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					                             Tow Truck Operator
                              Load Securement

                   TOW TRUCK OPERATORS TRANSPORT CARS AND
                TRUCKS THAT ARE DAMAGED, NON-OPERATIONAL, OR
                   PARKED ILLEGALLY, AID MOTORISTS, AND KEEP
                  STREETS AND HIGHWAYS CLEAR. TRAFFIC NEVER
                 STOPS, SO TOW TRUCK OPERATORS ARE CALLED OUT
                       AT ALL TIMES OF DAY, YEAR-ROUND.
                  THIS JOB INVOLVES PERSONAL SAFETY, DRIVING,
                    HEAVY EQUIPMENT, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, SO
                OPERATORS SHOULD LEARN SAFETY BASICS FOR TOW
                             TRUCK OPERATIONS.




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                 What we do best in the Industry

 Light Towing
  With our line of trucks we are ready to help you with all your
  light towing needs. If your car will not start or you were in an
  accident we can help you get your vehicle to where it needs to
  be.
 Heavy Towing
  We have everything that is heavy. Local or long distance we
  are there to help. With our big and powerful trucks there is
  not much that we can’t lift and/or tow.
 Recoveries
  Recoveries are one of the many things that we do best. From
  ice recovery, to motor home recovery, we are there. If a fully
  loaded trailer makes it off the road into a ditch our trucks can
  pull it out.


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                             Never work outside your
                               Tow Safety Zone

                 Tow Truck Drivers Killed
   Fatality statistics for tow truck operators may be non-
   existent but the evidence of their occurrence is easy to
   find with a simple search for “tow truck driver killed”.
   Once you start reading you will see disturbingly common
   details – a driver has been killed while loading a disabled
   vehicle onto a flatbed or while hooking up his wrecker in
   an attempt to clear the highway.
   Tow truck drivers, like others cut down in their prime,
   leave behind distraught spouses and children, all
   wondering why this had to happen.

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             Safety NEVER takes a Second Page

   Mind your personal safety; ensure that someone is
    tracking or has a record of your planned route. Don’t
    enter a situation that looks or feels dangerous; be calm
    and diplomatic when dealing with customers.
   When exiting your truck, be aware of the traffic around
    you; look and think before you make a move. To avoid
    a fall, use the steps and handles getting in and out of
    the truck; never jump in or out of the cab or bed.
   Maintain your fitness for the job which may require
    stretching, bending, lifting, and climbing. Use good
    body mechanics and lifting techniques to avoid back
    injuries. Don’t strain, twist, or over-reach, and avoid
    extreme or awkward positions as much as possible.


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 Drive defensively and stay alert. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and
  medications that cause drowsiness. Follow safe hours of
  service guidelines. Wear your seatbelt. Obey speed limits and
  road regulations. Don’t multi-task; keep your eyes and mind
  on the road. When towing, use your lights or a light bar to
  signal your intentions and show the rig length.
 Know your equipment rating and capacity; overloading may
  cause an accident. Be aware of your truck height for
  maneuvering under overpasses and bridges. Inspect the truck
  before each use. Check the utility body and mounts and fix
  broken bolts, cracked welds, or stress fractures. Inspect the
  chains and hooks on the rig; make sure the security pins are
  not bent or falling out and the chain has no bent, stretched, or
  hammered links.


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       Driving and Journey Management

 Drive defensively and stay alert. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and
  medications that cause drowsiness. Follow safe hours of
  service guidelines. Wear your seatbelt. Obey speed limits and
  road regulations. Don’t multi-task; keep your eyes and mind
  on the road. When towing, use your lights or a light bar to
  signal your intentions and show the rig length.
 Know your equipment rating and capacity; overloading may
  cause an accident. Be aware of your truck height for
  maneuvering under overpasses and bridges. Inspect the truck
  before each use. Check the utility body and mounts and fix
  broken bolts, cracked welds, or stress fractures. Inspect the
  chains and hooks on the rig; make sure the security pins are
  not bent or falling out and the chain has no bent, stretched, or
  hammered links.


