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					 INTERNATIONAL of Advanced Research in Engineering and IN ENGINEERING
International Journal JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME
                                   AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)


ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)
ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)
                                                                           IJARET
Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 138-144
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp                                          ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)
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     MULTI-INPUT QUASI-FLOATING GATE MOSFETS WITH ANALOG
                   INVERTER USED IN CIRCUITS

                                        S.K Bisoi,      G. Devi


ABSTRACT

        The multiple-input floating gate transistors were used to simplify the design of multiple
valued logic. The Quasi-floating gate node have a well defined DC operating point. The multi-input
quasi-floating gate is used for low voltage applications because its effective threshold voltage will be
controllered to a low value.

Keywords: Quasi-floating gate, multi-input quasi-floating gate, analog inverter.

1.        INTRODUCTION

       The floating gate MOS transistor is generated by forming an additional conductive layer
between control terminal and channel DS isolated from environment called floating gate [10].
Multiple-input floating gate MOS transistor is a floating gate transistor with multiple control gate.
The input control gates are capacitively coupled to the floating gate [8,9].
       Floating gate is contacting with the channel through the capacity of oxide layer and with
source, drain and bulk. The values of these capacities depend on the area of input gate, floating gate
and chennel as well as on thickness of oxide layer [5,6]. The whole MIFGMOS transistor made on
semiconductor. The main goals are to release the traditional semi-floating designs from recharge
mode and to implement in continuous mode. Quasi floating gate can compute multiple valued signals
and obtain higher frequencies [1,2,3,4]. The analog inverter is a key element in multiple valued logic.
The transfer characteristic of the analog inverter is determined by capacitor division factor

         Ci
 Ki =            and Vout = Vdd − Vin
        CTotal

where Vin and Vout are the voltages on the input and output terminal and Vdd is supply voltage.




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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME

II.    MULTI INPUT QUASI FLOATING GATE

        Since Quasi floating gate node have a well defined DC operating point and this technique is
used for low voltage applications, so that multi input QFG can compute multiple valued signals and
obtain higher frequencies. To operate the function of CMOS transistors at the output of inverter, the
gate terminals of inverter must be biased through the DC supply voltage and that will be provided
through the coupling capacitors C gb and C gb' and hence, Quasi floating MOS gates are proposed to
provide a DC shift to the combined AC signal.
        The quasi floating MOS gates are operating at +5v or -5v depending on n-type and p-type
MOS gates. This supply voltage or some portion of supply voltage may pass through the channel
from source to drain or drain to source depending on n-type and p-type MOS gate. The leakage
resistors and the parallel capacitors are operate in such a manner that the combined AC signals can
pass through the capacitors and DC signals can block through the capacitors in the Quasi floating
MOS gates so that the DC shifting on positive side or negative side of the combined AC signal can
be done depending on types of MOS gates.
        The shifting of AC signals are required to only provide the debiasing to the gate terminals of
CMOS inverter and that is not directly provided at gate terminal, but through the coupling capacitors
which can store the DC voltage due to high impedance and pass the AC signal without shift due to
low impedance.
        The coupling capacitors are DC block capacitors i.e. in DC signals, f=0Hz.
               1     1
        Xc =    =       = ∞Ω (Open circuit path)
             ωc 2πfc
and in AC signal, f = very high = ∞ Hz
                1   1
        Xc =      =    = 0Ω (Short circuit path)
               ωc 2πfc
that is the coupling capacitors are short circuit paths.
         At input side terminals the capacitors are provided to pass the high frequency signals only
and if any DC signal or low frequency signals accommodate with the original signals that can be
nullify and pure form of high frequency signals can easily pass through the capacitors.
         The combinations of signals are generated at the node point which then passes through the
quasi floating MOS gates and then MOS inverter operation obtain.




