39680843 by tingaye

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 8

									                                               Selection of tables and charts
                               Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol. 5):
                                        A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries

                                         For further information on family friendly policy, see:
                                                    www.oecd.org/els/social/family




Table   1.1.   Key indicators on birth rates, female employment and child poverty
Table   2.2.   Selected family statistics, OECD countries
Table   3.2.   Maternal employment rates, women age 15-64, 2005
Chart   4.1.   Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003
Chart   5.1.   Compared to maternity leave, income support during parentalleave is limited
Chart   6.2.   For children aged three and over childcare participation rates are generally high
Table   7.1.   European workers often have seven weeks of paid holidays per annum



                                           Sélection de tableaux et graphiques
                         Bébés et Employeurs : Comment réconcilier travail et vie familiale (Vol. 5) :
                                     Synthèse des résultats dans les pays de l'OCDE

                       Pour plus d'informations sur les politiques en faveur de la famille, consultez le site
                                               www.oecd.org/els/social/famille




                            OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                        Table 1.1. Key indicators on birth rates, female employment and child poverty


                   Total fertility rate                                   Employment/population ratio by group                                                    Child poverty
                           2005*                         Women, 2006 **                             Mothers, 2005 ***                       Sole parents,        around 2000 *****
                                                                                             Youngest child Youngest child                  2005 or latest
                   Children per woman                 All                Part-time                <2            aged 3-5                      year ****                per cent
Australia                  1.81                      65.5                   40.7                          48.3                                  49.9                     11.6
Austria                    1.41                      63.5                   31.4                 60.5              62.4                         75.0                     13.3
Belgium                    1.72                      53.6                   34.7                 63.8              63.3                         62.0                      4.1
Canada                     1.53                      69.0                   26.2                 58.7              68.1                         67.6                     13.6
Czech Republic             1.28                      56.8                    5.6                 19.9              50.9                         63.0                      7.2
Denmark                    1.80                      73.2                   25.6                 71.4              77.8                         82.0                      2.4
Finland                    1.80                      67.3                   14.9                 52.1              80.7                         70.0                      3.4
France                     1.94                      57.1                   22.9                 53.7              63.8                         70.1                      7.3
Germany                    1.34                      61.5                   39.2                 36.1              54.8                         62.0                     12.8
Greece                     1.28                      47.5                   12.9                 49.5              53.6                         82.0                     12.5
Hungary                    1.32                      51.2                    4.2                 13.9              49.9                           ..                     13.1
Iceland                    2.05                      81.6                   26.0                          83.6                                  81.0                       ..
Ireland                    1.88                      58.8                   34.9                          56.3                                  44.9                     15.7
Italy                      1.34                      46.3                   29.4                 47.3              50.6                         78.0                     15.7
Japan                      1.26                      58.8                   40.9                 28.5              47.5                         83.6                     14.3
Korea                      1.08                      53.1                   12.3                  ..                 ..                           ..                       ..
Luxembourg                 1.70                      53.7                   27.2                 58.3              58.7                         94.0                       ..
Mexico                     2.20                      42.9                   27.6                  ..                 ..                           ..                     24.8
Netherlands                1.73                      66.0                   59.7                 69.4              68.3                         56.9                      9.0
New Zealand                2.01                      68.4                   34.5                          46.6                                  53.2                     14.6
Norway                     1.84                      72.3                   32.9                  ..                 ..                         69.0                      3.6
Poland                     1.24                      48.2                   16.3                  ..                 ..                           ..                      9.9
Portugal                   1.40                      62.0                   13.2                 69.1              71.8                         77.9                     15.6
Slovak Republic            1.25                      51.9                    4.1                 23.1              46.6                           ..                       ..
Spain                      1.34                      54.0                   21.4                 45.1              47.9                         84.0                     15.6
Sweden                     1.77                      72.1                   19.0                 71.9              81.3                         81.9                      3.6
Switzerland                1.42                      71.1                   45.7                 58.3              61.7                         83.8                      6.8
Turkey                     2.19                      23.8                   17.8                  ..                 ..                           ..                     21.1
United Kingdom             1.80                      66.8                   38.8                 52.6              58.3                         56.2                     16.2
United States              2.05                      66.1                   17.8                 54.2              62.8                         73.8                     21.6
OECD                       1.63                      56.8                   26.4                  ..                 ..                         70.6                     12.0
*Year of reference for total fertility rates - Canada: 2004
** Data for Luxembourg concerns 2005.
*** Data for mothers in employment concern 1999 for Denmark; 2001 for Canada and New Zealand; 2002 for Finland and Iceland; and 2006 2nd
quarter for Switzerland.
**** Data are for 2005 except for Denmark, (1999), Belgium, Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Spain (2001), Finland and Portugal, (2002),
Iceland and Norway (2003), the Netherlands (2004), and 2006 2nd quarter for Switzerland.
*****The child poverty rate is defined as the share of children with equivalised incomes less than 50% of the median for the entire population.
Sources: see Chapters 2 and 3.