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                      This is mandatory under law

            Inspect the truck before each shift
 Check the utility body and mounts and fix broken
  bolts, cracked welds, or stress fractures. Inspect the
  chains and hooks on the rig; make sure the security
  pins are not bent or falling out and the chain has no
  bent, stretched, or hammered links.




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        A few laws to Know and Consider




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               It all comes down to the following

 Cargo Securement standards require that all devices and systems used to secure
  cargo to or within a vehicle must be capable of meeting the performance criteria. All
  vehicle structures, systems, parts and components used to secure cargo must be in
  proper working order when in use. This means that they cannot be damaged or
  weakened so as to affect their performance. The cargo securement standards
  reference manufacturing standards for certain types of tiedowns including steel
  strapping, chain, synthetic webbing, wire rope, and cordage. Changes in the
  references do not necessarily mean the older securement devices need to be replaced.
 Each tiedown must be attached and secured so that it doesn’t come loose, unfastened,
  opened or released while the vehicle is moving. All tiedowns and other components
  of a cargo securement system must be located inside any rub rails whenever practical.
  Also, edge protection must be used whenever a tiedown would be subject to wear or
  cutting at the point where it touches an article of cargo. The edge protection must
  resist wear, cutting and crushing.
 Use of Unmarked Tiedowns Current standards prohibit the use of unmarked tie
  downs.
 Unrated and Unmarked Anchor Points These cargo securement rules do not
  require the rating and marking of anchor points. While manufacturers are
  encouraged to rate and mark anchor points, the new rules do not include this as a
  requirement.


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                  The Law of Securement in Brief

Cargo must be firmly secured on or within a vehicle by:

Structures of adequate strength;

Dunnage (loose materials used to support and protect cargo) or dunnage bags (infla
  bags intended to fill space between articles of cargo or between cargo and the wall of
  the vehicle);

Shoring bars; Tiedowns; or A combination of the above.

Cargo Placement and Restraint
 Articles of cargo that are likely to roll must be restrained by chocks, wedges, a cradle
   or other equivalent means to prevent rolling. The means of preventing rolling must
   remain fastened or secured while the vehicle is moving. Articles of cargo placed
   beside each other and secured by tiedowns placed across the cargo must be:
Placed in direct contact with each other; or Prevented from shifting towards each other
   while the vehicle is moving.



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    Standard 10 Section 7 & 8 Applies to you

7.Automobiles, Light Trucks and Vans
 This portion of the new standards applies to the transportation of
  automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weight 4,500
  kilograms (9,920 pounds) or less. Vehicles which individually are heavier
  than 4,500 kilograms (9,920 pounds) must be secured in the same manner
  as heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery.

8. Heavy Vehicles, Equipment and Machinery

 These requirements apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles,
  equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as
  loaders, bulldozers, tractors and power shovels and which individually
  weigh 4,500 kilograms (9,920 pounds) or more. Vehicles, equipment and
  machinery which is lighter than 4,500 kilograms (9,920 pounds) may be
  secured using these rules, the rules for automobiles, light trucks and vans,
  or the general freight requirements.


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                         Securement of automobiles,
                            light trucks, and vans.
    Automobiles, light trucks, and vans must be restrained at both the front and
     rear to prevent lateral, forward, rearward, and vertical movement using a
     minimum of two tiedowns.
    Tiedowns that are designed to be affixed to the structure of the automobile,
     light truck, or van must use the mounting points on those vehicles that have
     been specifically designed for that purpose.
    Tiedowns that are designed to fit over or around the wheels of an automobile,
     light truck, or van must provide restraint in the lateral, longitudinal and
     vertical directions.
    Edge protectors are not required for synthetic webbing at points where the webbing comes
     in contact with the tires. What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and
     machinery?
         Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment
          and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front end loaders, bulldozers, tractors,
          and power shovels and which individually weigh 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs) or more. Vehicles,
          equipment and machinery which is lighter than 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs) may also be secured in
          accordance with the provisions of this section,
         Preparation of equipment being transported.
            Accessory equipment, such as hydraulic shovels, must be completely lowered and secured to
             the vehicle.
            Articulated vehicles shall be restrained in a manner that prevents articulation while in
             transit.