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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME

                                                          C i = C1 ,C 2 ,C3 ,C ds ( with Rleak n − mos ),C gb ( at the inverter )
                                                                      C 4 ,C5 ,C 6 ,C'ds ( with Rleak p − mos ),C' gb ( at the inverter )
                                                                                                                                                C sd ( at the output )
                                                                    Vi = V1 ,V2 ,V3 Vqfg1
                                                                             V4 ,V5 ,V6 Vqfg 2 RL → Load Re sis tan ce at Output

III.       SIMULATION AND MODEL

                                                     s Rleak CTotal
              VQFG = Vin
                                                   1 + s Rleak CTotal
                                             n
where C total = ∑ C i + CGS + CGD + CGB + C'GD
                                            i =1
                                                      n
                                           1
and           Vin =                                ( ∑ C iVi + CGSVS + CGDVD + CGBVB )
                                         C total     i =1
                                    1       n           s Rleak CTotal 
VQFG1 =             ∑ C iVi + CGSVS + CGDVD + CGBVB                         
                   
           C total  i =1                                1 + s R C           
                                                                leak Total 

              1  n                                         s R' leak C'Total                                                                                  
VQFG 2   =           ∑ C i ' Vi ' + CGSVS + CGDVD + CGBVB                                                                                                     
                    
           C'total  i =1                                   1 + s R'                                                                                           
                                                                     leak C'Total                                                                              
                                             n
where, C total = ∑ C i ' + CGS + CGD + CGB + C"GD
                                           i =1
                                                          n
                                            1
and           Vin =                                ( ∑ C i ' Vi ' + CGSVS + CGDVD + CGBVB )
                                         C'total      i =1
It is in Ohmic mode or triod region that is VGS > Vth and VDS < VQFGS − Vth                                                                             (                     )
                                                          ω
                                                             (V − Vth )VDS − VDS 
                                                                                                          2
                    I DS = µ nCox                                               
                                                          L  QFGS            2 
                                                                                                             

                                                              1st base band signal                                                                                    2nd base band signal
                              0.5                                                                                                            0.4

                              0.4
                                                                                                                                             0.3
                              0.3
                                                                                                                                             0.2
                              0.2
                                                                                                                                             0.1
         amplitude in v olt




                                                                                                                        amplitude in v olt




                              0.1

                                0                                                                                                              0

                              -0.1
                                                                                                                                             -0.1
                              -0.2
                                                                                                                                             -0.2
                              -0.3

                                                                                                                                             -0.3
                              -0.4

                              -0.5                                                                                                           -0.4
                                     0    0.01     0.02         0.03       0.04      0.05   0.06   0.07                                             0   0.01   0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07
                                                                 time in sec.                                                                                             time in sec.


                                                                Fig.1                                                                                                   Fig. 2




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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME
                                                                  3rd base band signal                                                                                 -7     Composed base band signals with capacitors,"Vin1"
                                                                                                                                                                   x 10
                                          0.3                                                                                                                 2


                                          0.2                                                                                                                1.5


                                                                                                                                                              1
                                          0.1

                                                                                                                                                             0.5
                   am plitude in v olt




                                                                                                                                      am plitude in v olt
                                           0
                                                                                                                                                              0
                                         -0.1
                                                                                                                                                            -0.5

                                         -0.2
                                                                                                                                                              -1

                                         -0.3                                                                                                               -1.5


                                         -0.4                                                                                                                 -2
                                                0   0.01   0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07                                                        0        0.01     0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05      0.06   0.07
                                                                      time in sec.                                                                                                              time in sec.


                                                                   Fig. 3                                                                                                                     Fig. 4


                                                            Net output due to V1,V2,V3,"Vin"                                                                                                     Vqfg1 sigal
                               0.988                                                                                                          -4.014


                               0.986                                                                                                          -4.016


                               0.984                                                                                                          -4.018
     am plitude in volts




                                                                                                                    am plitude in volts
                               0.982                                                                                                                   -4.02


                                         0.98                                                                                                 -4.022


                               0.978                                                                                                          -4.024


                               0.976                                                                                                          -4.026


                               0.974                                                                                                          -4.028


                               0.972                                                                                                                   -4.03
                                                0   0.01   0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07                                                        0        0.01     0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05      0.06   0.07
                                                                      time in sec.                                                                                                              time in sec.


