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Overview of Music History.ppt

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					  th
 8 Grade Do Now: Sept. 14
Answer in your journal using sentences.
You might have to guess – that’s okay!

 Where do you think music came from?
When do you think it was started? What
type (s) of music do you think were first
        performed and notated?
Overview of
Music History
           Middle Ages / Medieval
                             450 – 1450
Sacred Music
Ø Mostly vocal music until 1100
Ø After 1100, the church allowed instruments to be played.
Ø The organ was the most popular then.
Ø Most notated music was sacred
    l   Why? The church had control over learning.
Ø   Most composers were anonymous because they were
    taught that it was wrong to take credit and brag about
    their works. They were taught that God would be
    unhappy with them.
      Middle Ages / Medieval
                 450 – 1450
Ø Secular music – non-religious
Ø Troubadours traveled the country, singing
  their love songs.
Ø They used drums, bagpipes, harps, and
  recorders.
Ø Why do you think they didn’t notate their
  music?
         Quick Question…
Ø What makes Sacred music different from
 Secular music?

Ø Which was more likely to be notated?
      Middle Ages / Medieval
Ø Gregorian Chant: The earliest music of the
  Middle Ages was sung slowly and without
  rhythm or harmony. Everyone sang the
  same thing.
Ø These tunes are also called Gregorian
  Chant, which were named after Pope
  Gregory I.
      Middle Ages / Medieval
Ø Polyphony:   Later on other musical lines
  were added, creating harmony. This is
  also called polyphonic music.
Ø This is music for more than one voice and
  it appeared during the later Medieval
  period. This marked the beginning of
  harmony.
Ø Whatwas the earliest music of the Middle
 Ages?

Ø What   kind of music appeared later in the
 Middle Ages? What did it have that made
 it different?
                 Ballad
Ø Ballads were sung outside of churches
  and told stories.
Ø Topics included love, war, and heroes.
Ø Every other line rhymes within a verse–
  ABAB
Ø Verse One:             Verse Two:
  l   ….. A              ….C
  l   ….. B              ….D
  l   …. A               ….C
  l   …. B               ….D
  Medieval Listening Example
Ø “Graduale”
Ø By – Anonymous


  l   Include title, composer, and three musical
      ideas using sentences in your journal. Don’t
      forget your introduction and conclusion.
  l   Just fyi – the gradual is a responsorial chant
      and is the only type, other than the Alleluia,
      that is sung without an any action, such as a
      processional. It comes in between readings.
               “Graduale”
Ø “Graduale” is a peaceful song. It was a
 Gregorian Chant. It doesn’t have any
 instruments playing with it. This song is
 religious. The color of this song is orange,
 because it is mellow.
    Creating Music:
Compose your own Ballad!
           Creating Music
Ø At a keyboard, create a short song, around
  30 seconds.
Ø Notate the song as they might have during
  the Medieval Period.
Ø Remember, they did not use rhythms and
  staff notation like we do today.
Ø They also did not have a piano then.
             May 3 Do Now
Ø Answer these questions in your journals. Try to
  do this without using your notes if you can.
1. In the Medieval Period, where did you go to
  learn?
2. What was a popular church instrument near the
  end of this period?
3. Who traveled singing love songs?
4. What type of songs are slow, without rhythm or
  harmony?
           Jan. 13 Do Now
Ø Answer these questions in your journals.
  Try to do this without using your notes if
  you can.
Ø What is the form / rhyme scheme of a
  ballad?
Ø What does anonymous mean?
Ø What was the topic of your ballad?
     th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 15
Ø Take   out you Ballad from yesterday and
  quietly practice it. I will come around and
  listen to you.
Ø When I have listened to you, take one of
  the Renaissance papers on your table and
  work on it.
               Name___________________________________________________ Period ________
     Essential Question of the Lesson: What are the characteristics of music from the Renaissance time period?
 Directions: Determine whether each statement is true or false and mark your answer in the column marked Before.



Before After
_____ _____             1. During the Renaissance, the middle and upper class hired
                        tutors to educate their children.
_____      _____        2. Polyphonic music is when everyone performs the same
                        melody and rhythms at the same time.
_____      _____        3. Chordal music is when the harmony and voice parts move
                        at the same time in chords.
_____      _____        4. A madrigal is a non-religious (secular) song that people
                        sing and is often a love song.
_____      _____        5. A motet is a non-religious song that people sing.
_____      _____        6. A mass is a religious (sacred) song that people sing.
_____      _____        7. The lute is a popular instrument during the Renaissance.
_____      _____        8. Instrumental music was mostly for singing and dancing
                        during the Renaissance.
_____      _____        9. Palestrina was the worst composer from the Renaissance.
             Renaissance
Ø Renaissance means “rebirth”- in this case,
  it was a rebirth of Greek and Roman
  culture.
Ø It lasted from 1450-1600.
Ø The middle and upper classes hired
  people to educate their children.
Ø The printing press was invented and
  popularized the music of great composers.
        Renaissance Music
Ø Most Renaissance music is polyphonic –
  two or more voices being heard with
  different rhythms.
Ø Near the end of the Renaissance, chordal
  music appeared. The voices moved
  together in chords.
    Here are some questions
Ø What does Renaissance mean?