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                            Have you done a
                      Pre Job Hazard Assessment?




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                               Inspect Check and Verify

 Inspect the winch and cable often, keep it clean
  and lubricated; repair or replace if necessary.
  Use hooks and clamps rated at the same
  capacity as the wire. Maintain 3 to 5 wraps on
  the winch drum and rewind it periodically to
  lay the cable flat and even. Watch the lines so
  that they don’t get tangled; placing continued
  pressure can shear the cable and send it flying
  at high speed.
 When hooking up a towed vehicle, block and
  chock the wheels before disengaging the
  driveshaft or the brakes. Try not to work under
  a lifted truck; if you must do so, block and
  chock the wheels, front and back.




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                             Always Think




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                Lock out Tag Out Energy Sources

    Use lockout/tagout procedures on the wheel lift,
   boom and winches while working under a truck or
   between the truck and towed vehicle. If you have a
   remote to the lift, boom or winch, do not leave it in
   your pocket or on the ground where it could be
   accidentally activated; lockout and secure the remote
   inside your truck until you are ready to use it.




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                                A little math
                        A must be GREATER than B

 Ensure that you have the correct equipment—a recovery strap is essential. The
  recovery strap should be at least 6 m or 20 ft in length, with loops (not hooks) and in
  good working condition (no cuts or broken stitches).

 Check both vehicle weights and add the weights of any loads either vehicle is
  carrying. The vehicle doing the pulling must be of equal or, ideally, greater weight
  than the vehicle that is being pulled.


 Ensure the recovery strap has a Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) that is 2-3
  times the total weight of the stuck vehicle. If it is less, the danger is the strap may
  snap under high tension. Recovery straps are usually constructed so that each inch
  of width adds approximately 10,000 lbs (4,500 kg) of MBS (e.g., a 3 inch wide strap
  would usually have a rating of approximately 30,000 lbs [13,500 kg]).


 Ensure tow hooks, hitch receivers and any shackles used are rated to loads that
  exceed the recovery strap MBS. In the event of excessive loads, the recovery strap
  should always be the weakest link and snap first. A shackle should have a Working
  Load Limit (WLL) stamped on it (remember 1 ton = 2000 lbs or 900 kg).
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                    Ten Degree or Less in the Pull


 *As much as possible, clear out mud, sand, or snow from
  under the stuck vehicle and in front of the tires in the
  direction of the pull.


 Remember to Position the pulling vehicle in line with the
  stuck vehicle—the pulling vehicle facing forward; the stuck
  vehicle being pulled from the front (ideally) or the back. You
  need to be within 10° of a straight line—side loading can lead
  to serious vehicle damage. You need to be sure you have a
  clear path straight forward free of any obstacles that is at least
  the length of the strap/cables and stuck vehicle.

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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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                    A few safety point to never forget
                     in load securement and safety




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Everyone's                   North American Cargo Securement
Rule Guide




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                              Regulations

                         Carrier Safety Regulations
No person shall drive a commercial motor vehicle
and a motor carrier shall not require or permit a
person to drive a commercial vehicle unless –
(1) The commercial motor vehicles cargo is properly
secured.



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    Load Securement is a leading cause of tickets in
                 most companies.




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                Cargo Placement and Restraint
                  On Tow Truck Operations

Articles of cargo that are likely to roll must be
  restrained by chocks, wedges, a cradle or other
  equivalent means to prevent rolling. The means of
  preventing rolling must remain fastened or secured
  while the vehicle is moving.
Articles of cargo placed beside each other and secured
  by tie downs placed across the cargo must be:
• Placed in direct contact with each other; or
• Prevented from shifting towards each other while the
  vehicle is moving.