                                   OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                                 Table 2.2. Selected family statistics, OECD countries

                     Total fertility rate           Mean age of                   Mean age of           Births out-of-wedlock           Teenage
                                                 women at first birth            women at first                                        birth rate **
                        1970         2005 *        1970      2004                  marriage
                                                                                 1980     2004               1980           2004           2004
Australia               2.89          1.81           23.2           ..             ..           ..            12.4          32.2             14.9
Austria                 2.29          1.41             ..           27           23.2          27.9           17.8          35.9             12.7
Belgium                 2.25          1.72           24.3                        22.2          27.1           4.1            31              8.1
Canada                  2.33          1.53           23.1          26.3            ..           ..             ..           27.6             13.8
Czech Republic          1.90          1.28           22.5          26.3          21.5          26.0           5.6           30.6             11.5
Denmark                 1.95          1.80           23.8          28.4          24.6          30.4           33.2          45.4             6.8
Finland                 1.83          1.80           24.4          27.8          24.3          29.0           13.1          40.8             10.0
France                  2.47          1.94           24.4          28.4          23.0          28.5           11.4          46.4             9.3
Germany                 2.03          1.34            24            29           22.9          28.4           11.9          27.9             10.1
Greece                  2.40          1.28             ..           28           23.3          27.5           1.5            4.9             9.1
Hungary                 1.98          1.32           22.8          26.3          21.2          26.2           7.1            34              21.2
Iceland                 2.83          2.05           21.3          26.2          23.7          30.9           39.7          63.7             17.6
Ireland                 3.87          1.88             ..          28.5          24.6          28.2            5            32.3             14.0
Italy                   2.43          1.34            25            ..           23.8          28.0           4.3           14.9             7.0
Japan                   2.13          1.26           25.6          28.9          25.2          27.8           0.8             2              5.7
Korea                     ..          1.08           28.2          28.9          23.2          27.5            ..            1.3             3.5
Luxembourg              1.97          1.70          .24.7          28.6          23.0          28.1            6            25.8             8.9
Mexico                  6.82          2.20             ..           ..             ..           ..             ..             ..             67.3
Netherlands             2.57          1.73           24.8          28.9          23.2          28.7           4.1           32.5             4.8
New Zealand             3.28          2.00           23.4           28            ...          28.8           21.5          44.8             24.4
Norway                  2.50          1.84             ..          27.6          23.5          29.1           14.5          51.4             9.6
Poland                  2.26          1.24           22.8          25.6          22.7          24.9           4.8           17.1             14.7
Portugal                3.01          1.40             ..          27.1          23.2          26.3           9.2           29.1             18.9
Slovak Republic         2.41          1.25           22.6          25.3          21.9          25.0           5.7           24.8             20.5
Spain                   2.88          1.34             ..          29.2          23.4          28.6           3.9           23.4             9.3
Sweden                  1.92          1.77           25.9          28.6          26.0          30.7           39.7          55.4             6.9
Switzerland             2.10          1.42           25.3          29.3          25.0          28.6           4.7           13.3             4.6
Turkey                  5.68          2.19             ..           ..           20.7          22.6           2.9             ..             41.4
United Kingdom          2.43          1.80             ..          29.5          23.0          28.1           11.5          42.3             25.8
United States           2.48          2.05           24.1          25.1          23.3          25.1           18.4          35.7             50.3
OECD                    2.70          1.63           24.2          27.5          23.3          27.7           11.2          30.9             15.8
* Year of reference for total fertility rates – Canada: 2004
** Adolescent fertility rate; births per 1,000 women age 15-19.
Source: D'Addio and Mira d'Ercole (2005), "Trends and Determinants of Fertility Rates in OECD Countries: The Role of Policies";
and OECD (2007), Society at a Glance (www.oecd.org/els/social/indicators).




    OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                 Table 3.2. Most mothers are in paid work, especially when children go to school, 2005
                                        Maternal employment rates, women age 15-64

                                                 by age of youngest child               by number of children under 15
                                        0-16           <2          3-5        6-16      1 child    2 children 3 children
                 Australia              63.1                48.3              70.5        63.3               58.1
                 Austria                64.7          60.5        62.4        67.5        67.7        60.1        46.5
                 Belgium                59.9          63.8        63.3        56.9        58.3        58.5        39.4
                 Canada                 70.5          58.7        68.1        71.1        70.1        73.2        66.3
                 Czech Republic         52.8          19.9        50.9        67.6        57.4        52.5        34.4
                 Denmark                76.5          71.4        77.8        77.5          ..         ..           ..
                 Finland                76.0          52.1        80.7        84.2        71.2        70.9        60.1
                 France                 59.9          53.7        63.8        61.7        62.2        57.6        38.1
                 Germany                54.9          36.1        54.8        62.7        58.4        51.8        36.0
                 Greece                 50.9          49.5        53.6        50.4        48.4        44.4        37.4
                 Hungary                45.7          13.9        49.9        58.3        53.7        48.3        24.6
                 Iceland                84.8                83.6              86.5        88.5               82.3
                 Ireland                57.5                55.0              59.9        55.4        52.5        42.3
                 Italy                  48.1          47.3        50.6        47.5        48.3        41.0        27.4
                 Japan                  52.4          28.5        47.8        68.1          ..         ..           ..
                 Luxembourg             55.4          58.3        58.7        52.7        56.0        49.8        33.8
                 Netherlands            69.2          69.4        68.3        69.4        70.1        70.6        59.9
                 New Zealand            64.6          45.1        60.6        75.3        64.1        64.5        56.7
                 Poland                 46.4            ..          ..          ..        42.7        35.6        28.5
                 Portugal               67.8          69.1        71.8        65.4        63.5        59.2        46.1
                 Slovak Republic        48.4          23.1        46.6        60.4        56.4        49.4        31.5
                 Spain                  52.0          52.6        54.2        50.9        51.1        44.7        38.5
                 Sweden                 82.5          71.9        81.3        76.1        80.6        84.7        75.6
                 Switzerland            69.7          58.3        61.7        77.0        69.5        65.4        58.0
                 United Kingdom         61.7          52.6        58.3        67.7        67.1        62.4        42.3
                 United States          66.7          54.2        62.8        73.2          ..         ..           ..
                 EU-19                  59.5          51.1        58.2        63.2        59.4        55.2        41.2
                 OECD average           61.5          51.9        61.3        66.3        60.6        57.0        44.0
                 Sources: Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics (2005); 6224.0.55.001 FA2 Labour Force Status and
                 Other Characteristics of Families; Statistics Canada (2001 data), Statistics Denmark (1999 data),
                 Statistics Finland (2002 data), Statistics Iceland (2002 data for women age 25-54), Japanese
                 authorities (2001 data), Swiss LFS (2006 2nd quarter data), UK office of National Statistics (2005 data),
                 and the US Current population survey (2005 data); all other EU-countries, European labour Force
                 Survey (2005 data), except for Italy which concerns 2003.




OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
    Chart 4.1. Family spending has the greatest focus on childcare services in France and the Nordic countries
                               Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003

                           Cash                      Services                    Tax breaks towards family                          OECD-24 (2.4%)

         4.5                                                                                                                                                                   4.5
         4.0                                                                                                                                                                   4.0
         3.5                                                                                                                                                                   3.5
         3.0                                                                                                                                                                   3.0
         2.5                                                                                                                                                                   2.5
         2.0                                                                                                                                                                   2.0
         1.5                                                                                                                                                                   1.5
         1.0                                                                                                                                                                   1.0
         0.5                                                                                                                                                                   0.5
         0.0                                                                                                                                                                   0.0
                 g k e y n y a                            d a d y d c c d s l d d s e y n a n o a y
               ur ar nc a d e ar ali om ium an tri an an an b li b li an n d g a an an ate ec tal pa ad ai ic re k e
             bo en m Fra orw we un g us tr ing d elg Icel Aus Finl erm Irel ep u ep u eal erla ortu Po l zerl St Gre I Ja Can Sp Mex Ko Tu r
           em D         N S H A K B                              G        R R Z e th P                  it ted
      L ux                           t ed                               ak ech New N                Sw U n i
                                  ni                                  ov z
                                U                                   Sl C

Notes:
- Public spending included here only concerns public support that is exclusively for families (e.g. child payments and allowances, parental
leave benefits and childcare support). Spending recorded in other social policy areas as health and housing support also assists families, but
not exclusively, and is not included here.
- OECD-24 excludes Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland, Switzerland and Turkey where tax spending data are not available.
Source: OECD (2007), Social Expenditure Database (www.oecd.org/els/social/expenditure).


                     Family spending in cash, services and tax measures, in percentage of GDP, in 2003

                                                Cash        Services        Tax breaks towards family              Total                        OECD-24 (2.4%)

                     Luxembourg                  3.5           0.6                                                     4.1                          2.4
                     Denmark                     1.6           2.3                          0.0                        3.9                          2.4
                     France                      1.4           1.6                          0.8                        3.8                          2.4
                     Norway                      1.9           1.5                          0.1                        3.6                          2.4
                     Sweden                      1.6           1.9                          0.0                        3.5                          2.4
                     Hungary                     2.1           1.5                                                     3.5                          2.4
                     Australia                   2.6           0.7                          0.0                        3.4                          2.4
                     United Kingdom              2.2           0.8                          0.4                        3.3                          2.4
                     Belgium                     1.7           0.9                          0.5                        3.2                          2.4
                     Iceland                     1.5           1.7                          0.0                        3.2                          2.4
                     Austria                     2.5           0.6                          0.0                        3.1                          2.4
                     Finland                     1.6           1.4                          0.0                        3.0                          2.4
                     Germany                     1.2          0.77                          1.0                        3.0                          2.4
                     Ireland                     2.3           0.3                          0.1                        2.6                          2.4
                     Slovak Republic             1.3           0.6                          0.5                        2.4                          2.4
                     Czech Republic              1.3           0.6                          0.4                        2.3                          2.4
                     New Zealand                 1.9           0.4                          0.0                        2.3                          2.4
                     Netherlands                 0.8           0.9                          0.5                        2.1                          2.4
                     Portugal                    0.7           0.9                          0.2                        1.8                          2.4
                     Poland                      1.0           0.5                                                     1.5                          2.4
                     Switzerland                 1.1           0.4                                                     1.5                          2.4
                     United States               0.1           0.6                          0.7                        1.4                          2.4
                     Greece                      0.9           0.4                                                     1.3                          2.4
                     Italy                       0.6           0.7                         0.0                         1.2                          2.4
                     Japan                      0.30          0.44                        0.47                         1.2                          2.4
                     Canada                      0.9           0.2                         0.1                         1.2                          2.4
                     Spain                       0.4           0.7                         0.1                         1.1                          2.4
                     Mexico                      0.3           0.7                         0.0                         1.0                          2.4
                     Korea                      0.008         0.167                       0.000                       0.175                         2.4
                     Turkey

