Wind Show

					Wind Energy for the EESP
         2009
  Two 800 Pound Gorillas

Climate         Oil
Crisis          Crisis
Two major issues that our students will 
        be left to deal with:

  Climate
  Crisis

                                 Oil
                                 Crisis
Why Teach & Learn
about Wind Power?
Wind is Fastest Growing Energy Source 

        US Installed Wind Capacity
         And because of:
Rising Fuel Price and 
Uncertainty
Declining Wind Costs
Federal and State 
Policies & Incentives
Local Economic 
Development
Environmental 
Stewardship
Energy Security
Consumer Demand
                      What is KidWind?
 The KidWind Project is a team of teachers, students, engineers and 
 practitioners exploring the science behind wind energy in classrooms 
around the US. Our goal is to introduce as many people as possible to 
the elegance of wind power through hands-on science activities which 
    are challenging, engaging and teach basic science principles.
   You can teach many Learning Standards
• Concept #1 - Identify and explain the •    Concept #5 - Identify and map aspects
  role of alternative energy sources and     of the earth’s surface that would be
  their conversion for use in society.       applicable to engineering alternative
• Concept #2 - Give examples of how          energy conversion systems
  energy can be transferred from one
  form to another.                       •   Concept #10 - Explain the way in
• Concept #3 - Differentiate between         which an electromagnet can be used
  potential and kinetic energy. Identify     to convert forms of energy into
  situations where kinetic energy is         electrical energy harnessed in a circuit
  transformed into potential energy and •    And MANY, MANY MORE…!
  vice versa.
• Concept #4 - Explain and utilize the
  steps of the engineering design
  process including the use of methods
  for representing solutions to a design
  problem. Recognize the parallel nature
  of the scientific method and the
  engineering design process.
Typical Wind Lessons
  (Before KidWind)
•Beaufort Scale
•Pinwheels
•Student Reports
•Discussion Activity

All very interesting but very little
of the science and technology
related to the current wind
industry is presented.

In fact most text books are
pretty negative about the future
of wind and misrepresent the
technology miserably.
                    Elementary
•   Engineering is Elementary
•   Wind Chimes
•   Wind Art
•   Building simple blades
                                   Middle
                               • Building Wind
                                 Turbines
                               • Testing Blade
                     balloon
                                 Parameters
                               • Assessing Wind
                                 Resource
                         ~3m




                               • Mathematics
streamers




Kite or balloon string
                      Secondary
• Advanced Blade
  Design
• School Siting
  Projects
• Data Analysis
• Build Model (or
  full scale!) wind
  turbines
Basic Words (Nomenclature)
Wind Machine 
– Kinetic device used to 
  capture the wind and put it 
  to work
Wind System
– Wind machine, tower, and 
  all ancillary equipment
Windmill
– Wind machine that 
  generates mechanical 
  motion (ie. water pumping, 
  grain grinding, etc.)
Wind Turbine
– A device that produces 
  electricity from the kinetic 
  energy of wind
          Wind Energy has been 
          Popular for a long time




The pilgrims arrived under the power of
wind. Cape Cod was home to the first
windmill in America. Wind helped fuel
our country’s early economy.
Early “WINDMILL” in Afghanistan (900AD)
Dutch Style Windmills used for 100s of
       years across the World
Water Pumping Windmills helped settle
        the American West
Early Electric Wind Turbines helped 
Electrify Remote Farms in the early 
               1900’s
   Birth of the Modern Wind Turbine




Smith-Putnam      California Wind Turbines
1.25 MW Turbine   1980’s
Vermont, 1940's
Wind Basics
      How Wind Works
Wind energy is created by uneven 
heating of the earth’s surface.
Also, “Geostrophic” Winds
           Land-Sea Breezes
Land-sea breezes 
created by 
temperature 
differentials
Winds also stronger 
near shore because 
of long 
unobstructed fetch
Sea breezes 
typically strongest in 
late afternoon
Valley Breeze
Mountain Breeze
   Mountain-Valley Breezes
Typically strongest in summer
Nighttime mountain breezes are stronger than 
daytime valley breezes
Mountain-valley winds can be enhanced by 
prevailing winds and convective flow between 
interior and coasts
Where is the Wind?
       Wind Varies Annually