Ø What was invented that popularized the
 music of great composers?

Ø What does it mean for music to be
 polyphonic in the Renaissance time
 period?
         Vocal A Capella Music
Ø   Madrigals - These song forms were performed in
    groups of four, five, or six singers. A madrigal is
    secular music and were usually love songs.
Ø   Motets - a polyphonic work with four or five voice
    parts singing one religious Latin text.
Ø   Mass - follows the religious service of the
    Catholic Church and is sung in a very specific
    order: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus,
    Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. It is performed in
    Latin.
         Instrumental Music
Ø There was a growth in instrumental music,
  especially the lute and keyboard. The
  most popular instrument of the
  Renaissance was the lute.
Ø Most instrumental music was written for
  singing and dancing.
        Let’s answer these.
Ø What were the three kinds of acapella
 music? Which one follows the religious
 service of the Catholic Church?

Ø What was the most popular instrument in
 the Renaissance time period?
Ø   Palestrina’s music
    shows pitch and
    rhythm.
Ø   He was Italian and
    wrote mostly religious
    works.
Ø   He is considered one
    of the great masters
    of Renaissance
    music.
Ø   He wrote motets,
    madrigals, and
    masses.
Renaissance Listening Example
Ø “Kyrie”
Ø By Palestrina
Ø P. 174 in 8th   grade text
      Let’s Create Some Music!
Ø Creating a group composition in the
 Renaissance Polyphonic style.
  l   Each table will be a group. The bigger tables
      may split up into two and three if they would
      like.
  l   Each person in the group will compose two
      measures of rhythms in four.
  l   Practice it quietly all together and then we will
      perform them for the class.
       th
     8 Grade Do Now, May 5
Ø Answer these questions in your journals. Use
  sentences! Try to do this without using your
  notes if you can. Then, finish the true/false paper
  in the “After” column from yesterday.
1. What does Renaissance mean?
2. When two or more voices are singing different
  rhythms, what is that called? Kyrie was an
  example of this.
3. Out of madrigals, motets, and masses, which is
  NOT religious?
4. What two things was instrumental music used
  for in the Renaissance?
5. Who was a great Renaissance composer?
     th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 16
Ø If I did not hear your Ballad yesterday I will
  come around to hear you perform it.
Ø Quietly finish your group polyphony
  projects from yesterday.
Ø When I have heard your group, get out the
  Renaissance True or False half sheet from
  yesterday. Fill in the column that says
  “After”. Try not to use your notes.
       Baroque Activitation
Ø http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTVraV
  gzC9U
Ø Organ – Bach
               Name___________________________________________________ Period ________
     Essential Question of the Lesson: What are the characteristics of music from the Renaissance time period?
 Directions: Determine whether each statement is true or false and mark your answer in the column marked Before.



Before After
_____ _____             1. During the Renaissance, the middle and upper class hired
                        tutors to educate their children.
_____      _____        2. Polyphonic music is when everyone performs the same
                        melody and rhythms at the same time.
_____      _____        3. Chordal music is when the harmony and voice parts move
                        at the same time in chords.
_____      _____        4. A madrigal is a non-religious (secular) song that people
                        sing and is often a love song.
_____      _____        5. A motet is a non-religious song that people sing.
_____      _____        6. A mass is a religious (sacred) song that people sing.
_____      _____        7. The lute is a popular instrument during the Renaissance.
_____      _____        8. Instrumental music was mostly for singing and dancing
                        during the Renaissance.
_____      _____        9. Palestrina was the worst composer from the Renaissance.
                Baroque
Ø 1600-1750
Ø Baroque refers to highly decorated music
  and art.
Ø Unity – repeating rhythms and melodic
  patterns
Ø Sudden dynamic and tempo changes
Ø Music was ornamented and improvised.
           Baroque Music
Ø Orchestras begin to form
Ø Opera develops
Ø Was written for and heard only by kings
  and nobility and the Church
Ø Venice, Italy was the center of Baroque
  music
Ø Harpsichord was more popular than the
  piano.
          Some Questions
Ø What two things could drastically change
 in music from the Baroque period?