                     OECD-24                     1.3            0.9                        0.2                         2.41



                                  OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
         Chart 5.1. Compared to maternity leave, income support during parentalleave is limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Weeks   entitlement FTE paid maternity leave                                % rate of allowance                       Length of FTE                  OECD29
               Panel A: Maternity leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                                          UK                52                    12                                                    100                                    12                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Czech Rep         28                   19.32                                                  69                                    19.32                        18
      weeks                                                                                              Weeks entitlement                                                                                                                                       Slovak Rep        28                   15.4                                                   55                                    15.4                         18
                                                                                                         FTE paid maternity leave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway            26                   20.8                                                   80                                    20.8                         18
60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland           26                   14.4                                                   80                                    14.4                         18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary           24                   16.8                                                   70                                    16.8                         18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy             21                   16.8                                                   80                                    16.8                         18
50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Denmark           18                    18                                                    100                                    18                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finland           18                   11.7                                                   65                                    11.7                         18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece            17                    17                                                    100                                    17                          18
40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Portugal          17                    17                                                    100                                    17                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Austria           16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France            16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Luxembourg        16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                         OECD 29                                                 Netherlands       16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Poland            16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Spain             16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Switzerland       16                    16                                                    100                                    16                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden            15                    12                                                    80                                     12                          18
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Canada            15                   9.35                                                   55                                    8.25                         18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Belgium           15                   11.53                                                                                        11.53                        18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Germany           14                    14                                                         100                               14                          18
 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Iceland           13                   10.4                                                        80                               10.4                         18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Japan             12                    8.4                                                        60                                7.2                         18
 Sl c h K
        ak p
       N ep


         un d




        G nd

            r tu e


Lu Fr t ria
 N mb ce
           r la g


 Sw S d
           er n
      Sw a nd
      C d en
      Be a da




           Ja d
           Ko n
        M ea
N T ic o


                    d
                    S
         A g al




        er m
         I re ay


                   ry

           nm ly
        Fi k




         P ds




        Ic ny




      Z e ey




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Korea             12                    12                                                         100                               12                          18
    ov Re




     H la n




                an




                an
                pa




                an
                 ar




     he ur




     it z pa i
      Po ec
    ze U




                 U
    De It a
               ga




    G giu
   x e an


                 n




                 a
               R
               w




               rk
                a




                 r
             ex
            us


  et o
            re




            m
             e
           an
            nl




            ol


               l




            el




            al
           or




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mexico            12                    12                                                         100                               12                          18
 ew u
             l




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turkey            12                   7.92                                                        66                               7.92                         18
  C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 New Zealand       12                     6                                                         50                                 6                          18
                Panel B: Paternity leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                                         US                12                     0                                                          0                                 0                          18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Australia
 Weeks                                                                               Weeks entitlement                                  FTE paid paternity leave                                                                                                 Average            18

 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Paternity leave                % rate of allowance*                     FTE paid paternity leave Weeks entitlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Iceland          13                                80                                       10.4                  2.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden           11                               100                                        9.2                  1.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway           6                                 80                                        3.2                  2.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finland          3                                100                                         3                    0
  8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Belgium          2                                100                                         2                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark          2                                100                                         2                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France           2                                100                                         2                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Poland           2                                100                                         2                    0
  4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              UK               2                                 25                                        0.5                  1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary          1                                100                                         1                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal         1                                100                                         1                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland         0.6                               100                                        0.6                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Austria         0.4                               100                                        0.4                   0
  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece          0.4                               100                                        0.4                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Luxembourg      0.4                               100                                        0.4                   0
           m
           y




           k




                                                                                                                               ry




                                                                                                                                                                                                 s
           d

         en




           d




          ce

                                                                                                   nd

                                                                                                                              UK




                                                                                                                              nd

                                                                                                                              ria


                                                                                                                                                                                                 e

                                                                                                                                                                                                 g




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   n
                                                                                                                                 l
                                                                                                                              ga
        wa




                                                                                                                                                                                              nd
         ar




                                                                                                                                                                                               ur
                                                                                                                                                                                              ec
        an




        an




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ai
        iu




                                                                                                                            ga
       an




                                                                                                                            st
       ed




                                                                                                 la




                                                                                                                            la
       m




                                                                                                                          rtu




                                                                                                                                                                                            bo




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sp
      lg




                                                                                                                                                                                            re




                                                                                                                                                                                            la




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Netherlands     0.4                               100                                        0.4                   0
     el




     or


     nl




                                                                                                                        Au
                                                                                               Po




