The Pierre Auger Observatory by malj

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									     The Pierre Auger Observatory

                An Overview


Review Agenda
Observatory Goals
Timeline
Design
Construction
Operation
Collaboration
Outreach
                                 Agenda
  8:30 Executive session
  9:00 Welcome
  9:05 Overview  (Paul Mantsch/Peter Mazur)

Auger Observatory Science Program and Run Plan
 
  9:55  The energy spectrum (Carlos Escobar/Carlos Hojvat)
10:20  Break
10:35  Composition (Eun-Joo Ahn)
11:25  Anisotropy (Peter Kasper)

12:05 Lunch break
 
Fermilab Participation
 
1:05  Data analysis, detector characterization and data integrity (Paul Lebrun)
1:55  Detector R&D (Peter Mazur)
2:10  Project Management (Hank Glass)
2:25  Auger Foundation (Carlos Hojvat)

The Future of UHECR Physics 

2:40  R&D and the future of UHECR physics (Paolo Privitera)
 
3:20  Summary  (Paul Mantsch)                                                     2
          Pierre Auger Observatory
Goals
Probe the source and nature of
  the highest energy cosmic rays.
Study particle interactions
  at extreme energy.

Interesting Results
Strong suppression in the of
  the spectrum at GZK threshold
Tentative evidence for anisotropy
  in arrival directions above 55 EeV.
Proton-Air cross-section at 57 TeV cm
Surprising features in the air- shower development with
  energy.

                                                          3
     Results: Air-Shower Development

Depth of shower maximum (Xmax)
  and the fluctuation in Xmax
  appear to suggest either a
  transition to a composition
  dominated by heavy primaries or
  else require major changes to
  the particle interaction models
  at high energies.

Either explanation would be
   unexpected and further
   investigation with improved
   statistics is high priority.


                                       4
                          Auger Timeline
1991 – Concept of  a Giant Array Project
        ICRC Dublin, Ireland  
February-July 1995 - Design Workshop
15 March 1999 - Signing of the                           
       International Agreement, Mendoza, Argentina
November 1995 – Collaboration formed, UNESCO, Paris
                       18 March 1999 - Inauguration of the          
                             Auger Site, Malargüe, Argentina
                       23 May 2001 - First Fluorescence Detector 
                             event 
                       31 July 2001 - First Surface Array event
                       9 December 2001 - First hybrid event
                        August 2005 – First results                                       
                             at conferences
    November 2007 – First major publications
    June 2008 – The Observatory is complete

                                                                                5
Design of the Auger Observatory
          Combines strength of
Surface detector array + Air fluorescence detectors




        Fluorescence Eye




                           Particle Detector Array


                                                      6
      Design of the Auger Observatory
Surface detector array + Air fluorescence detectors




   Fluorescence Eye




                                Particle Detector


                                                      7
    Design of the Auger Observatory
Surface Array
       1600 Water Cerenkov Detectors
       over 3000 Km2
    Features
       100% duty cycle
       Uniform aperture
       Simple robust detectors

Fluorescence Detector
       24 telescopes in four enclosures
   Features
       Calorimetric energy
              measurement
       Direct measurement of
              shower development




                                          8
The Fluorescence Detector Telescope



           11 square meter 
           segmented mirror




                440 pixel camera
                                   Aperture stop 
                                   and optical filter




                                                        9
  The Surface Detector Station


              Communications       GPS antenna
               antenna




                    Electronics        Solar panels
                    enclosure



Battery box




              3 – nine inch
              photomultiplier      Plastic tank with
              tubes                 12 tons of water




                                                       10
The Auger Observatory




                        11
             Atmospheric Monitoring and
Atmospheric Monitoring Calibration
               Central Laser                 Camera Calibration
               Facility




                                               Drum for uniform 
                                               camera illumination – 
                                               end to end calibration .
                          Lidar at each 
                          fluorescence eye


                                                                  12
Observatory Complete!
   (On budget - $54M)


   Last Surface Detector – June 2008




               Inauguration!



