Overview of Requirements Engineering.ppt

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					       Overview of Requirements
              Engineering
                                      Section One
                                      Version: 1.0


                                        Mehr 1383
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   1
                                                                             ‫ﻧگﺎﻩ ﺍﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬
    ‫• ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ کﻠﻲ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ :چگﻮﻧگﻲ، ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ، ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬
   ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ کﺎﺭ، ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻨﺪگﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ کﻨﻨﺪگﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬
    ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬
    ‫• ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫• ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ‬
    ‫ﻣﺘﺪﻭﻟﻮژﻴﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
 ‫• ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ آﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ‬
    ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ کﻤﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻫﺮ ﻳک ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ‬
    ‫• ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎ‬
   ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫2‬
                                                                    ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬

    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫3‬
                                      ‫ﺍﺳ‬
                                ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ ) ﻼﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ)31-5‬
 ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ کﻠﻲ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ پﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ . ﺑﻪ‬
     ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ کﻪ:‬
                                         ‫ﺍﺳ‬      ‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫• ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻼﻳﺪ) ﻼﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ 5 ﻭ 6( ﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﺭ‬
 ‫ﺍﺳ‬            ‫ﺍﺳ‬
 ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻼﻳﺪ ﺳﻮﻡ ) ﻼﻳﺪ‬
     ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ 7( ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ آﻦ آﻮﺭﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬
                                                 ‫ﺍﺳ‬
‫• ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻼﻳﺪ ﻫﺸﺘﻢ ﻭ ﻧﻬﻢ ﺟﺎﻳگﺎﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬
     ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ آﻦ ﺫکﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬
                                                      ‫ﺍﺳ‬
     ‫• ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻼﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ، ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻨﺪگﺎﻥ آﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ کﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
     ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ‬
                                                         ‫ﺍﺳ‬
     ‫• ﺩﺭ ﻼﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺰﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬

   ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫4‬
                                                                                            What
 What is requirement engineering?
RUP Definition:
A systematic approach to
• eliciting, organizing, and documenting the
  requirements of the system, and
• establishing and maintaining agreement
  between the customer and the project team
  on the changing requirements of the system.


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   5
                                                                                            What
 What is requirement engineering?
Sumerville Definition:
• Appropriate mechanism for understanding
  what the customer wants, analyzing needs,
  negotiating a reasonable solution, validating
  the specification and managing changes in
  requirements.



Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   6
                                                                                            What
Requirement Engineering: Our definition

A systematic and disciplined approach to
  eliciting, organizing, documenting, analyzing,
  validating and managing changes in the
  requirements of the system.




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   7
                                                                                        Where
 RE as a Software Engineering Task
• Requirements Engineering (Analysis) is a software
  engineering task that bridge the gap between system
  level requirements engineering and software design.
  [Pressman]
                           System
                          Engineering

                                            Software
                                          Requirements
                                            Analysis

                                                          Software
                                                           Design



Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   8
                                                                                            Why
 Why Requirement Engineering?
• To capture the specific requirements that must
  be achieved to build high-quality software.
• If we don’t engineer the requirements:
    – In most systems, It’s highly likely that you’ll build a very
      elegant software solution that solves a wrong problem.
    – The result is:
            Wasted time and money
            Personal frustration
            Unhappy Users



Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   9
                                                                                            Who
Who does requirement engineering?
 Depending on project complexity a team of:
 • Software engineer
 • System analyst
 • Business analyst
 • Requirements specifier
 • Requirements Reviewer
 • Other Stakeholders

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   10
                                                                                            How
 Requirements Engineering Process
• The processes used for Requirement
  Engineering vary widely depending on
      – The application domain
      – The people involved
      – The organisation developing the
        requirements.




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   11
                                                                                            How
 Requirements Engineering Process
• Generic activities common to all RE
  processes:
      – Requirements Elicitation;
      – Requirements Analysis;
      – Requirements Validation;
      – Requirement Specification
      – Requirements Change Management.


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   12
                                                                                           What
 What is the RE artifact?
• Software Requirements Specification: An
  effective representation of the software must
  be produced as a consequence of
  requirement analysis.
• Software requirements can be represented
  using a prototype, a specification document
  or even a symbolic model.


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   13
                                   ‫ﺍﺳ‬
                            ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ ) ﻼﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ)62-51‬
  ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺴﺘﻢ پﺮﺩﺍﺧﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻣﺪﻟﺴﺎﺯﻱ‬
   ‫آﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ .ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ کﻪ:‬
  ‫• ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍچگﻮﻧگﻲ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﺷﻮﺩ.‬
‫• ﺳپﺲ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻳکﺪﻳگﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬
‫• پﺲ ﺍﺯ آﻦ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک‬
   ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ گﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ‬
 ‫• ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﺪﻭﻟﻮژﻴﻬﺎﻱ‬
   ‫ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬
   ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫41‬
                                                                                            How
How do I ensure that I’ve done it right?
• Work products must be reviewed for
     – Clarity
     – Completeness
     – Consistency
     By
     v Validation and Verification
        with techniques and tools on defined
         methodology

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   15
                                                                                           What
 What is a Requirement?
 • A property that must be exhibited by a
   system developed or adapted to solve a
   particular problem [SWEBOK].

