Cultural Tourism – A Peru Tourism Perspective

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2008/TWG32/005 Agenda Item: 11(4)

Cultural Tourism – A Peru Tourism Perspective
Purpose: Information Submitted by: Peru

32nd Tourism Working Group Meeting Lima, Peru 6–7 April 2008

APEC 2008 CULTURAL TOURISM INTRODUCTION Since the existence of tourism as economic activity, one of its main motivations has been the knowledge of other cultures, including those ancestral ones forgotten by the regional or local modernity. The patrimonial monuments, history, the art, the crafts, the gastronomy and the customs are permanent object of interest of an important segment of the whole world tourism call: CULTURAL TOURISM. This segment is considered between 10% and 15% of the international flow trips towards Peru. This presentation, also, intends to share some observations of the development of Cultural tourism and will cover: 1. 2. 3. Preliminary considerations Proposal for Tourist Development Annexes


In the era of globalization, the identity and the singularity of a country or a region are frequently associated to the conservation and presentation of its cultural and historical expressions. In this way, those countries and regions that posses an extraordinary patrimonial attractive are potential destinations for important qualitative interests. The physical, emotional and intellectual access that supposes the visit to attractive patrimonies destinations, have to be conceived by the tourist - and the tourist services supplier- as a right and a privilege. In other words, visits to cultural patrimonial scene, as any fragile and authentic space, must be practice with respect and responsibility. It is an axiom that tourism can be the best friend or the worse enemy of the conservation and development: it depends on the management of the tourist operation. The tourist management of the cultural (and natural) patrimony is a preoccupation of the UNESCO, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the set of the nongovernmental development organizations, almost all the academic organizations of the planet and other actors. The invocation to a reflective and respectful tourism begins to be an important added value of the tourist supply, as well as it is the practice in the concrete experience of the visit. The APEC economies gather together attractive patrimonial of the highest hierarchy (from the Chinese Wall to the city of Machu Picchu; from the Moais de Rapa Nui to the Museum of the Hermitage; from the Teotihuacan Pyramids to the Temple of Borobudur), whose management cannot only be matter of interest of each economy member.


2. PROPOSAL FOR DISCUSS The conservation of the cultural patrimony, and their adapted tourist use, demands three essential conditions: a. Political commitment at all level (from the central government to the corresponding local authority) b. Participation of the local actors in all plans of the specific project. c. Achieving a self-sustaining funding structure, with a high local component. For effect, Peru proposed to the meeting, the following: A. The National Tourism Authorities of each economy are committed to define short-term promotion of a common policy on heritage, the preservation of tangible and intangible patrimony and his best social use, one of whose most important expressions is the tourist use, which must be responsible and sustainable, as well as a generator of income, which, without affecting the legitimate right of the operator to gain, should also reinvested in the resource itself that generate an important benefit to the reference community. B. Also, they committed to transmit and consult this policy with intermediate and local political authorities, as well as to involve them in its scrupulous fulfillment. C. They assume the commitment of continuously summon to the regional and local actors of the tourism, within its own scopes, to define a strategy of territorial management of the tourist patrimonial supply, which integrates in a same instance the representatives of the public sector, of the private companies, the sponsor, the civil society and the communities. D. They committed to constantly convene regional and local actors of tourism, within their own areas, to define a territorial management strategy of tourist asset, which integrates in a same instance to the public sector representatives, the private companies, sponsors, civil society and communities. E. In the same way, they are committed to respect the leadership of those actors who are chosen by the representatives of their own territorial scope, as well as to foment the retort of the independent model of territorial tourism management. F. Finally they committed to support financially, in a decreasing process, the plans of tourist development based in the cultural (and natural) patrimony. For the effect, the constitution of Tables of contributors will be promoted, establishing suitable stimuli to foment the commitments of contribution of private actors. The organisms of territorial tourist management, in return, will be replacing progressively this financial structure by another greater local composition. 3. ANNEXES PREVIOUS CASES IN PERU 

Case 1: TAX ON INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES TICKETS: Conceptually, CALTUR (National Plan of Tourism Quality), is a plan inspired by the tourist notion of a quality product, which must combine tourist attractive, services and facilities, so that, it motivates the tourist decision about their trip, however at the same time, it has to cover the client requirement and aspirations in order to reach its satisfaction. The mission of CALTUR is generating, to 2009, a national tourist movement towards the quality, and to 2015, a international leadership position in the tourism field quality.


CALTUR contemplates, in its Strategic Objective No. 3, that tourist spots have to be handled with criteria of sustainable public use, and should have suitable services facilities and constitute attractive and competitive products. In agreement with the affirmation, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Peru also has been developing five years ago, a policy for public financing for the value of monuments and patrimonial scenes. This policy is based on the uptake of specific resources through a tax on international airline tickets, which are invested in the tourism promotion (80%) and to finance projects of tourist development (20%). Law Nº 27889: Funding for the Promotion and National Tourist Development

Article 3°. - Funding for the Promotion and National Tourist Development The Funding for the Promotion and National Tourist Development, is a patrimony conformed by the resources indicated in the Article 2° of the mention Law (N°27889), under the administration and management of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism - MINCETUR, to exclusively finance the activities and projects destined to the tourism promotion and the national tourism development that are mention in the Annual Plan of Promotion and National Tourist Development approved by the MINCETUR, which are not able to finance itself its current expenses. The resources of the funding will be destined in a 20% to finance projects of tourist development in the national territory that enrich the tourist supply, and the 80% to finance activities and programs of tourism promotion outside. The assigned percentage will be able to vary to a 10% when the circumstances justify it and the Special Committee approves it. (Supreme Decree N° 007-2003- MINCETUR, published 13.2.2003). People subjected to taxation are: (Law Nº 27889, chapter II) Article 13° National or foreign natural people, living or not in Peru, that enters voluntarily to the national territory using: a) b) Air transportation of regular international traffic Air transportation of non-regular international traffic.