                                                                                                                        un




                                                                                                                        Ire
   en


   Fr
  Sw




  Be
   Fi




                                                                                                                                                                                          er
   Ic




                                                                                                                                                                                          G
                                                                                                                       Po




                                                                                                                                                                                          m
  N




                                                                                                                       H




                                                                                                                                                                                        th
 D




                                                                                                                                                                                       xe




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spain           0.4                               100                                        0.4                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                     Ne
                                                                                                                                                                                     Lu




               Panel C: Parental leave entitlements and equivalent leave as a % of full-time pay, 2005                                                                                                                                                                        Parental leave               % rate of allowance*                     FTE paid parental leave Weeks entitlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Czech Rep         156                                                                                            156
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spain             156                                                                                            156
              Weeks                                                                               Weeks entitlement                          FTE paid parental leave                                                                                             Germany           156                                   11                                  11.4                144.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Poland            156                                  14.6                                 22.7                133.3
          156                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Slovak Republic   156                                   24                                 37.44               118.56
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 France            156                                  25.8                                 40.2                115.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary           156                                   51                                   53                  103
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Austria           104                                   21                                 21.84                82.16
          104
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Australia         52                                                                                             52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sweden            51                                    80                                  40.8                10.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Norway            42                                    100                                  42                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Italy             36                                    30                                  3.6                 32.4
              52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Korea             36                                    17                                  6.12                29.88
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Canada            35                                    55                                 19.25                15.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Denmark           32                                    90                                  28.8                 3.2
               0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Greece            28                                                                                             28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ireland           28                                                                                             28
                                                                                                         Aus tralia
                                                 Poland




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Luxembourg




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Iceland
                                                                                                                               Norway




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Netherlands
                   Czech Rep




                                                                            France



                                                                                               Austria



                                                                                                                      Sweden




                                                                                                                                                 Korea
                                                                                                                                                         Canada



                                                                                                                                                                            Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                     Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                               Finland



                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Portugal



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                UK
                                       Germany



                                                          Slovak Republic



                                                                                     Hungary




                                                                                                                                         Italy




                                                                                                                                                                  Denmark
                               Spain




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finland           26                                     60                                 15.6                10.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Luxembourg        26                                     62                                16.12                9.88
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Portugal          26                                                                                             26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Netherlands       24                                                                                             24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 UK                13                                                                                             13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Iceland           13                                     80                                 10.4                 2.6
Note: The entitlement to paid leave is presented as the full-time equivalent (FTE) of the proportion of the duration of
leave if it were paid at 100% of last earnings: FTE = Duration of leave in weeks * payment (as a percentage of
average earnings) received by the claimant. Information in the chart and annex to
this chapter refers to entitlements, benefits and payment rates applicable as of 1 January 2006.

Source: OECD Family database, www.oecd.org/els/social/family.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                   Chart 6.2. For children aged three and over childcare participation rates are generally high

                   Panel A: Average enrolment rate of children aged under three years of age in formal childcare (2004)
      %
                                                                                         0 - 3 years
 80.0

 60.0

 40.0

 20.0

   0.0
                         Be ly




                         Sw r y




                          Ca y
                ov Au l




                          Po d




                                    da
                                   ga
                         H rk




                          No c
                        Ki a y



                         Po y




                          m c




                                       s




                                       s
                                     m




                        G om
        ce




                                      n
                                   nd

                        D nd




                                   en

                        R an




                        Re ria



                        Au g

                        h e lia



                                   nd

                                      o




                          G a

                          Fi e

                         itz d


                                   nd
                                    n



                                    e
                                  Ita




                                    li




                                    li
                                  ur
                                 ga




                                 an




                                 nd




                                  te

                                  re



                    S w an
                     it e xic




                                 ec
                                  ai




                                 rk
                                 iu




                                  a




                                 la




                                na
                                ub




                  L u pub



                   N str a
                               rw
      an




                 Ne cela

                                 a




                               ed

                  ec Jap




                               rtu




                                la




                                la
                                st
                               m
                             Sp