 • A requirement is defined as "a condition
   or capability to which a system must
   conform" [RUP].


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   16
                                                                                           What
 What is a Requirement?
 • A statement about the proposed system
   that all stakeholders agree must be made
   true in order for the User’s problem to be
   adequately solved [Lethbridge].
 • Key points:
      –   Short and concise piece of information
      –   Says something about the system
      –   All the stakeholders have agreed that it is valid
      –   It helps solve the User’s problem
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   17
                                                                                           What
    What is a Requirement?
• It may range from a high-level abstract
  statement of a service or of a system
  constraint to a detailed mathematical
  functional specification. [Ian Summerville]
•    This is inevitable as requirements may serve a
     dual function
      –     May be the basis for a bid for a contract - therefore
            must be open to interpretation;
      –     May be the basis for the contract itself - therefore
            must be defined in detail;
      –     Both these statements may be called requirements.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   18
                                                                                           What
 What is a Requirement?
A contract for a large software development project
§ define it needs in a sufficiently abstract way
§ A solution is not pre-defined.
§ several contractors can bid for the contract

Once a contract has been awarded,
§ the contractor must write a system definition for the client
 in more detail
§ the client understands and validates it

Both of these documents may be called the
 requirements document for the system [Davis].
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   19
                                                                                           What
 Overview of Definitions

           What          Summerville        Lethbridge         Davis RUP SWEBOK
           Property
                                                                                      *
           Condition
                                                                           *
           Statement
                                                    *
           Service
                                 *
           System
           constraint            *
           Contract
                                                                  *

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   20
                                                                                           What
 Overview of Definitions
   Goal                  Summerville          Lethbridge        Davis      RUP       SWEBOK

   Solve a problem
                                                                                           *
   Conform the
   condition                                                                  *
   For agreement of
   stakeholders                                      *              *
   How
   Short and
   consistence                                       *
   Different levels of
   abstraction                                                      *
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   21
An Ambiguous Expectation                                                                    Why

                Requirement:
                   Create a means to transport a single
                   individual from home to place of work.

   Management                            IT                                      User
   Interpretation                  Interpretation                           Interpretation




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   22
                                                                                            Why
 Results of Incorrect Requirements
  • The system may cost more than projected.
  • The system may be delivered later than promised.
  • The system may not meet the users’ expectations and
    that dissatisfaction may cause them not to use it.
  • Once in production, the costs of maintaining and
    enhancing the system may be excessively high.
  • The system may be unreliable and prone to errors and
    downtime.
  • The reputation of the IT staff on the team is influenced
    because any failure, regardless of who is at fault, will be
    perceived as a mistake by the team.


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   23
                                                                                            Why
 Relative Cost to Fix an Error
              Phase in Which                                Cost Ratio
           Requirement is Found
               Requirements                                        1

                       Design                                    3-6

                       Coding                                     10

            Development Testing                                 15-40

             Acceptance Testing                                 30-70

                     Operation                                40-1000

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   24
                                                                                           What
Requirements and Process Models
 • Some process models attempt to fully define and
     stabilize the requirements in the first phase of a
     project. (Waterfall, RAD,…)

 • In most of the current process models there is
   no need to have a fixed and complete definition
   of requirements at the early stages of
   development. They let the requirements to
   change and manage these changes during
   development. (RUP, Agile development, XP,..)
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   25
                                                                                            Why
 Challenged software projects
                                                           Poor user input
                                                           13%


                                                                      Incomplete Requirements
               Others                                                  12%
               50%

                                                                       Changing Requirements
                                                                       12%



                                                               Poor Technical Skills
                                                               7%
                                         Poor Staffing
                                         6%
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   26
                                    ‫ﺍﺳ‬
                             ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ ) ﻼﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ)84-82‬
  ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﺍگﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬
     ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ گﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ کﻤﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ آﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ .ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
     ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ کﻪ:‬
                                             ‫ﺍﺳ‬
     ‫• ﺩﺭ ﻼﻳﺪ 82 ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ کﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬
                                  ‫ﺍﺳ‬
     ‫• ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻼﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ، ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬
     ‫• ﺳپﺲ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ گﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫• ﻭ پﺲ ﺍﺯ آﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫ‬
     ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬
     ‫• ﺳپﺲ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ کﻤﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬
     ‫ﻣﻲ گﻴﺮﻧﺪ.‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫72‬
                                                                                           What
Types of Requirements
• Functional requirements
        – Statements of services the system should
          provide, how the system should react to
          particular inputs and how the system should
          behave in particular situations.
• Non-functional requirements
        – constraints on the services or functions
          offered by the system such as timing
          constraints, constraints on the development
          process, standards, etc.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   28
                                                                                           What
 Functional Requirements
    Functional requirements specify actions that a
     system must be able to perform, without
     taking physical constraints into consideration.