               14 November 2008



                                       13
                    Performance
                                                  100
      Black tanks      Goal-20 (~1%)




        Efficiency                                100%


                                       Goal-98%

                                                  90%
(average no of tanks weighted by live time)/(nominal tanks)
                                                     14
                            Funding

Construction
  Completed under the budget of  $54.6M
  Contributions from counties  - 80% in-kind - 20% common fund – 
    nominally for photomultiplier tubes
  No contribution exceeded 25%


Operating
  Contributions to operating costs based on the number of authors 
      on scientific papers (excluding students)
  Operating budget  (2012 -  $1.9M) is <3.5% of the construction cost
  The US operating cost share for calendar 2012 is  $373K
      split equally between DOE and NSF



                                                               15
                  The Auger Collaboration
    19 Countries, 93 Institutions, 463 Collaborators




Argentina        Netherlands
Australia        Poland
Bolivia*         Portugal
Brazil 
Croatia
                 Romania
                 Slovenia 
                            True International Partnership
Czech Republic   Spain
France           United Kingdom    by non-binding agreement -
Germany          USA

                            No country, region or institution
Italy            Vietnam*
Mexico

* associate
                            dominates

                                                          16
            International Agreement
              Initial signing March 16, 1999

Defines a framework for the 
  organization, management 
  and funding required for 
  the construction, 
  commissioning and 
  operation of the Pierre 
  Auger Observatory

The Parties to the Agreement 
  are the funding agencies 
  or their designates.


                                               17
Global Organization




                      18
                             Auger US Members
 
Case Western Reserve University  Corbin Covault – two PhD students
 Colorado School of Mines  Fred Sarazin, Lawrence Wiencke - two Masters students
 Colorado State University, Fort Collins Jeffrey Brack, Alexei Dorofeev (PostDoc), John Harton, Miguel 
           Mostafá, Francisco Salesa Greus (PostDoc) - four PhD students
 Colorado State University, Pueblo William C. Brown
 Fermilab Eun-Joo Ahn (PostDoc), Henry Glass, Carlos Hojvat, Peter Kasper, Paul Lebrun, Paul Mantsch, 
           Peter Mazur, Hal Spinka (at ANL)
 Los Alamos National Laboratory  Patrick Younk
 Louisiana State University James Matthews (also at Southern University), Michael Sutherland (PostDoc) -
           three PhD students
 Michigan Technological University  Johana Chirinos Diaz (PostDoc), Brian Fick, Roger Kieckhafer, Dave 
           Nitz - two PhD students
 New York University  Jeff Allen (PostDoc), Glennys Farrar, Jonathan Roberts (PostDoc), Ingyin Zaw
 Northeastern University Thomas Paul, Yogendra N. Srivastava, John Swain, Allan Widom
 Ohio State University Patrick Allison (PostDoc), Jim Beatty, Eric Grashorn (PostDoc) - two PhD students
 Pennsylvania State University Karen S. Caballero-Mora (PostDoc), Stephane Coutu, Paul Sommers - two
           PhD students
 University of Chicago James Cronin, Pedro Facal San Luis, Maria Monasor (PostDoc), Angela 
           Olinto, Paolo Privitera, Benjamin Rouillé-d'Orfeuil (PostDoc), Tokonatsu Yamamoto (at Konan 
           University) - three PhD students
 University of Nebraska  Gregory Snow - one PhD student
 University of New Mexico Michael S. Gold, Robert Lauer (PostDoc), John A.J. Matthews
 University of Wisconsin-Madison Markus Ahlers, Segev BenZvi (PostDoc), Stefan Westerhoff – one PhD
           student
 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Luis Anchordoqui
 
                                                                                             19
                     Auger at Fermilab
Physicists
                                    Our participation:
Eun-Joo Ahn (Postdoc 100%)
Hank Glass (40%)                     Project Management
Carlos Hojvat (100%)                 Surface detector design and 
Peter Kasper  (25%)                 operation
Paul Lebrun (50%)                    Data analysis
Paul Mantsch (50%)                   Detector performance
Peter Mazur  (Scientist Emeritus)
                                    FD/SD shifts 

Carlos Escobar                       Data mirror/calibration 
                                    database
(International Fellow)