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                             Proper Use of Tie downs


Each tie down must be attached and secured so that it
 doesn’t come loose, unfastened, opened or released
 while the vehicle is moving. All tie downs and other
 components of a cargo securement system must be
 located inside any rub rails whenever practical.
Also, edge protection must be used whenever a tie
 down would be subject to wear or cutting at the point
 where it touches an article of cargo. The edge
 protection must resist wear, cutting and crushing.


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                    Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads

  Restraining of Loads

  • Every load shall be restrained. The restraint
    system shall be strong enough to restrain the
    load without any movement during all expected
    conditions of operation.

     NO LASHING shall be removed until final
     destination is reached and vehicle is stopped.


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                      Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Lashing Material




                                        Hand Ratchet Winch



             Steel Chains




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              Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
  Tie-Down Lashings

  Lashings shall be one of two types of material:

  • Steel chain not less than 13 mm (1/2 inch) in thickness
    with grab, winged or claw hooks,
  • Two 10 mm steel chain may be used in place of one 13mm
    in thickness steel chain with grab, winged or claw hooks.
  • Webbing straps of 50 mm width or greater.
  Cargo netting is also accep as a secondary restraint
  when the load is large enough not to pass through the
  netting.
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                    Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
         Lashings cont’d

  • Ropes shall not be used to lash, tie down or restrain loads
    except on light vehicles.

  • Steel chain shall not be used to restrain steel pipes or
    tubular - webbing straps shall be used.

  • Hydraulic lifting arms shall not be used as a means to
    restrain a load




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                  Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads

        Lashings cont’d


• Tie-down web lashings shall be sufficiently tensioned to
  provide adequate downward restraint and prevent sideways
  / frontal / rearward movement.




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                 Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Webbing with two knots tied to repair breaks used
    to tie on a tall crate, and a second webbing belt
    showing severe damage. Both are unfit for use.




                             ý     ý




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Improperly Secured
Loads
Can result in:
                                                   Damage to freight
                                               Issuance of citations/fines
                                            Improper load securing could
                                               cause injury or fatality




     Loss of life            Loss of load       Destabilizing the vehicle
             Damage to vehicles             A crash - Vehicle placed O.O.S.
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                             FORCES

 0.8g Forward Force = 80% of Cargo weight when driving
  straight ahead.
 0.5g Rearward Force = 50% of Cargo weight when
  accelerating, shifting gears while climbing a hill, or braking
  in reverse.
 0.5g Sideways Force = 50% of Cargo weight when turning,
  changing lanes, or braking while turning.
 0.2g Upward Force = 20% of Cargo weight when traveling
  over bumps in the road or cresting a hill for vehicles that
  the cargo is not fully contained inside.



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                             General Provisions

          • vehicle structures, floors, anchor points, headboards,
            bulkheads, stakes, posts, pockets must be strong enough
          • must use a securement method suited to the type, size and
            shape of cargo
          • Tie-downs must be capable of being tightened by driver
          • Tied-owns must be inside rub-rails
          • edge protection needed if tie-down could be cut or abraded




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                  Working Load Limit (W.L.L.)


     • W.L.L. = 1/2 x (weight of the cargo)

     • Total W.L.L. is the sum of:

     • (1) 1/2 of the W.L.L. of each connector or attachment
           mechanism used to secure the cargo to the
           vehicle; and

     • (2) 1/2 of the W.L.L . for each end section of a tie-down
           that is attached to an anchor point.

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Securement System Strength Rating
     Default W.L.L .Values
                • Chain
                • Synthetic Webbing
                • Wire rope
                • Manila Rope
                • Synthetic Cordage
                • Steel Strapping
                • Friction Mats **

         ** A friction mat shall be considered to provide resistance to horizontal
            movement equal to 50% of the weight of the cargo resting upon the mat.