                                d




                               ta
                             bo




                            Ko




                             er
                              m
                              lg




                            un




                            rla




                             re




                            Tu
                              al




                              nl
                Un M e
                           Ir e
                          ep



                           ng




                            S
   Fr




                          en
                         Ze




                          er
                          I




                         d
                      xe
                      w




                     et
                     h




                   ak
                    d
                 ite
             Cz



             Un




             Sl
Data for Canada, Germany and Poland concern 2001; data for France reflects 2002; data for Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Mexico, Norway and the Slovak
Republic concerns 2003; and data for Australia, Denmark, Korea and the United States concerns 2005.

             Panel B: Average enrolment rate of children aged three to five years of age in pre-school educational programmes (2004)
  %                                                                                               3 - 5 years

 100.0

  80.0

  60.0

  40.0

  20.0

   0.0
               o v Au l




                           Po d




                                       da
                         Be ly




                                         ry




                          Ca y
                                       m




                                       m
        ce




                                         n

                         Ze d

                        D nd




                                     en

                                         n




                                     ga

                        Re ia



                        Au r g

                        h e lia



                                     nd

                                     co




                                         a

                                         e

                         itz d



                                     nd
                                         k




                          N c
                        K i ay




                         Po y




                          m c




                                         s




                                     es




                                       n



                                       e
                                    ar
                                   Ita




                                   an




                                   nd




                                   ec
                                     ai




                                      li




                                      li
                   ew lan




                                  ga



                                  pa




                                    re



                    Sw lan




                                   rk
                                     r
                                   iu




                                 do




                                    u




                                   la




                                 na
      an




                                 ub




                                rt u



                 Lu pub



                                 ra




                                 at
                                  xi
                it e o rw
                                  a




                                ed




                                 la




                                 la
                                 st
                                m
                             Sp




                             bo




                            Ko




                              er
                              m
                               lg




                            un



                            Ja




                            r la




                              re




                            Tu
                              al




                U Me
                              e




                           ng




                           Ir e




                              n
                            st




                            St
                          ep
    Fr




                         Sw
                          en




                          er




                          G
                          Ic




                          Fi
                         H




                         d
                        R




                        G




                       xe




                      te
                     et
                   ak
                   ch




                    d




                   ni
                  N
                N




               ze



             Un




             Sl
             C




Countries are ranked in descending order of 3 to 5 year old enrolment rates

Source: OECD Family database and OECD Education database.

                                      3 - 5 years 0 - 3 years
                       France            101.9        28.0
                       Italy             100.3         6.3
                       Belgium            99.6        33.6
                       Spain              98.6        20.7
                       Iceland            94.7        58.7
                       New Zealand        92.7        32.1
                       Denmark            89.7        61.7
                       Hungary            86.9         6.9
                       Sweden             86.6        39.5
                       Japan              86.4        15.2
                       Czech Republic     85.3         3.0
                       Norway             85.1        43.7
                       United Kingdom 80.5            25.8
                       Germany            80.3         9.0
                       Portugal           77.9        23.5
                       Austria            74.0         6.6
                       Slovak Republic 72.4           17.7
                       Luxembourg         72.3        14.0
                       Australia          71.5        29.0
                       Netherlands        70.2        29.5
                       Ireland            68.2        15.0
                       Mexico             64.9         3.0
                       United States      62.0        35.5
                       Korea              60.9        19.5
                       Greece             46.8         7.0
                       Finland            46.1        22.4    revised figure (February 2008)
                       Switzerland        44.8
                       Poland             36.2         2.0
                       Turkey             10.5
                       Canada              m          19.0



                                            OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)
                         Table 7.1. European workers often have seven weeks of paid holidays per annum