                                                                20
The Observatory and Staff




                            21
                                                Site Manager
                                                Gualberto Avila
                                                                            Auger Site
                                                                            Organization


    FD Scientific           SD Scientific       Technical System     Maintenance Services        Secretary of 
     Operations              Operations           Administrator          Ricardo Perez          Management
    Coordinator             Coordinator          Ruben Squatini                                 Rosa Pacheco
   Julio Rodriguez          Ricardo Sato
                                                                                               Health, Safety & 
                                                                                                Environment
                            SD Observer          CDAS Operator       Electrical Technician    Jose Luis Escalona
    FD Observer          Fernando Contreras     Fernando Contreras      Roberto Moyano
Mariano Del Rio (IFN)            (PT)                  (PT)                                  Accounting Auxiliary
                            SD Observer                              Mechanical Technician     Adriana Cuartara
  FD Electronics             Javier Marin                               Mario Rodríguez
   Primo Vitale           SDE Technician                                                        Visitor Center
                           Mauro Gajardo                               Truck Technician         Analia Caceres
   FD Observer            SDE Technician                                 Javier Salinas
  Jorge Rodriguez            Oscar Saez
                           SD Technician                                Nightwatchers
                          Miguel Salvadores                               Serafin Vidal
FD/HEAT Technician        SDE Technician                                Alexis Rodriguez
  Leandro Gomez            Pablo Gongora                                   Ivan Munoz
                                 SDE 
                            Luis Gonzalas                                   Helpers
                           SD Technician                                  Juan Blanco
                              Raul Vidal                                 Jorge Alcalde
                           PMS DBSDECo
                              Operator                                      Cleaning
                        Jesica Velazquez (PT)                            Estela Mansilla
                         SD Technician (WP)                               Isabel Farias
                            Pedro Barraza




                                                                                                     22
Impact and Diffusion of Auger Publications


Full Author List papers
Another 8 papers
in the pipeline

In 2012, expect to prepare
~30 physics papers
~10 detector papers




  Total Papers  - 83 (1800 Citations)
  Conference talks this year (to Sept) - 110

                                               23
                        Outreach
Auger Office Building
And Visitor Center
>9000 visitors/yr



                                      James Cronin School




Malargüe
 Planetarium




                                   Auger collaboration on parade
                                                          24
                                               Beatriz Garcia
                                                   (UTN,
                                                 Mendoza)
                                                    and
                                               Carlos Hojvat


  Open top                                                        At Tecnopolis, Buenos Aires
                        A planetarium for the blind
  Reaching for the stars                                                      Happy visitors!



                                                  Brightness
                                                 represented
                                                 by size of the
                                                     LEDs




Carlos Hojvat, Director’s Review, Fermilab, 15 December, 2011
Back up




          26
Impact and Diffusion of Auger Publications




                                       27
Composition vs Hadronic Interactions

   Nm ~ E095
                                 §   No anisotropy at lower energies
                                     from Cen A region
                                 §   A proton/iron model does not
               Inclined events       explain simultaneously the <Xmax
                                     > and σ (Xmax) data
                                 §   The Nb of observed muons is quite
                                     above the expectations
                                 §   The Nb of muons grows like what is
                                     expected for a single component
                                     composition
 Composition vs Hadronic Interactions
   a : iron ; (1-a): proton   G. Wilk, Z. Wlodarczyk
<Xmax>                        (J.Matthews, V.Serrini)




σ (Xmax)
Operating Costs
 (2011 Budget)


          The operating cost is 
            3.1% of the 
            construction cost
          The Observatory has 
            always operated under 
            budget.
          The US part of the 
            operating cost is 
            shared equally 
            between DOE and NSF


                             30
Operating Costs
 (2011 Budget)




                  31
Operating Costs
 (2012 Budget)


          The operating cost is 
            3.5% of the 
            construction cost
          The Observatory has 
            always operated within 
            budget.
          The US part of the 
            operating cost is 
            shared equally 
            between DOE and NSF


                              32
Operating Costs
 (2012 Budget)




                  33

								
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