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                             Performance Criteria
                                   Vertical
                              (bumps, rough roads)
                                                          Rearward
                                                          (accelerating,
                                                          braking in
                                                          reverse)




                                            Sideways
                                            (cornering)
     Forward
     (braking)
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                Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Braking
   The load can slide forward when the vehicle brakes while
   driving forward, or accelerates in reverse direction.




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                     Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Accelerating
   The load can shift backwards when the vehicle accelerates
   forward or brakes while moving in reverse direction.




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                     Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads

   Cornering
   The load can easily shift sideways when cornering.




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                    Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Road gradients
   When travelling over or hilly roads / surfaces, or when the
   road surface is sloped in any direction, the load can shift
   easily, even if the vehicle is stationary.




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                     Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads
   Rough road surface
       When a vehicle is travelling over rough surfaces such as a
       graded road, an unsecured load can shift or fall off the
       vehicle due to vibration.




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                    Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads

In this accident
It is clear that
the truck did
not have a head
board to protect
the driver.




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                  Safe Lashing / Securing of Loads

 Chocks
 Chocks are blocks or wedges
 of either solid material, or
 specially manufactured of steel
 or composite-material with
 holes through which securing
 chains can be passed.


                                       Adequate use of chocks



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                             Blocked Cargo

       Cargo is restrained against movement in at least one
       direction by vehicle structures, such as headboards or
       bulkheads, or other cargo




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                             Contained Cargo
        Cargo is contained and secured by the vehicle structure
        additional securing devices not needed:
             Liquids in tankers, bulk solids in tankers or
        dump boxes, general freight in van trailers or containers




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Attached Cargo – Direct Tie-down

       Cargo is restrained by tie-downs which are attached
       to both the vehicle and the cargo.




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Attached Cargo – Direct Attachments

      Cargo is attached to vehicle by locking devices, twist
      locks other integral locking systems. Friction between
      the load and the loading deck is not relied upon for
      cargo restraint.




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                             Secured?




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              Drivers Responsibility for Cargo
                       Securement

 This would include but not limited to:
       • Unit (s) safe to drive
       • Freight is anchored correctly so that it will not
         shift in transit
       • Freight is balanced properly to the equipment
       • Loaded trailer meets all government
         regulations

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                             Load Balancing

     •   Check for high center of gravity
     •   Weight should be low as possible
     •   Distribute weight evenly
     •   Find balance of article
     •   Balance to the length of the trailer
     •   Center by weight




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   Load Limits & Securing Devices

There are four definitions generally applied to tie-
                down assemblies:
     • Working Load Limit (W.L.L.) of a tie-down is equal to 25% of the
       Ultimate Break Strength of the tie-down as supplied by the
       manufacture
     • Proof Strength (PS) is typically 50% of the Ultimate Break
       Strength
     • Ultimate Break Strength (UBS) is the minimum load at which
       brand new chain, wire rope, strapping etc. may fail
     • Aggregate Working Load Limit is the total strength rating of all
       tie-downs used to secure a load. This is based on the
       weakest link.
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     Cargo Securement – Specifics

 Determining Number of Tie-Downs Required

The working load limit of the tie-down multiplied by
 the number of tie-downs must equal the weight of
              the load to be secured

      Weight
 _____________ = No. of tie-downs
      Length
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       Cargo Securement – Specifics
          Minimum Tie-Down Recommendations
                    Length of Load        Number of Tie-Downs
                         Up to 2.5 m.             2

More than 2.5 m. , but less than 7.5 m.           3

More than 7.5 m., but less than 10 m.             4

More than 10 m., but less than 12.5 m              5

More than 12.5 m., but less than 15 m.             6


   The minimum number of tie-downs will always be 2
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Aggregate – Working Load Limits

       • Aggregate is the total number of ALL tie-
         downs used
        Example
           • 8 – 3/8 system chains x 6,600 (W.L.L.)

