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					 International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH
 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME
                           IN MANAGEMENT (IJARM)

ISSN 0976 - 6324 (Print)
ISSN 0976 - 6332 (Online)
                                                                        IJARM
Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014), pp. 53-58
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijarm.asp                                      ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 4.7271 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com




   EFFECTIVENESS OF OUTSOURCING OF INTERNAL AUDIT AND
         FINANCIAL REPORTING BY THE CORPORATE

             Dr. B .Chandra Mohan Patnaik1,         Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, D.Litt2,
                                    Mr. Chandrabhanu Das3
              1
                  Associate Professor, SoM, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
                       2
                         Professor, SoM, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
                     3
                       Research Scholar, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha



 ABSTRACT

         A practice used by different companies to reduce costs by transferring portions of
 work to outside suppliers rather than completing it internally. Outsourcing is an effective
 cost-saving strategy when used properly. An Instance is businesses may decide to outsource
 book-keeping duties to independent accounting firms, as it may be cheaper than retaining an
 in-house accountant. In the present paper it is an attempt to understand the effectiveness of
 outsourcing of the Internal Audit and Financial Reporting (IA & FR) by the corporate. In this
 direction private organized sectors were selected for the survey. The accounts executives of
 23 private sectors were approached and 216 questionnaires were distributed however only 84
 responses were received. This includes junior level executives, middle level executives and
 senior level executives working in accounts departments of various organizations. The
 response rate was only 38.88%. For the sake of confidentiality we are not mentioning the
 names of the corporate.

 Key words: Internal Audit & Financial Reporting (IA & FR), Corporate, Employee.

 I. AN OVERVIEW

         The roots of Outsourcing can be traced back to 18th and 19th century industrial
 revolution but it was recognized as a business in the late eighties. In the 1990s Cost
 Management became a core issue for companies to run hence a lot of services perceived by
 the top executives as less critical were outsourced to many service companies and consulting

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME

firms. (The Outsourcing Guide. Com) Previous Business Models of Self sufficient and fully
Integrated Organizations have been challenged by rapid growth in technology and
competition. Added to that scarcity of expertise and specialization required for various
transactional and strategic activities of the Organizations and to maintain a optimum cost
saving strategy has been a challenge for most companies to sustain in this competitive and
dynamic Business Environment. Companies have to build better relationships with
stakeholders and need to have better solutions for the constraints that act as barriers in their
Journey of Excellence and Strategic Value. This has made Companies to outsource those
activities which previously was thought to be managed in-house and pooling of resources and
manpower within the Organization. Hence areas such as R&D, Product Development,
Process Improvement, Brand Promotion and Risk Management are being outsourced. This
Segment is growing and has evolved as of significant importance in the Global Corporate
Scenario.

II. OUTSOURCING IN FINANCIAL REPORTING AND INTERNAL AUDIT
FUNCTIONS

      The CFOs/Chief Controller of Finances are faced with a lot of challenges in the recent
dynamic business environment. Some of the main thrust areas are listed below:

                Proper Vigilance and Control over Financial Reporting and Compliances.
                Ensure better Internal Control Systems and automation so as to implement the
                best practices and solutions.
                Focus on improvement in Working Capital and Fund Management.
                Increase in Profitability and Brand Value.
                Reduction in Administrative Costs and better Cost Management Tactics

        The recent increase in frauds and window dressing of Financial Reports in famous
companies like Satyam and bankruptcy of multinational giants like Enron and Lehmann
Brothers which resulted in Global Meltdown in 2008 has led to stringent regulatory norms
from Statutory bodies Like Ministry of Corporate Affairs and SEBI. This has compelled
companies to go for more transparency and disclosures in their dealings with Investors as
well as greater compliance in financial reporting and auditing.
        Hence points 1 and 2 have gained increased Prominence and Importance in the
context of present Legal Framework and Regulatory Norms. To achieve these CFOs need to
have a dedicated and specialized team of experts who can assist the CFO in meeting these
deliverables. Considering the present economic scenario where Job hopping and career
switching is a common phenomenon with lack of availability of niche talent in the market
may prove to be a costly and cumbersome affair for these activities.
        Sometimes to keep the team dedicated one has to pay a huge price to these specialists
creating a rift between the specialized team and the operational team as the specialized team
has been formed by pooling of manpower and resources within the Organization. This rift
causes barriers in communication and conflicts arise which hampers the Organizational
Culture and increases the attrition rate. This in turn may affect even the operational activities
of the Organization. Considering all these aspects Outsourcing seems to be a better
alternative. It may also prove to be Cost Effective and reduce excessive dependence on
Manpower. There is optimum allocation of resources and division of labor promoting Job