Ø What musical group began to form?


Ø Where was the center of Baroque music?
                   Fugue
Ø The subject is stated by the first voice.
Ø The other voices then enter imitating the
  same subject, one at a time.
Ø The voices alternate subject and answer.
          What about this?
Ø What form of music had a theme or
 subject that was repeated by different
 voices at different times?

Ø How is this different from a round?
   Baroque Listening Example
“Fugue in G Minor”
By J. S. Bach
          Create Some Music!
Ø Create a fugue with a partner, there can
 be three people.
  l   Start out with the same phrase, starting one
      after the other finishes.
  l   There must be other phrases that are not the
      same between the two, or three voices.
  l   All of the parts must end at the same time.
              May 5 Do Now
Ø Answer these questions in your journals. Try to
  do this without using your notes if you can. Use
  sentences!
1. In the Baroque period, there were extreme
  changes in what two musical elements?
2. What musical group began to form during the
  Baroque period?
  3. What type of vocal music was being
  developed during this period?
4. What was the popular keyboard instrument
  during the Baroque period?
           May 6 Do Now
Complete the orange vocabulary half-sheet
 that is on your tables. You may not use
 your notes. You may not ask any one for
 the answers.
           May 7 Do Now
Pick two time periods that we have done so
  far. Compare and contrast them. You
  may use your notes. Make sure you have
  at least 2 ways they are similar and 2
  ways that they are different. Use
  sentences!!!!!!!!!!
      th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 19
Ø Please get rid of gum or candy.
Ø Answer in your notebooks using
 sentences.
  l   What are at least two differences between a
      round and a fugue?
  l   Describe the subject of a fugue.
    th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 19
Ø Get out your Fugue outline, and grading
  rubric from last class. Begin working with
  your table.
Ø There will be a short review of the Fugue
  to refresh everyone’s memories.
Ø Make sure that everyone’s name is on
  your grading rubric when I come around to
  listen to your work.
    th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 20
Pick two time periods that we have done so
  far. Compare and contrast them. You
  may use your notes. Make sure you have
  at least 2 ways they are similar and 2
  ways that they are different. Use complete
  sentences!!!!!
        Classical Activation
Ø http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKhH2
  hRa-WQ
Ø Mozart Clip
          Classical Period
Ø The Classical period began around 1750
  and lasted until 1830.
Ø This was when Benjamin Franklin was
  discovering electricity.
Ø This was also when the United States was
  being founded.
  Music of the Classical Period
Ø Music was simpler to play than Baroque
  music.
Ø Music was written for everyone.
Ø Common people began attending concerts.
Ø Emotions were controlled in the music.
Ø There were not extremes in tempo,
  dynamics, etc. like in the Baroque period.
          Some Questions
Ø Was the music simpler or more complex in
 the Classical time period than the music in
 the Baroque time period?

Ø What were the emotions in the music like?
           Classical Music
Ø A symphony usually has 3 or 4
  movements and uses the entire orchestra.
Ø Orchestras were small, around 40 people,
  at the beginning of this period. They grew
  larger near the end.
Ø Rondo form, ABACA, was commonly
  used. It alternates between one main
  themes and contrasting themes.
       Can you answer this?
Ø How many movements did symphonies
 normally have?

Ø Did the orchestras grow in size or shrink
 towards the end of the time period?

Ø What form was commonly used in the
 Classical time period?
   Classical Listening Example
Ø “Rondo alla turka”
Ø By Mozart
              Creating Music!
Ø In groups of four or five, you will be
  composing a piece in the Rondo Form.
  (ABACA)
  l   Use the handout to help you write your
      rhythms. Each section should be two
      measures long. (Write in the counts)
  l   The time signature must stay the same
      throughout the piece.
  l   Each person will only clap one section. (For
      the smaller groups, figure out who will clap
      two sections.)
            th
          8 Grade, Sept. 21
Ø Quickly  and quietly get out your Rondo
  outline from last class. Sit with your group
  where you sat yesterday.
Ø Finish it and quietly practice it. I will come
  around and hear you perform it.
     th
    8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 21
Ø Answer these questions in your journals. Try to
  do this without using your notes if you can. Use
  sentences!
1. In the Classical period, music was for whom?
2. In Classical music, were there large contrasts in
  tempo and dynamics?
3. What has a few movements and is for an entire
  orchestra?
4. What is the type of song with a form that is
  ABACA?
        Romantic Activation
Ø Fantasia/Fantasia   2000 Clip – Sorcerer’s
  Apprentice
Ø Think – Pair – Share – what do you think
  are characteristics of Romantic period
  music?
          Romantic Period
Ø The Romantic period began around 1830
  and ended around 1900.
Ø Yes, there was some overlap between the
  classical period and romantic period.
Ø In fact, Beethoven bridged the two periods
  during his lifetime.
              Romantic Music
Ø   Program music tells a story or describes
    something.
Ø   Music is filled with passion and drama.
Ø   Composers used music to overwhelm listeners
    with emotion, writing sad, sweeping pieces
    about love and heartbreak and magical fantasies
    about goblins, witches, and swans.
Ø   The orchestra is arranged as we know it and
    was led by a conductor with a baton.
Ø   The most popular instrument was the piano.
     Can you answer these?
Ø Who bridged the Classical and Romantic
 time periods?