People not subject to taxation are: Article 14° a) The crew of the international traffic airlines; b) The personnel of the international traffic airlines that for their work must enter to the national territory in commission on service; c) The in transit passengers in the Peru; d) The cases of unavoidable arrival to the national territory, including the cases of medical emergency on board; e) The diplomatic agents of the Diplomatic Missions, Consular Establishments or International Organisms and Organizations; f) The extradited ones to Peru; g) The deported ones to Peru. (Supreme Decree N° 007-2003- MINCETUR, published 13.2.2003).


The tax amount is USS 15.00 (fifteen and 00/ 100 United States of America Dollars). This amount will be apply in the airline ticket and it will not be part of the IGV (estimated government taxes) The tax amount could be cancelled in US dollars or in national currency, according to the type of change in that moment. For the success of this policy is essential a coordinated work with the National Institute of Culture (INC), which is the national authority of the country's cultural heritage. This coordination is growing gradually and requires an attitude of mutual learning. The next followings years will make possible the evaluations of the success of this process.


Case 2: BACKUS CORPORATION: Backus Corporation, the biggest brewing company in Peru, through his foundation (with the same name – Backus-) has been motivating, since 1991 the research, conservation and development activities at the archaeological complex: “Huacas Moche”, especially in “Huaca de La Luna”, located in the north of Peru. “Huaca de La Luna” is a huge urban scene-religious, made of mud (around 50 million to 100 million sun-dried mud bricks -“adobes”-) today put into social use. The Project “Huaca de La Luna” has won many awards, the most important one: the IV Queen Sofia Award for the Conservation of Heritage "…recognition to the dedication and the effort of the Institutions and Peruvian citizens who worked in the conservation of an important part of their cultural patrimony" (Leyre Pajín, Secretary of State of the International Cooperation of Spain) Today, the archaeological complex “Huacas Moche” managed and leads by a first – level technicians, capture external and domestic resources and generate income own, which give back its economic sustainability. The results of this project show us that, private institutions can develop a successful management model, viable in countries with a struggling economy like Peru. Nowadays, Backus Corporation has shifted its support to other patrimonial sites in the same north area of the country, which correspond to the same cultural sequence.


Case 3: WIESE FOUNDATION – HUACA CAO VIEJOIn, the north of Peru, near to the city of Trujillo, there are a archaeological complex called “El Brujo” which translated into English means: Wizard. Named by the archaeologist Regulo Franco who excavated there, he said about the name: "The reason it’s that this place is were the “Chamanes” (self-taught indigenous doctors) used to make its ceremonies and rituals invoking the souls of superior energy..”. Wiese Foundation has been investigating, conserving and rescuing in the “Huaca Cao Viejo” (which belongs to the “El Brujo” archaeological complex). Put in social use this patrimony is a clearly example, from the private sector, of what should be a national strategy of partnerenvironmental responsibility.


The archaeological work in “Huaca Cao Viejo”, dates back to January of 1996, when Wiese subscribed an agreement with the National Institute of Culture (INC) and the National University of Trujillo. From the beginning, these institutions delimited their functions: Wiese Foundation would finance the investigations, the INC would contribute the technical manual in conservation and the University would make available of the agreement its laboratories (in the specific case analyses were required). In addition, the students of the last years of archaeology could carry out professional practices in the archaeological site. During the studies and the excavations in “Huaca Cao Viejo”, in the 2006, it was discovered “La Señora de Cao”, who is one of the few mommies better conserved in the world. She even conserves the serpent tattoos in her arms. Her tomb has more luxury than any another mummy in the zone. Nowadays, the Wiese Foundations, still working in the area, building a new and modern museum specially made for her: “La Señora de Cao”


Case 4: FOUNDATION ODEBRECHT The participation in Peru of N. Odebrecht Constructor dates back to 1979, with the construction of the Hydroelectric Power station “Charcani V” in Arequipa region. N. Odebrecht Constructor was founded in Brazil in 1944. It arrived to Peru in 1979 and it had expanded in coast, high lands and forest. They, as well as, Backus and Wiese Foundation, have invested in the rehabilitation of patrimonial attractive, like the case of: “Marcapata Temple” (Cusco) Odebrecht Peru with the endorsement of Conirsa and International Conservation designed and approved in 2007, the Interoceanic Highway across Southern Peru: Conservation and Sustainable Development Initiative. In this plan the integral restoration of the Temple of Marcapata is contemplated, jewel of the colonial religious architecture. The project has been elaborated by the recognized conservative Ricardo Moral Gamarra and its execution is predicted for 2008-2009 with resources contributed by Odebrecht and the Multilateral Funding Investment of Inter-American Development Bank. It is also coordinating the financial and technical support from Fondoempleo and Plan Copesco Cusco