Average annual wind speeds may vary as much as 25% 
from year to year
Wind Varies Seasonally
          Wind Varies Daily
Wind varies daily not 
only because of 
weather but because 
of convective heating
Winds typically 
strongest in mid-late 
afternoon
Convective heating is 
less of an influence in 
winter, when storms 
dominate wind 
patterns
Wind Varies Instantaneously
Who is using the Wind?
Here is Germany’s growth:
                   Our own Wind Potential




Source: U.S. DOE
What is Wind Power Used 
          For?
   Wind Turbine Applications
Generating electricity 
at Remote Sites
Producing electricity 
in parallel with utility
Water Pumping
  Electricity for 
  Remote Sites
North American 
Farms in 30’s & 40’s
Backcountry 
homes/cabins
Research Stations
Telecommunications
Boats & RV’s
Nomadic people
Cathodic protection
…
Hybrid Systems & 
Rural Electrification
  Private Merchant 
Electricity Generation
Net Metering
 Where can we find 
Wind Power Stations? 
Wind Farms
Offshore Wind
Types of Wind Turbines

 Small                                 Medium
 • Homes & Farms                       • Village Power
 • Remote Applications                 • Hybrid Systems
 $5,000-$50,000+                       • Distributed Power
 2-20 ft. diameter                     $80,000-$500,000
 £10 kW                                20-150 ft. diameter
                                       10-250 kW

                     Large (250 kW – 5 MW)
                     • Central Station Wind Farms
                     • Distributed Power
                     $750,000 - $3,000,000 (per turbine)
                     150 – 300 ft. diameter
 Small & Medium 
   Turbines
Micro
<4 ft rotor diameter
Mini / Cabin-size
3-10 ft rotor diameter
Household 
13-33 ft rotor diameter
Medium
33-200 ft rotor diameter
Medium & Large 
 Wind Turbines

 Hub height : 
  – 160’ - 260’
 Blade tip height: 
  – 240’ - 390’
Wind Turbine Perspective
            Workers            Blade
                              112’ long



                           Nacelle
                            56 tons




                        Tower
                       3 sections
          Wide Sweep

231 ft.
231 ft.




              211 ft.
              211 ft.
Turbine Technology
                Orientation
Turbines can be categorized into two overarching 
classes based on the orientation of the rotor
      Vertical Axis         Horizontal Axis
     Lift vs Drag: 
Vertical Axis Wind 
       Turbines
Lift Device 
Lift Device 
   “Darrieus”
   – Low solidity, 
     aerofoil blades
   – More efficient 
     than drag device
Drag Device 
  “Savonius”
   – High solidity, cup 
     shapes are 
     pushed by the 
     wind
   – At best can 
     capture only 15% 
     of wind energy
    VAWT’s have not been 
 commercially successful, yet…
Every few years a new 
company comes along 
promising a revolutionary 
breakthrough in wind 
turbine design that is low 
cost, outperforms anything 
else on the market, and 
                                 WindStor
overcomes all of the                         Mag-Wind
previous problems with 
VAWT’s. They can also 
usually be installed on a 
roof or in a city where wind 
is poor.
                                WindTree    Wind Wandler
Horizontal Axis 
Wind Turbines
Rotors are usually 
Up-wind of tower
Some machines 
have down-wind 
rotors, but only 
commercially 
available ones are 
small turbines
It all starts with Blade Design
          Airfoil Nomenclature
wind turbines use the same aerodynamic principals as
                      aircraft
    Pitch Control vs. Stall Control
• Pitch Control
   – Blades rotate out of the
     wind when wind speed
     becomes too great
• Stall Control
   – Blades are at a fixed pitch
     that starts to stall when
     wind speed is too great
   – Pitch can be adjusted for
     particular location’s wind
     regime
• Active Stall Control
   – Many larger turbines today
     have active pitch control
     that turns the blades
     towards stall when wind
     speeds are too great
Inside a Wind Turbine
Active & Passive Yaw
Active Yaw (all medium & 
large turbines produced 
today, & some small 
turbines from Europe)
 – Anemometer on nacelle tells 
   controller which way to point 
   rotor into the wind
 – Yaw drive turns gears to 
   point rotor into wind
Passive Yaw (Most small 
turbines)
 – Wind forces alone direct rotor
       Tail vanes
       Downwind turbines
Environmental & Other 
Concerns about Wind
    Some Concerns about Wind
    (that can be addressed with proper information)