                                                                   Fig. 5                                                                                                                     Fig. 6


                                                                  4th base band signal                                                                                                      5th base band signal
                                          0.1                                                                                                                0.2

                                         0.08
                                                                                                                                                            0.15

                                         0.06
                                                                                                                                                             0.1
                                         0.04

                                                                                                                                                            0.05
         am plitude in v olt




                                                                                                                             am plitude in v olt




                                         0.02

                                           0                                                                                                                  0

                                   -0.02
                                                                                                                                                       -0.05

                                   -0.04
                                                                                                                                                            -0.1
                                   -0.06

                                                                                                                                                       -0.15
                                   -0.08

                                         -0.1                                                                                                               -0.2
                                                0   0.01   0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07                                                        0        0.01     0.02      0.03       0.04     0.05      0.06   0.07
                                                                      time in sec.                                                                                                              time in sec.


                                                                   Fig. 7                                                                                                                     Fig. 8




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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME

                                                                                          6th base band signal                                                                                            -7      Composed base band signals with capacitors,"Vin3"
                                                                                                                                                                                                       x 10
                                                    0.3                                                                                                                                        4


                                                    0.2                                                                                                                                        3


                                                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                    0.1

                                                                                                                                                                                               1




                                                                                                                                                                      a m plitud e in v o lt
                        a m p lit u d e in v o lt




                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                    -0.1
                                                                                                                                                                                               -1

                                                    -0.2
                                                                                                                                                                                               -2

                                                    -0.3                                                                                                                                       -3


                                                    -0.4                                                                                                                                       -4
                                                            0          0.01      0.02        0.03       0.04     0.05    0.06     0.07                                                              0          0.01      0.02       0.03       0.04      0.05     0.06   0.07
                                                                                              time in sec.                                                                                                                           time in sec.


                                                                                           Fig. 9                                                                                                                                Fig. 10

                                                                                                   Vi2                                                                                                                                Vqfg2 sigal
                                          1                                                                                                                                                    6


                      0.995                                                                                                                                         5.995


                       0.99                                                                                                                                          5.99


                      0.985                                                                                                                                         5.985


                       0.98                                                                                                                                          5.98


                      0.975                                                                                                                                         5.975


                       0.97                                                                                                                                          5.97


                      0.965                                                                                                                                         5.965
                                                    0                0.01      0.02         0.03         0.04     0.05     0.06      0.07                                                          0           0.01      0.02       0.03      0.04       0.05     0.06   0.07



                                                                                         Fig. 11                                                                                                                                 Fig. 12

                                                                -3
                                                    x 10                      Drain to source saturation current,Ids1"                                                                                                 Drain to source saturation current,Ids2"
                       8.06                                                                                                                                        -0.0108

                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0108
                      8.055

                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0108
                       8.05
                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0108
     Current in m A




                                                                                                                                                  Current in m A




                      8.045                                                                                                                                        -0.0108


                       8.04                                                                                                                                        -0.0108

                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0109
                      8.035
                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0109

                       8.03
                                                                                                                                                                   -0.0109

                      8.025                                                                                                                                        -0.0109
                                                    0                0.01      0.02          0.03       0.04     0.05      0.06      0.07                                                          0           0.01      0.02        0.03       0.04     0.05     0.06   0.07
                                                                                        Voltage in x- axis,Vqfg1                                                                                                                Voltage in x- axis,Vqfg2


                                                                                         Fig. 13                                                                                                                                 Fig. 14




                                                                                                                                            142
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME
                                                   Voltage across load,Vout1                                                                          Voltage across load,Vout2
                         0.806                                                                                             -1.082

                                                                                                                          -1.0825
                        0.8055

                                                                                                                           -1.083
                         0.805
                                                                                                                          -1.0835
       Current in m A




                                                                                                        C urrent in m A
                        0.8045                                                                                             -1.084