                             52,800 lbs.
                  of Aggregate Working Load Limit

          * Note: The working load limit of a tie-down is rated at the
          working load limit of the weakest component of a tie-down

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           Chain Working Load Limits

    Chain Size                 Proof Coil               System (70)

Imperial       Metric      Imperial      Metric      Imperial      Metric
(inches)    (kilograms)   (pounds)    (kilograms)   (pounds)    (kilograms)

  1/4           7          1300          580         3150         1430
 5/16           8          1900          860         4700         2130
  3/8          10          2650         1200         6600         2990
 7/16          12          3500         1590         8750         3970
  1/2          13          4500         2030        11300         5130
         Note: Ratings shown are for educational purposes only.
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                 Manufacturers specifications should be sought.
      Cargo Securement - Specifics

                               For heavy
                             hauling, grade
                              “70” chain is
                             recommended
                              for securing
                                  loads


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               Hook Working Load Limits
Where a hook is marked with a C, H, HT, High Test, G4, G40, 0r G43, the following
                                 will be used
         Hook Size                     Grab Hook                  Slip Hook

 Imperial            Metric        Imperial      Metric      Imperial      Metric
 (inches)          (millimeter)   (pounds)    (kilograms)   (pounds)    (kilograms)

  5/16                     7       2600         1180         1950          880
   1/4                     8       3900         1770         2870         1330
   3/8                    10       5400         2450         4000         1810
  7/16                    12       5800         2630         5000         2270
   1/2                    13       9200         4170         6500         2950
                    Manufacturers specifications should be sought.
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              Hook Working Load Limits
Where a hook is marked with an A, AA, AL, Alloy, Transport 7, or 70, T7,
                G70 and S7 the following will be used
        Hook Size                     Grab Hook                 Slip Hook

Imperial            Metric        Imperial      Metric      Imperial      Metric
(inches)          (millimeter)   (pounds)    (kilograms)   (pounds)    (kilograms)

  1/4                     7       3150         1430         2750         1250
 5/16                     8       4700         2130         4300         1950
  3/8                    10       6600         2990         5250         2380
 7/16                    12       8750         3970         7000         3170
  1/2                    13      11300         5130         9000         4080
           Note: Manufacturers specifications should be sought.
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               Hook Working Load Limits

           Standard Load Binder and Ratchet Binder
                         Size                       Working Load Limit
Imperial (inches)               Metric (mm)   Imperial (pounds)   Metric (mm)
      3/8                           10             5400             2450
   7/16 - 1/2                       13             9,200            4175
    1/2- 5/8                        16            13,000            5897

            Note: Manufacturers specifications should be sought.

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If a load binder or boomer can not be closed by hand,
        a load binder extension may be required




A snipe or load binder extension should be no more
               than 1 meter in length
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       Standard load binder
       typically has a
       mechanical      advantage
       of 25:1


                 A snipe or binder extension
                 should never be used on a
                   boomer when opening
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       Ratchet binders typically
       have a mechanical
       advantage of 50:1




A load binder extension should never be used on a
                  ratchet binder
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              Load Binder Maintenance

       Check load binders for the following
       • Excessive wear
       • Severe rust
       • Bent
       • Cracks
       • Nicks
       • Gouges


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         4” Synthetic Web strap
       generally has a working load
           limit of 4,000 lbs.




          Note: Manufacturers specifications should be sought.
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                              Note
    All load securing devices must have
           visible grade markings
 If no grade marking is visible, then load
securing device is considered the lowest
             grade for the size


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               Cargo Security Specifics
      Load securing devices used:
      1. 3/8 load binder. * W.L.L .5,400 lbs. (2,449 kgs.)
      2. 3/8 system 7 transport chain. * W.L.L. 6,600 lbs.
         (2993 kg.)
      3. 3/8 grab hook * W.L.L. 7,100 (3,220 kgs.)