Ø What is program music?




Ø What was the most popular instrument?
  Romantic Listening Example
Ø “March,” from The Nutcracker
Ø By Tchaikovsky
             Creating Music!!!
Ø Program music! Each student will work by
 themselves.
  l   Make up a character and write a short
      paragraph about them.
  l   Write a description of how the theme music
      you are thinking of relates to your character.
  l   Go to the piano and quickly play the theme by
      ear.
  l   You will be playing it for the class.
     th
   8 Grade Do Now, Sept. 22
Ø Answer  these questions in your journals.
  Try to do this without using your notes if
  you can.
1. Who bridged the gap between Classical
  and Romantic music?
2. In the Romantic period, music is filled
  with what and what?
3. What is program music?
        Modern Activiation
Ø http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ce4TCt
  h0gGM&feature=PlayList&p=0C7DE39351
  91D7D6&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&i
  ndex=1
Ø John Cage Piano Sonata X for prepared
  piano
Modern Period
  1900 – Present
                Neoclassical
Ø   Composer: Aaron Copland
Ø   Uses techniques used in Baroque and
    Classical periods
Ø   Opposition to current musical trends
                   Serialism
Ø   Composer: Arnold Schoenberg
Ø   Music has no tonal center
Ø   Randomly uses all 12 notes of the scale in a
    tone row
Ø   Aleatoric: created by chance.
            Answer these!
Ø What type of music used techniques from
 the Baroque and Classical time periods?



Ø What type of music used all 12 notes of
 the scale in a tone row?
                 Minimalism
Ø   Composer: Phillip Glass
Ø   Uses small patterns to create
    effects
Ø   Extended Ostinati
Ø   Drones in the background
              Electronic
Ø Composer: Karlheinz Stockhausen
Ø Uses tape loops
Ø Found sounds, recorded then modified
  with computer.
Ø Synthesized sounds: original sounds are
  artificially created.
          What about this?
Ø What type of music used tape loops?




Ø What type of music used small patterns to
 create effects?
                Modern Review
Ø       A time of musical experimentation
Ø       Electronic music becomes a main focus
Ø       Atonality – Music without a tonal center
Ø       Broken into Currents
    l     Neoclassical
    l     Serialism
    l     Minimalism
    l     Electronic
    Modern Listening Example
Ø “Gentleman’s Honor”
Ø By Phillip Glass
    Modern Music Categorize
Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire, “Nacht”
Stravinsky’s Symphony in Three Movements
  or Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Spring
Stockhausen’s Gesang der Jünglinge
  (literally "Song of the Youths")
John Adam’s Shaker Loops
             Creating Music!!!
Ø We are going to experiment with
  Serialism!
Ø Each student will create a tone row
  melody using all 12 notes of the scale.
  l   Remember to only use each note once. You
      are organizing them in any order that you
      want.
  l   When you are finished you can play it for the
      class on a keyboard.
            May 12 Do Now
Ø   Answer these questions in your journals.
    Try to do this without using your notes if
    you can.
Ø   Define a tone row.
Ø   What repeats small patterns and uses
    drones in the background?
Ø   Who is a composer of Minimalism
    music?
Ø   List the types of modern music.
                 The End
Ø This ends our journey through   the
  different time periods of music history.
Ø This does not include current musical
  styles from across the world, including
  popular music of our own country.
      Music History Word Splash
 Ø Using   as many words here as possible,
    write a letter to the students in the next
    rotation about what you learned about
    music history.
                         Medieval
   Baroque                      Minimalism
              Madrigal                       Renaissance
 Sacred                Secula      Unison
Program music          r
                  Beethoven    Modern         Romantic
  Gregorian Chant     Chordal
                                   Polyphonic
              Rondo       Motet
Tone Row                                  Serialism
                   Mass     Classical
        Fugue

				
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