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME

Satisfaction as sometimes the Specialist had to do these activities in addition to the Routine
Jobs in absence of Outsourcing. This problem can be eliminated to a great extent. This
growing demand for Outsourcing in the Finance and Accounting Sector has given growth to
many noted and small consulting firms performing multifarious activities. Consulting Firms
Like Pwc, Deloitte, PK Chopra and Co. engage in Regulatory Compliance, Financial
Reporting and also advise the Firms to achieve better Internal Controls, perform Risk
Management and also provide Fraud Investigations and Dispute Services. Information
Systems and Security Audit are also being done by these firms to provide cost effective and
scalable solutions.
        All these activities being outsourced will lessen the burden on CFOs pertaining to
Legal hassles, disputes resulting due to poor compliance in Financial Reporting and Auditing.
Hence the CFOs can concentrate on strategic activities that result in implementation of
innovative methods and best practices within the Organization.
        Therefore the Internal Audit & Financial Reporting (IA & FR) industry segment is
growing due to the demand from CFOs and Directors of Organizations.

III. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

       To understand the various issues related to outsourcing the Internal Audit & Financial
       Reporting (IA & FR)
       To suggest the check list before going for outsourcing the Internal Audit & Financial
       Reporting (IA & FR)

IV. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

       The study is restricted to selected organized private sector corporate units in Eastern
       part of India.
       The period of study is limited to 4 months i.e from September 2013 to December
       2013.
       The views of the respondents may not represent the universal accepted one.

V. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

        For the collection of data primary stratified random sampling method used. For the
collection of data 12 questions were identified after making the pilot study and taking the
expert opinion of practiced chartered accountants, cost accountants and company secretaries.
In overall 216 questionnaires were distributed in the accounts department of 23 private
corporate units and finally 84 responses were received. The data was analyzed under three
different levels. This includes junior level executives, middle level executives and senior
level executives. In this direction 34 responses were received from junior level, 29 responses
were received from middle level executives and rest were senior level executives. For
analyzing the collected data percentage method used with close end options.

VI. FINDING OF THE STUDY AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

       Answering to the question, whether outsourcing of IA&FR will streamline
       effectiveness of system and process majority of the respondents completely agreed. In


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME

      case of junior level accounts executives 70.6% completely agree, in case of middle
      level accounts executive 72.4% completely agree and for senior level 85.7%
      completely agree. Nobody from senior level disagrees or completely disagrees.
      However, in case of junior level executives 5.9% disagree and 8.8% completely
      disagree. In case of middle level only 3.4% disagree.
      Responding to the question, whether outsourcing of IA&FR will help to detection of
      fraud; 80.9% of respondents of senior level completely agree, 72.4% of middle level
      completely agree and 64.7% of junior level executives completely agree. Only 8.8%
      of junior levels completely disagree.
      Joining to the question related to whether interference of corporate will be minimized
      to a great extent with the help of outsourcing the IA & FR, 61.8% completely disagree
      from the junior level and the perception for the same in case of middle level and
      senior level were 34.5% and 9.5% respectively. 76.1% of senior level executives
      disagree, 34.5% of middle level were also disagree. In case of junior level executives
      17.6% were completely agree and 20.7% of middle level were also complete agree.
      This shows that majority feel that the when outsourcing firm will provide their service
      for their service charges there is every chance of interference from the business
      houses. Somehow the service providing firm will have their own interest for their
      service charges this will give a scope for interference by the corporate.
      Answering to the question related to timely filing of compliance and reporting will be
      possible with the help of outsourcing IA & FR, 90.5% of senior level executives
      completely agree and the same for the middle level and junior level executives were
      76% and 53% respectively. This shows that majority support the question.
      Responding to the question about the outsourcing of IA & FR will help in fixing the
      accountability of the staff, most of the respondents completely agree. In case of junior
      level executives 73.5% completely agree, in case of middle level executives 89.8%
      completely agree and for the senior level executives the same were 85.6%.
      Joining to the question related to moral check can be implemented with the help of
      outsourcing of IA & FR, majority completely agree. In this direction the perception of
      middle level executives were 83%, in case of junior level it were 83.3% and
      perception of senior level executives were 90.4%.
      Responding to the question related to outsourcing of IA & FR will help to adopt more
      transparent compliance system, majority completely disagree. In earlier question no.3
      it is clear that when interference by the corporate over the audit firms will be there
      cannot be transparency expected. Accordingly in case of junior level executives 53%
      were completely disagree and 29.4% disagree, for the middle level executives, 34.5%
      were disagreeing and 58.7% completely disagree. In case of senior level executives
      85.7% were completely disagreeing.
      Answering to the query related to whether outsourcing of IA & FR will allow the
      CFO to give emphasis on other important issues rather than monitoring employees,
      reporting and compliance related work; majority of respondents irrespective of
      executive levels, completely agree. The same for the junior level, middle level and
      senior level were 73.5%, 76% and 90.5% respectively.
      Responding to the question related to outsourcing of IA & FR will reduce the
      administrative and compliance cost, most of the respondents completely agree. In case
      of middle level executives the percentages for the same were 83%, and for the junior