                         0.804                                                                                            -1.0845

                                                                                                                           -1.085
                        0.8035
                                                                                                                          -1.0855

                         0.803
                                                                                                                           -1.086

                        0.8025                                                                                            -1.0865
                                 0   0.01   0.02         0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07                                     0   0.01   0.02         0.03       0.04     0.05   0.06   0.07
                                                    Voltage in x- axis,Vqfg2                                                                           Voltage in x- axis,Vqfg2


                                                     Fig. 15                                                                                             Fig. 16

IV.              CONCLUSION

        In this paper we have presented a new multi-input Quasi floating gate with analog inverter
used in circuit. It offers better frequency response with larger band width and large leakage
resistance needs less chip area as compared to its multiple input floating gate technique.

REFERENCE

 [1]  J. Ramirez – Angulo, C.A. Urquidi, R.G. Carvajal and F.M. Chavero, “Very low-voltage
      analog signal processing based on quais-floating gate transistor”, IEEE, J. Solid State
      Circuits, 2004, 39, 434-442.
 [2] I. Seo and R.M. Fox, “Comparison of quasi/pseudo floating gate techniques and low voltage
      application” Aanlog Integer circuits signal process, 2006, 47, 183-192.
 [3] A. Torralba, J. Galan, C. Lujan Martinez, R.G. Carvajal, “Comparision of Programmable
      linear resistors based on quasi floating gate MOSFETs” Proceedings of IEEE. International
      symposium on circuits and systems, 2008, Washington, USA, pp. 1712-1716.
 [4] R. Gupta, S. Sharma, “Voltage controlled resister using quasi-floating gate MOSFET” 2013,
      7(10), 16-25.
 [5] K. Ramesh, S.K. Dash, G. Devi, “Comparison of floating gate and pseudo floating gate
      techniques” IJAIEM, Vol.2, Issue 11, Nov. 2013.
 [6] H. Gundersen, Y. Berg, “Max and Min functions using multi-valued recharged semi-floating
      gate circuits.: IEEE, ISCAS 2004, Vol. II, 857-860.
 [7] A. Suadat, T. Thongleam, V. Kasemsuwan, “Quasi-floating-gate Inverter-based class-AB
      Linear Trans conductor for low voltage Applications” 2011, International conference on
      circuits, sytems and simulation, Singapore, Vol-7 (2011), 112-116.
 [8] L. Topor – Kaminski, P. Holajn, “Multiple – input floating gate MOS transistor in Analogue
      electronic circuit.” Bulletin of polish Academy of Science, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2004.
 [9] S.K. Bisoi, G. Devi, “Multi-input Multi Pseudo Floating Gates used in circuits”, IJEAT,
      Vol.3, Issue-1, Oct-2013.
 [10] D. Kahng, S.M. Sze, “A floating-gate and its application to memory devices”, The Bell
      System Technical Journal, 46(4): 1288-1295, 1967, IEEE standard definitions and
      characterization of using floating – gate semiconductor arrays, Feb. 1999.



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ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME

AUTHOR’S INFORMATION

                  Sunil Bisoi is studying for his Ph.D in the field of Neural networks in Utkal
                  University, His research activities and interest include VLSI realization of
                  Neural networks and analogue integrated circuits and systems. Bisoi received the
                  Engineering degree from Utkal University. He is an Associate Professor of
                  ENTC department in Orissa Engineering College, Odisha.




                  Dr IGayatri Devi heads the PG department of computer science and
                  engineering at Ajay Binay Institute of Technology of Odisha. Her current field of
                  interest in MOS integrated circuits and systems and application of Neural
                  Networks.
                  Devi received PG degree in Math from Utkal University and engineering degree
                  (B.Tech in ETC and M.Tech in CSC) from Raisthan Deemed University and
                  Ph.d & D.Sc degree from Utkal University of Odisha. She is a member of IEEE,
                  Odisha Information technology of society and Odisha Mathematical Society.




                                              144

				
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