Visual / Aesthetic
Property Values
Noise
Birds
Safety
Are benefits real?
  Visual Impact
Many people think wind 
turbines are graceful, 
kinetic sculptures.”
People who have never 
seen modern wind turbines 
in person are more likely to 
think they will be an 
eyesore.
There are always people 
who complain about visual 
impacts before a project is 
built.
Approval rates are higher 
after projects are built and 
in areas that already have 
turbines.
  Similar 
 Structures
Utility Poles
Radio Towers
Cell Phone Towers
Water Towers
  Similar 
 Structures
Utility Poles
Radio Towers
Cell Phone Towers
Water Towers
 Approval Rates Increase with 
Actual Exposure to Technology
  What about 
  the birds?
Wind Turbines kill very 
few birds compared to 
other human activities
Estimates are ~1-2 bird 
deaths per turbine per 
year
Global warming is the        “As responsible citizens, stewards,
single biggest threat to     and advocates, Mass Audubon
wildlife today               strongly supports public policies and
A recent study in Nature     private projects that advance energy
                             conservation and efficiency. We also
found that more than 1/3     support the development of wind
of species worldwide will    farms, as a renewable energy source
be extinct by 2050 if        to offset the effects of global climate
global warming trends        change produced by the burning of
continue                     fossil fuels.” Sept. 21, 2004
Bird deaths in perspective
 Turbines are noisy, right?
Older wind turbines 
are louder. Newer 
machines turn 
slower and are 
much quieter
It is possible to hold 
a quiet conversation 
at the base of a 
modern wind turbine
Go to MMA or Hull 
and listen!
  Do wind farms impact tourism 
     and property values?
Yes -- Positively.
There is NO evidence from
existing wind facilities 
  anywhere in the world 
  (including locations very 
  similar to Cape Cod that 
  have offshore turbines) that  In fact, the majority of
                                studies conducted after wind
  wind turbines have a 
                                farms have been built show
  negative impact on property  that both tourism and
  values or tourism.            property values increase!
Are Wind Turbines Unsafe?
Not a single passerby has 
ever been injured by wind 
turbines
There have been no 
collisions with turbines by 
any type of vehicle
Ice shedding is very rare
– When it occurs Ice falls 
  near base of turbine -- not 
  thrown far distances
Only one member of the 
public has been killed by a 
wind turbine (a German 
parachutist on her first         Wind turbine at Exhibition Place,
solo jump)                       Downtown Toronto
     Are the benefits real?
Back up Power?
– Turbines do not require any new 
  back up generation or spinning 
  reserves. 
Emission reductions?
– Wind energy is accepted on the 
  grid before any other source 
  when it is available, offsetting 
  the need for more polluting 
  sources. Each MWh of wind is 
  one less MWh of electricity from 
  a fossil fuel plant
Economics?
– Wind provides long-term price 
  stability and is competitive with 
  today’s energy costs. Economic 
  benefit is realized by whoever 
  buys (and sells) the power.
Power in the Wind
       Kinetic Energy in the 
               Wind         2
     Kinetic Energy = Work = ½mV
Where:
M= mass of moving object 
V = velocity of moving object


What is the mass of moving air? 

= density (ρ) x volume (Area x distance)       A
= ρ x A x d
                                           V
= (kg/m3) (m2) (m)                                 d
= kg
  Calculation of Wind Power

Power in the wind  
  =  ½ r A V3
– Effect of air density, r
– Effect of swept area, A
                                  R
– Effect of wind speed, V