                                Statutory and collectively agreed weekly working hours and annual leave, 2005
                                               Weekly working hours                            Days of paid annual leave
                                     Statutory                               Collectively           Statutory           Collectively
                                                           normal                                                                           Public holidays 3
                                    maximum 1                               agreed (Avg.)           minimum 2          agreed (Avg.)
Australia                                48 4                 38                    ..                   20                    ..                 8 to 10
Austria                                   40                   ..                 38.8                   25                   25                     10
Belgium                                   38                  38                   38                    20                    ..                     8
Canada                                  48     5
                                                             40 5                   ..                10 to 20                 ..                    10
Czech Republic                            40                  ..                   38                    20                   25                     8
Denmark                                   48                  ..                   37                    25                   30                     9
Finland                                   40                  ..                  37.5                   20                   25                     10
France                                    48                  35                   35                    25                   25                     11
Germany                                   48                  ..                  37.7                   20                   30                     9
Greece                                    48                  ..                   40                    20                   23                     10
Hungary                                   48                  ..                   40                    20                   ..                     6
Ireland                                   48                  ..                   39                    20                   ..                     9
Japan                                     ..                  40                  39.4                10 to 20                ..                     15
Italy                                     48                  40                   38                    20                   28                     10
Korea                                     44                  ..                   ..                 8 to 20                 ..                     14
Luxembourg                                48                  ..                   39                    25                   28                     10
Netherlands                               48                  ..                   37                    20                  25.6                    8
New Zealand                                                    ..                                    (15) 20 6                 ..                    11
Norway                                    40                  ..                  37.5                   21                   25                     8
Poland                                    40                  ..                   40                    20                   ..                     11
Portugal                                  40                  ..                  38.3                   22                  24.5                    12
Slovak Republic                           40                  ..                  38.6                   20                  21.3                    12
Spain                                     40                  ..                  38.5                   22                   ..                     11
Sweden                                    40                  40                  38.8                   25                   33                     9
Switzerland                          45 to 50 7                ..                   ..                20 to 25                 ..                     8
UK                                        48                  ..                  37.2                   20                  24.6                    8
US                                                            40                   ..                    0                    ..                     10
1 In the context of working time flexibility, workign hours can exceed the statutory maximum as long as they adhere to the statutory
maximum on an average basis for a given reference period. For example, in Austria, weekly hours may be varied up to a maximum of 50
over a reference period, if an average 40-hour week is maintained (Carley (2006), Working Time Developments 2005, EIRO, for a detailed
overview of practice in Europe), while in Canada weekly working hours can be longer than 48 hours per week, as long as they average 48
hours over a two-week period (Federal Labour Standards Review (2006), Fairness at Work, Federal Labour Standards for the 21st
Century.
2 In Canada, Japan, Korea and Switzerland, the length of minimum holiday entitlement increases with tenure.
3 For federal countries, this is subject to varuiation across Cantons/Provinces and States. Typically, these jurisdictions recognize one or
two additional public holidays, but in the Canadian province of Newfoundland there are six additional public holidays.
4 Maximum workweek, subject to Australian Industrial relations Testcase decision which stipulates that an may refuse to work overtime
because the working of such overtime would result in the employee working hours which are unreasonable having regard to i) any risk to
employee health and safety; ii) the employee's personal circumstances including any family responsibilities; the needs of the workplace
or enterprise; iv) the notice (if any) given by the employer of the overtime and by the employee of his or her intention to refuse it; and v) any
other relevant matter.
5 This is the Federal standard; normal and statutory maximum working hours vary across provinces.
6 20 days from 1 April 2007 onwards (beforehand 15 days).
7 45 hours for industrial enterprises and employees, 50 weekly working hours for all others.
Sources Australian Government (www.workchoices.gov.au); European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) online
(www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro); Gornick and Heron (2006) The regulation of Working Time as Work-Family Reconciliation Policy,
Comparing Europe, Japan and the United States; Human Resource and Skills Development Canada (http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/asp/
gateway.asp?hr=en/lp/spila/clli/eslc/01Employment_Standards_Legislation_in_Canada.shtml) and Canadian Heritage (http://
www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/jfa-ha/index_e.cfm); International Labour Organization, National Labour Law Profiles, Republic of Korea
and the Swiss Confederation (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/ifpdial/info/national/index.htm); and, New Zealand Department of
Labor, Employment Relatuions (http://www.ers.govt.nz/)



          OECD(2007), Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life (Vol.5): A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries (www/oecd.org/els/social/family)

								
To top