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   29
                                                                                           What
 Functional Requirements (cont.)
            • What inputs the system should accept
            • What outputs the system should produce
            • What data the system should store that
              other systems might use
            • What computations the system should
              perform
            • The timing and synchronization of the
              above


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   30
                                                                                           What
 Functional requirements:
 static or dynamic
 Dynamic:
 “Describes the behavior of a system or system component in
 terms of the results produced by executing the system under
 specified circumstances.”

 Static:
 “ Describes the functions performed by each entity and the way
 each interacts with other entities and the environment.”




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   31
                                                                                           What
 Non-functional requirements
• Sometimes known as constraints or quality
  requirements [SWEBOK]
• Such as : reliability, response time and storage
  requirements. Constraints are I/O device
  capability, system representations, etc.
• Process requirements may also be specified
  mandating a particular CASE system,
  programming language or development method.
• Non-functional requirements may be more critical
  than functional requirements. If these are not
  met, the system is useless.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   32
                                                                                           What
 1: Non-functional classifications
•Product requirements
  –Requirements which specify that the delivered product must
  behave in a particular way e.g. execution speed, reliability,
  etc.
•Organisational requirements
  –Requirements which are a consequence of organisational
  policies and procedures e.g. process standards used,
  implementation requirements, etc.
•External requirements
  –Requirements which arise from factors which are external
  to the system and its development process e.g.
  interoperability requirements, legislative requirements, etc.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   33
                                                                                           What
 1:Non-functional requirement types




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   34
                                                                                             What
2: Non-functional Requirements Classification
  •  One way of categorizing requirements is described as
    the FURPS+ model,
  • with subcategories as shown below:
       –   Functionality
       –   Usability
       –   Reliability
       –   Performance
       –   Supportability
  The "+" in FURPS+ reminds you to include requirements
    such as:
       –   design constraints
       –   implementation requirements
       –   interface requirements
       –   physical requirements.


  Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   35
                                                                                            What
  3: ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model (1/2)
• Validate the completeness of a
  requirements definition;
• Identify software requirements;
• Identify software design objectives;
• Identify software testing objectives;
• Identify quality assurance criteria;
• Identify acceptance criteria for a completed
  software product.
 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   36
                                                                                            What
  3:ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model (2/2)
• A framework for software product quality
  definition in the customer-supplier process;
• Support for review, verification and
  validation, and a framework for quantitative
  quality evaluation, in the support process;
• Support for setting organisational quality
  goals in the management process.
• A framework for software product quality
  requirements definition in the primary
  lifecycle process;
 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   37
                                       What
3:Software Quality Attributes: ISO/IEC 9126




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   38
                                                                                            What
3:Software Quality Attributes: ISO/IEC 9126




 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   39
                                                                                           What
 Functionality (1/3)
• Suitability
      An unsatisfying function or operation may be:
      – a) Functions and operations that do not
        perform as specified in user manuals or
        requirement specification.
      – b) Functions and operations that do not
        provide a reasonable and acceptable outcome
        to achieve the intended specific objective of
        the user task.

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   40
                                                                                           What
 Functionality (2/3)
•       Accuracy
a)      Incorrect or imprecise result caused by inadequate
        data;
b)      Inconsistency between actual operation procedures
        and described ones in the operation manual;
c)      Differences between the actual and reasonable
        expected results of tasks performed during operation.




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   41
                                                                                           What
 Functionality (3/3)
• Interoperability
• Security
     a) Failing to prevent leak of secure
     output information or data;
     b) Failing to prevent loss of important
     data;
     c) Failing to defend against illegal access
     or illegal operation.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   42
                                                                                           What
 Reliability
• Maturity (software freedom of failures)
• Fault tolerance (software capability of
  maintaining a specified performance level in
  cases of operation faults)
• Recoverability (system being able to re-
  establish its adequate level of performance)
• Reliability compliance


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   43
                                                                                           What
 Usability (1/2)

• Understandability
     Whether new users can understand:
      ü Whether the software is suitable
      ü How it can be used for particular tasks.
• Learnability
• Attractiveness
• Usability compliance