                                            56
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME

      level the same were 67.6%. However, for the senior level executives, 85.7%
      completely agree.
      Responding to this question that outsourcing of IA & FR may increase the chances of
      losing of job of employees, 85.7% of senior level executives completely disagree,
      76% of middle level executives were completely agree and 52.9% of junior level
      executives completely agree and 29.4% were only agree. This shows the perception
      towards this question of senior level executives were quite opposite to junior level and
      middle level executives. This may be due to the fact that senior level executives
      having faith on them where junior level and middle level do not have confidence on
      them.
      Responding to this question, that outsourcing of IA & FR may increase the risk of
      losing vital information to competitors, majority of the participant completely agree.
      In this direction 90.4% of senior level executives completely agree, 89.8% of middle
      level executives completely agree and 79.4% of junior level executives were
      completely agreed.
      Answering the question, that outsourcing of IA & FR will help in identifying
      performing and non-performing staff in the organization, majority completely agree.
      This will be in the interest of the organization as a whole. It compel the under-
      performing/ non performing staff to perform otherwise they will lose their job.

VII. CHECK LIST BEFORE GOING FOR OUTSOURCING INTERNAL AUDIT &
FINANCIAL REPORTING (IA & FR)

      Strategic Information Sharing-Any high level decision affecting the financial
      reporting of the company and other schedules prepared during the statutory audit with
      any adjustments thereof has to be shared with the firm. Companies must see how
      much they can compromise to share this vital information.
      Vendor Lock in -Some Organizations have a tendency to depend on a particular firm
      for their Internal Audit & Financial Reporting (IA & FR) activities. These Firms may
      alter the processes and information systems to suit their firms only. Hence a Vendor
      Lock in situation creates a monopoly in the market where these firms can alter the
      terms and conditions of the contract.
      Collaborative Approach-Doing Auditing for the Organization means the
      Outsourcing firm has to understand every process and constraints thereof. Hence the
      Organization must create a collaborative atmosphere for the employees so that the
      firm with the help of employees can carry on smoothly the auditing and reporting
      activities.
      Cost Benefit Analysis-Although it is said that Outsourcing reduces Costs a thorough
      Cost - Benefit analysis has to be done which must include all hidden and implicit
      costs which may be imposed by the firm on the organization. The Long term benefits
      should include not only employee cost saving and risk mitigation measures but also
      whether it reduces the Skilled Labor Turnover Rate/Attrition rate.
      Focus on Deliverables and Real Time Solutions- As is said “Too many Cooks spoil
      the Broth” likewise if many consultancies come to a Organization and still the
      problem cannot be solved or if solutions are not feasible than it is really necessary for
      the Company to Ponder upon what went wrong. Add to this the Company bears the
      costs of engaging many consultancies which may affect the Profitability of the


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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6332 (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January- February (2014) © IAEME

       Company. Hence before engaging a Consultancy the organization must ensure that it
       focuses on deliverables instead of creating a impractical scenario and the solutions
       must be real time and feasible.
       Entry and Exit Criteria-One must not blindly trust the Consultancies or give them
       High Handedness in every decision making situations. Consultancies when learn
       some uniqueness of processes in an organization there is every chance that a
       competitor may grab the consultancies and absorb that uniqueness. Hence suitable
       Entry and Exit Barriers must be fixed in the terms and conditions of the Contract.

VIII. CONCLUDING REMARKS

       At present most of the corporate strongly believe in outsourcing the internal audit and
financial reporting. However, it depends upon the size of the organization, need and scope for
outsourcing this accounting part. Before going for outsourcing the cost-benefit analysis
should be made. In the above study it is found that there are number of benefits of
outsourcing. However, at the same time it is found that when secrecy need to be maintained it
may not be possible. Autonomous of audit firm also at stake as the audit firm will engage
themselves for their audit fees only. This will give scope for the interference by the top
management and ultimately it is difficult to maintain the transparency in the compliance
system. Considering this it can be concluded that outsourcing should be made only to that
extent which is possible and in the interest of the organization as a whole.

REFERENCES

 1. ICAI Study materials
 2. B.N.Tandon- Auditing
 3. Jagdish Prakash- Auditing




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