maturity of the organisation with respect to
  project management systems
           Project life cycle
• The project life cycle (PLC) defines the life
  of a project in phases
• Any project should have one or more
  deliverables as its output(s)
• Phases help control the project
  – Provide gates to decide whether to proceed
  – Fast tracking can be done; start next phase
               PLC Phases
•   Define project goal
•   Plan project
•   Execute and control project
•   Close project
•   Evaluate project
  Generic project lifecycle phases
         and deliverables
1. Conceptualize and initialize project – delivers
   the business case
2. Develop project plan and charter – delivers
3. Execute & control project – follows an SDLC,
   and delivers the completed system
4. Close project – delivers a final project report
   and presentation
5. Evaluate project – delivers a project evaluation
   and lessons learned
PMI structures project management
• Processes
• Knowledge areas
            Knowledge Areas
•   Project Integration Management
•   Scope Management
•   Time Management
•   Cost Management
•   Quality Management
•   Human Resources
•   Communications Management
•   Risk management
•   Procurement Management
 What is a Process? Definitions.
• According to PMI “a series of actions bring about a
• The set of activities required to achieve an output.
  (Project Management Handbook)
• A series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about
  a result
• A set of activities performed for a given purpose.
  (Software Acquisition Capability Maturity Model )
• A set of partially ordered steps intended to reach a goal.
  In software engineering the goal is to build a software
  product or to enhance an existing one. In process
  engineering, the goal is to develop or enhance a process
  model. Process corresponds to a business use case in
  business engineering (Rational Unified Process )
        Five process groups
• Initiation – Do we have a project? Should
  resources be committed?
• Planning –How will we make the project
• Execution – Putting the plan into action
• Control – Keeping the project on track
• Closing – bringing the project to an orderly
 Characteristics of process groups
• Linked by results they produce
• Overlap through each phase of the project
• Cross phases closing process of one
  phase may provide input for process in
  later phase
Relationship of process groups

    Initiating                   Planning
   Processes                     Processes

                 Controlling                 Executing
                 Processes                   Processes

PMI Phase Interactions
       Project initiation areas to be
•   Making a business case for the project
•   Project organisation
•   Project need
•   Project goals
•   Project assumptions and constraints
•   Project risk management
•   Quality Control
•   Project change control
•   The project charter
•   Project stakeholders
              Project planning
• Probably the most time-consuming project management
• Continuous activity from initial concept through
  to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as
  new information becomes available.
• Various different types of plan may be developed to
  support the main software project plan that is concerned
  with schedule and budget.
            The project plan
• The project plan sets out:
  – The resources available to the project;
  – The work breakdown;
  – A schedule for the work.
         Scope Management
• Project Scope Management includes the
  processes required to:
  – Ensure that the project includes all of the work
  – And only the work required to complete the
    project successfully
Scope management consists of
•   Initiation
•   Planning
•   Definition
•   Verification
•   Change Control
    Project Time Management
• Establishes and maintains the appropriate
  allocation of time
• By planning, estimating, scheduling,
  trending and schedule control
• Through the successive stages of the
  project’s natural life-span
• i.e. definition, concept, execytion and
  Time Management Processes
• Activity definition: identifying the specific activities that
  must be preformed to produce the various project
• Activity Duration Estimating: estimating the number of
  work periods which will be needed to complete individual
• Activity Sequencing: identifying and documenting
  interactivity dependencies
• Schedule development: analysing activity sequences,
  activity durations and resource requirements to create
  the project schedule
• Schedule Control : controlling changes to the project
        Estimation Methodologies
•   Top-down
•   Bottom-up
•   Analogy
•   Expert Judgment
•   Priced to Win
•   Parametric or Algorithmic Method
    – Using formulas and equations
         Activity Sequencing
• Logical dependencies
• Network diagrams (activity on arrow and
  activity on node)
• Slack time, earliest start, earliest finish,
  latest finish
• Critical path analysis
• Importance of identifying critical path
• Pert analysis
           Project constraints

• Scope - The deliverables that the project team
  must create and the activities required to create
  them. Scope also includes the quality of the
  work or deliverables that need to be created.
• Cost - The budget or cost to deliver the project.
• Schedule - The deadline by which the project
  must be delivered.
• Trade off triangle
     Project Success and Failure
•   Defining project success
•   Project critical success factors
•   Project failure
•   Indicators of project success and failure
•   Classic mistakes
        Project Stakeholders
• Individuals who are actively involved in the
• Those whose interests may be affected by
  the project completion
• Those who may have influence over the
  project or its results
      Key stakeholders include
• Project Manager – the individual responsible for handling
  the project
• Customer – the individual or organisation who will use
  the project’s product
• Performing Organisation – the enterprise whose
  employee’s are most directly involved in doing the work
  of the project
• Project Team Members - the group that is performing
  the work of the project
• Project Sponsor- the individual or group that provides the
  resources for the project
• Regulatory or government agencies
• Sellers and contractors
• Individual citizens or groups of citizens
       Managing project change
•   Managed change v unmanaged change
•   Configuration management
•   Change control
•   Sources of change
•   The change controls process
•   Early project, mid project and late project
    change control
             Project control
• The Fourth Process Group is activated from
  the beginning of the project.
• Continuous monitoring and control is required
  to ensure that all the planning is done
  properly, and nothing is left out.
• Checks and balances, metrics, standards,
  and benchmarks are required to be set and
  measured to ensure that only the promised
  work is performed, and delivered as per the
  customer’s specifications
           Software reviews
•   Inspections
•   Walkthroughs
•   Desk checks
•   Code Reviews
          Software metrics
• Types of metrics
• Software metrics programs
• Software metrics keypoints
    Risk Management – Key concepts
•   Uncertainty
•   Risk
•   Threat
•   Opportunity
    Where does risk come from?

All projects contain risk arising from
  interactions between
• Objectives
  – What must happen
• Uncertainty
  – What might happen
                    Types of Risks
• Schedule Risks
      • Schedule compression (customer, marketing, etc.)
• Cost Risks
      • Unreasonable budgets
• Requirements Risks
      •   Incorrect
      •   Incomplete
      •   Unclear or inconsistent
      •   Volatile
• Quality Risks
• Operational Risks
• Most of the “Classic Mistakes”
   – Classic mistakes are made more often
PMI risk management process
                                            Risk management

      Risk monitoring                        Identification
        and control

Risk response                                     Qualitative risk
 and Planning                                      assessment

                        Quantitative risk
    Risk Management Processes
•   Risk management Planning –deciding how to approach and plan the
    risk management activities in a project
•   Risk Identification – determining which risks might effect the project
    and documenting their characteristics
•   Qualitative risk analysis – performing a qualitative analysis of risks
    and conditions to prioritize their effects on project conditions
•   Quantitative risk analysis – measuring the probability and
    consequences of risks and estimating their implications for project
•   Risk response planning – developing procedures and techniques to
    enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project’s objectives
•   Risk monitoring and control – monitoring residual risk, identifying
    new risks, executing risk reduction plans, and evaluating their
    effectiveness throughout the project lifecycle
    Earned Value Analysis (EVA)
•   a.k.a. Earned Value Management (EVM)
•   a.k.a. Variance Analysis
•   Metric of project tracking
•   “What you got for what you paid”
    – Physical progress
• Pre-EVA ‘traditional’ approach
       • 1. Planned time and costs
       • 2. Actual time and costs
       • Progress: compare planned vs. actual
• EVA adds third dimension: value
       • Planned, actual, earned
       Quality Management
• Quality Planning
• Quality Control
• Quality Assurance

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