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   44
                                                                                           What
 Usability (2/2)
• Operability
      – suitability of the software for the task
      – self-descriptiveness of the software
      – controllability of the software
      – conformity of the software with user
        expectations
      – error tolerance of the software
      – suitability of the software for individualization

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   45
                                                                                           What
 Efficiency
• Time behaviour
• Resource utilization
• Efficiency compliance




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   46
                                                                                           What
 Maintainability
• Analysability : effort or spent of resources when
     trying to diagnose deficiencies or causes of failures, or
     for identifying parts to be modified.
•    Changeability
•    Stability
•    Testability
•    Maintainability compliance


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   47
                                                                                           What
 Portability
•    Adaptability
•    Installability
•    Co-existence
•    Replaceability
•    Portability compliance




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   48
                                  ‫ﺍﺳ‬
                           ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ ) ﻼﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ)25-94‬
  ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ:‬
  ‫• ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬
  ‫• پﺲ ﺍﺯ آﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻧﻔﻌﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫• ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻱ کﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ‬
  ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬




  ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫94‬
                                                                                           What
System Requirements vs. User Requirements
 • User requirements:
      – They denote the requirements of the people who will
        be the system Users or end-users.


 • System requirements:
      – Requirements of other stakeholders (such as
        regulatory authorities) and requirements that do not
        have identifiable human source. [SWBOK]




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   50
                                                                                            Why
 System stakeholders
• Users
    – the people who will operate the system.
• Customers
    – the people who commissioned the system or who
      represent the system’s target market.
• Regulators
• System developers
  – these have legitimate interest in profiting from
        developing the system.
• Devices or systems in the environment.
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   51
 Requirements readers




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   52
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫35‬
 Overview of Definitions

           What          Summerville        Lethbridge         Davis RUP SWEBOK
           Property
                                                                                      *
           Condition
                                                                           *
           Statement
                                                    *
           Service
                                 *
           System
           constraint            *


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   54
 Overview of Definitions
   Goal                  Summerville          Lethbridge        Davis      RUP       SWEBOK

   Solve a problem
                                                                                           *
   Conform the
   condition                                                                  *
   For agreement of
   stakeholders                                      *              *
   How
   Short and
   consistence                                       *
   Different levels of
   abstraction                                                      *
Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   55
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫65‬
 Why it is important?
• If we don’t analysis the requirements:
      – In most systems, It’s highly likely that you’ll
        build a very elegant software solution that
        solves a wrong problem.
      – The result is:
               Wasted time and money
               Personal frustration
               Unhappy Users



Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   57
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫85‬
 Results of Incorrect Requirements
  • The system may cost more than projected.
  • The system may be delivered later than promised.
  • The system may not meet the users’ expectations and
    that dissatisfaction may cause them not to use it.
  • Once in production, the costs of maintaining and
    enhancing the system may be excessively high.
  • The system may be unreliable and prone to errors and
    downtime.
  • The reputation of the IT staff on the team is influenced
    because any failure, regardless of who is at fault, will be
    perceived as a mistake by the team.


Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   59
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫06‬
 Relative Cost to Fix an Error
              Phase in Which                                Cost Ratio
           Requirement is Found
               Requirements                                        1

                       Design                                    3-6

                       Coding                                     10

            Development Testing                                 15-40

             Acceptance Testing                                 30-70

                     Operation                                40-1000

Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   61
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫26‬
                                                                                            What
  3: ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model (1/2)
• Validate the completeness of a
  requirements definition;
• Identify software requirements;
• Identify software design objectives;
• Identify software testing objectives;
• Identify quality assurance criteria;
• Identify acceptance criteria for a completed
  software product.
 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   63
                                                                                            What
  3:ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model (2/2)
• A framework for software product quality
  definition in the customer-supplier process;
• Support for review, verification and
  validation, and a framework for quantitative
  quality evaluation, in the support process;
• Support for setting organisational quality
  goals in the management process.
• A framework for software product quality
  requirements definition in the primary
  lifecycle process;
 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   64
                                       What
3:Software Quality Attributes: ISO/IEC 9126




Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   65
                                                                                            What
3:Software Quality Attributes: ISO/IEC 9126




 Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   66
                                                               ‫پﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ پﺮﺳﺸﻬﺎ‬
     ‫•ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻳک ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ چﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬
‫•ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ پﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ کﺮﺩﻥ چﻪ‬
     ‫ﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺸک‬
  ‫•ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
     ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ کﻨﺪ؟‬
     ‫•ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ گﻴﺮﻱ کﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎ چﻴﺴﺖ؟‬
 ‫•چﻪ کﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ، ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ کﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘ‬
     ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭکﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ؟‬
    ‫‪Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory‬‬   ‫76‬
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Amirkabir University of Technology, Computer Engineering Faculty , Intelligent Systems Laboratory   68

				
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posted:1/27/2014
language:English
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