      Swept Area: A = πR2 
      Area of the circle swept 
      by the rotor (m2).
 Importance of Rotor Diameter
Swept are is 
proportional to square 
of the rotor diameter
20% increase in rotor 
diameter increases 
area by 44%
Doubling diameter 
increases area 4 
times
Importance of 
 Wind Speed
No other factor is more
important to the amount
of power available in
the wind than the speed
of the wind
Power is a cubic function 
of wind speed
 VXVXV
20% increase in wind 
speed means 73% more 
power
Doubling wind speed 
means 8 times more 
power
 Importance of 
  Distribution
“Because speed distribution 
plays such an important role in 
determining power, it’s always 
preferable to use an actual 
measured distribution.”
        Paul Gipe, Wind Power
     Wind Speed & Height
Higher means stronger, smoother wind
“Micro-Siting”
           Turbulence




Top View         Side View
Economics & Jobs
There are lots of exciting career 
          possibilities
              Developers
              Turbine Technicians
              Manufacturing
              Sales & Marketing
              Utility Engineers
              Geophysical Engineers
              Concrete/Structural Engineering
              Turbine Engineering (ME/EE/Aerospace)
              Site/Civil Engineering
              Microelectronic/Computer Programming
              Business Expertise (Financial)
              Legal Expertise
              Meteorologists
 Does Small Wind Energy Pay?
Does wind energy have to pay for itself?
– We often buy items of equivalent cost that provide no 
  monetary value, and often cost money to use
– Off grid customers are looking for least cost option 
  (connect to grid, diesel generator, solar/wind hybrid, 
  etc..)
Comparing initial costs is not useful
– Wind has no fuel cost
– Generators are cheaper per kW, but not necessarily 
  cheaper at producing energy over the entire life
“You’re paying for a wind machine whether you 
want to or not, every time you mail your check 
to the utility.” – Mike Bergey
            Economic Factors
Installed Cost
Operation & Maintenance
– Typically ~ 1 cent per kWh
Financing
– (equivalent to lost interest if paying cash)
Insurance
Taxes
Revenues: Savings & Sales
–   Savings worth more value because not taxed
–   Sales may generate taxable income
–   REC’s may be able to be sold
–   Must account for rising cost of electricity 
      as it compares to inflation
     Economic Incentives
Tax Credits
Tax Exemptions
Rebates
Production Incentives & Rebates
Accelerated Depreciation
Grants & Loans
Net Metering Arrangements
www.dsireusa.org
www.masstech.org
 Growing Economies of Scale



                  1981      1985     1990      1996      1999      2001
Rotor (Meter)      10         17       27        40        50        70
KW                 25        100      225       550       750      1,500
Total Cost       $65,000   $165,000 $300,000 $580,000   $730,000 $1,300,000
Cost/kW          $2,600    $1,650   $1,333    $1,050     $950      $790
MWh                45        220      550      1,480     2,200     5,600

    Larger turbines are more cost effective per kW.
    But the value of each kWh depends on whether it is used behind the
    meter (12-15 ¢/kWh )or sold to the grid (3-5¢/kWh).
    Cape Cod Regional 
     Technical School
African Windpower AWP 3.6 
  Turbine (installed June 2005)
   •  1.5 kW capacity
   •  ~250-350 kWh/month
       (about half of an average household’s 
         demand)
127 foot, tilt-up, guy-wired tower
SMA WindyBoy Inverter
Installed as an educational tool
   (It’s a demonstration of small wind energy 
       technology, not necessarily an example of 
       what to do)
 Upper Cape Tech

Aircon 10 turbine
  •  10 kW capacity
  •  ~1250-1750 kWh/month
     (2½ - 3 times an average 
       household’s demand)
Freestanding, tubular, 
  counterbalancing tower
2 SMA WindyBoy Inverters
                                   Cape Tech UCT
Design & Permitting                         $1,500              $1,500
Turbine                                     $3,350            $36,000
Tower                                       $8,550            $20,000
Installation                              $10,000             $13,000
Installed Cost                            $22,400             $70,000
Rebate from MTC*                            $5,825            $50,000
Cost to School                            $16,575             $20,000
Expected Output                       300 kWh/m          1500 kWh/m
Savings/year@22¢/kWh                          $792              $3,960
Simple Payback                            21 years             5 years
* Rebate structure improved from Cape Tech to UCT example; rebate will be
different for other applications, and additional incentives may be available.
--All prices are provided for example only – actual prices may vary--
Thanks to
The KidWind Project
www.kidwind.org
Joe Rand
joe@kidwind.org

				
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