    The following examples show how load
  securing devices are affected when exertion
                is used on them
* W.L.L. (working load limit) ratings used are for reference and manufacturers specifications will
   P bar Y Safety Consultants                 prevail
                                                                      Cargo Security Specifics
Example uses the lowest (WLL), which is a 3/8 load binder




                                                            Working Load Limit (W.L.L.)
                                                            - Binder 5,400 lb. WLL@ 25:1 x 100 lb. = 2,500 of pressure on device
                                                             5,400
                                                            - 2,500
                                                             2,900 lb.s of WLL remaining


                                                            0

                                                            19,000 lbs. Ultimate Break Strength (U.B.S.)




                               P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                                                     Cargo Security Specifics
Example uses the lowest (WLL), which is a 3/8 load binder




                                                            Working Load Limit (W.L.L.)
                                                            - Binder 5,400 lb. WLL@ 25:1 x 200 lb. = 5,000 of pressure on device
                                                             5,400
                                                            - 5,000
                                                            400 lb.s of WLL remaining


                                                            0
                                                            19,000 lbs. Ultimate Break Strength (U.B.S.)




                               P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                                                      Cargo Security Specifics
Example uses the lowest (WLL), which is a 3/8 load binder




                                                            Working Load Limit (W.L.L.)
                                                            - Binder 5,400 lb. WLL@ 25:1 x 300 lb. = 7,500 of pressure on device
                                                             5,400
                                                            - 7,500
                                                            - 2,100 lb.s from


                                                            0




                                                            19,000 lbs. Ultimate Break Strength (U.B.S.)

                               P bar Y Safety Consultants
     Cargo Anchor Tie-down Points




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     Other Types of Cargo Securing

                   Why do you cross chain?
Example: 26,000 lbs. x 4 chains @ 6,600 W.L.L. = 26,400
            of aggregate working load limit


               motion         26,000 lbs.



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     Other Types of Cargo Securing

Would you have enough load securing
      devices on if you had to


               motion         26,000 lbs.


              slow or stop very suddenly?
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    Other Types of Cargo Securing

    What can you do to better secure
      against forward motion?


              motion                26,000 lbs.


   By adding 2 – additional securing devices you increase from
                             26,400 lbs. to 39,600 lbs. (W.L.L.)
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                              OOSC Violations
Securement of Cargo
  Tiedown Defect - Chain




                             KNOTS




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                             OOSC Violations
    Securement of Cargo
         Tiedown Defect - Chain

                Excessive wear causing a 20 percent or more
                reduction in original material thickness.


                                                                          WEAR




P bar Y Safety Consultants    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
     Securement of Cargo
        Tiedown Defect - Chain
       Any weld(s) on chain, except the original chain weld in
      each link.

       NOTE: Repairs. Links of the clevis variety, having
      strength equal to or greater than the nominal chain are
      accep.




                                                                    PROHIBITED FOR
                                                                   ALL APPLICATIONS


P bar Y Safety Consultants   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
     Securement of Cargo
          Tiedown Defect – Wire Rope

         Kinks, bird caging, popped core, or knots in the
        working section of the wire rope.




P bar Y Safety Consultants   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
     Securement of Cargo
          Tiedown Defect – Wire Rope

        More than 11 broken wires in 6 diameters of
        length. For example: with
          1/2 inch (13mm) wire rope, over 11 broken wires
        in (6 x 1/2) or 3 inches
          in length (6 x 13 = 78mm).
        More than three broken wires in
        any one strand.




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                             OOSC Violations

                                                 EYE
                                                SPLICE
            More than two broken wires at the end connection
            or fitting.

            NOTE: Repairs. Wire rope used in tiedown
            assemblies shall not be
            repaired or spliced. (Eye splices and back splices are
            accep.)                                        BACK
                                                                          SPLICE



P bar Y Safety Consultants    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                                OOSC Violations
    Securement of Cargo
        Tiedown Defect– Synthetic Webbing

             The tiedown contains separation of its load
             carrying stitch pattern(s) in
             excess of 1/4 of the total stitch area.

               Graphic of example of a load bearing stitch
                          pattern at hook end.




P bar Y Safety Consultants     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
    Securement of Cargo
        Tiedown Defect – Synthetic Webbing

            The tiedown contains cut(s), burn(s), and/or
            hole(s) through the webbing which total more
            than that shown in the Defect Classification .




P bar Y Safety Consultants    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
    Securement of Cargo
        Tiedown Defect – Fitting or Attachment




P bar Y Safety Consultants   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                             OOSC Violations
     Securement of Cargo
        Tiedown Defect – Anchor Point




P bar Y Safety Consultants   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Loading our vehicles beyond the GVWR is another
    leading cause of tickets in our company.




                              Know the weight
                              of your load and
                              make sure that it
                              is within the
                              weight rating of
                              the vehicle



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              NO ONE STANDS IN THE RED




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              Never do the Clean and Jerk Move
 Make sure that you properly secure
the Fuze Link strap to the vehicle.
Adequate towing points are essential,
and this is where the Ditch Hitch
really proves its worth. Often a
towing strap is mistakenly fixed to a
tie down point on the vehicle rather
than a proper recovery point, or, even
worse, affixed to a hitch ball.
 If these break free they become
dangerous projectiles. Hooks,
hitch balls and shackles have
been known to punch holes
clean through a vehicle.



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Please remember you are a professional tow service




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                             Pivot Winching
Whenever a vehicle is
parallel parked between
two other vehicles, there
is seldom enough room to
effect the removal, but
that's what makes this
impound more
challenging than others.
There are necessary
considerations regarding
this process as to the
successful end-result of
the impound.



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                             Plans In Action


   Before any hookup process begins, unlock the vehicle
   and place the transmission in neutral, remove the
   parking brake, then roll the vehicle forward or
   backwards to allow for more clearance between
   vehicles. Use care so as not to bump other vehicles(s)
   at the direction of the push. Pay attention as to how
   close the vehicle's curbside tires are to the curb itself
   so as to lessen the possibility of scuffing tires and
   wheels against curbs or drainage grates. This action
   depends on the make and model of vehicle to include
   front-or rear wheel drives. In the event you cannot
   place the shifter in neutral, the stakes increase your
   smooth recovery and the challenge continues.


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             A little less friction goes a long way

    In order for the vehicle to be pivot-winched, the theory of
     pivoting is likened to a pivot pole or the rules of the game
     basketball. In basketball play as you dribble down-court, the
     moment you stop forward movement, you must plant either
     foot and pivot off that foot. Your foot pivot allows you to move
     in any direction without being called for," Travelling.' The
     same motion in pivot-winching applies in-theory by making a
     front or rear tire the pivot point (depending on which side of
     the street curbside parking effects).
   There are six-key factors to this technique:
      1. Tow vehicle placement
     2. Snatch block / chain attachment
     3. Cable hook / chain placement to far-side of towed vehicle
     4. Clearance to pivot from other vehicles(s)
     5. 4x4 pivot block, traffic side tire (front or rear)
     6. Skates, water and kitty litter applied to three tires




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         Motorcycle Transport Technique




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             Clean up at the Scene of an Accident
         It is part of the job and legal responsibility




 Always Wear Your
PPE When You are On
    The Highway
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           You are just not a tow truck operator




You Even Have Your Own Monument
P bar Y Safety Consultants

				
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Terry Penney Terry Penney Manager Company Owner
About Safety has become one of the main vehicles by which industry measures your performance in all departments. Preventing incidents with the potential of causing injuries and ill health •Acting in a safe and responsible manner •Leading by example and promoting trust Having taught and lectured worldwide, I have promoted and welcomed intervention from others. Encouraging and stopping any unsafe activity or where control is being lost. Always getting managers and supervisors to accept responsibility for our actions and achieving continual improvement. And always at all costs complying with all applicable legal and other requirement