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Overview of Anatomy _ Physiology.ppt

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					Overview of
Anatomy &
Physiology
                        Objective
n   1. Describe the basic functions of living organisms. 
n   2. Define anatomy and physiology, and describe the various 
    subspecialties of each discipline. 
n   3. Identify the major levels of organization in living organisms
n   4. Identify the organ systems of the human body and the major 
    components of each system. 
n   5. Explain the significance of homeostasis
n   6. Describe how positive and negative feedback are involved in 
    homeostatic regulation. 
n   7. Use anatomical terms to describe body' sections, body regions and 
    relative positions. 
n   8. Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions
State Objective
Overview of Anatomy &
Physiology
ANATOMY
n The study of the structure and 

  shape of the body and body 
  parts and their relationship to 
  one another
n Derived from the Greek words: 

  to cut (tomy) apart (ana)
Overview of Anatomy &
Physiology
Gross Anatomy
n The study of large, easily 

  observable structures (eg, 
  heart, bones)
Microscopic Anatomy
n A microscope or magnifying 

  instrument is used to see very 
  small structures in the body 
  (eg, cells, tissues)
Overview of Anatomy &
Physiology
PHYSIOLOGY
n The study of how the body and 

  its parts work or function
n Derived from the Latin words: 

  nature (physio), the study of 
  (ology) 
Overview of Anatomy &
Physiology
Subdivisions of Physiology 
  (Examples)
n Neurophysiology: explains the 

  workings of the nervous 
  system
n Cardiac physiology: studies 

  the function of the heart
Levels of
Structural
Organization
Levels of the Hierarchy
n   Atoms: building blocks of 
    matter
n   Molecules: groups of atoms 
    (eg, water, sugar, proteins)
n   Organelles: basic components 
    of microscopic cells
n   Cells: smallest units of all 
    living things
        Levels of the Hierarchy
Tissues: groups of similar cells that have 
  a common function
Organ: a structure composed of two or 
  more tissue types that perform a 
  specific function for the body
Organ System: a group of organs that 
  cooperate and work closely together to 
  accomplish a common purpose
Organism: the highest level of structural 
  organization
Homeostasis
            Homeostasis
n   The body’s ability to maintain relatively 
    stable internal conditions even though 
    the outside world is continuously 
    changing
n   It indicates a dynamic state of 
    equilibrium, or a balance, in which 
    internal conditions change and vary, but 
    always within relatively narrow limits
             Homeostasis
n   The body is in homeostasis when its 
    needs are being adequately met and it is 
    functioning smoothly
n   Every organ system plays a role in 
    maintaining the constancy of the internal 
    environment
         Homeostatic Control
         Mechanism
Three components
1. Receptor

2. Control center

3. Effector
             Homeostatic Control
             Mechanism
RECEPTOR
n It is some type of sensor that monitors and 

  responds to changes in the environment
n It responds to changes, called stimuli, by 

  sending information (input) to the control 
  center
n Information flows from the receptor to the 

  control center along the afferent pathway
              Homeostatic Control
              Mechanism
CONTROL CENTER
n Determines the level (set point) at which a 

  variable is to be maintained
n Analyzes the information it receives and then 

  determines the appropriate response or 
  course of action
             Homeostatic Control
             Mechanism
EFFECTOR
n Provides means for the control center’s 
  response (output) to the stimulus
n Information flows from the control center 
  to the effector along the efferent
  pathway
n The results of the response then feed
  back to influence the stimulus
             Feedback Mechanisms
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
n The net effect of the response to the 
  stimulus is to shut off the original 
  stimulus or reduce its intensity (eg, 
  blood glucose regulation)
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
n Tends to increase the original stimulus 
  and to push the variable farther from its 
  original value (eg, blood clotting)
The Language of
Anatomy
               Anatomical Position
n   The body is erect with the feet parallel 
    and the arms hanging at the sides with 
    the palms facing forward
              Directional Terms
Superior (cranial or cephalad)
n Toward the head end or upper part of a 
  structure of the body
Inferior (caudal)
n Away from the head end or toward the lower 
  part of a structure or the body
Anterior (ventral)
n Toward or at the front of the body

Posterior (dorsal)
n Toward or at the backside of the body
                  Directional Terms
Medial
n Toward or at the midline of the body
Lateral
n Away from the midline of the body
Proximal
n Close to the origin of the body part or the point of 
  attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal
n Farther away from the origin of a body part or the 
  point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial
n Toward or at the body surface
Deep
n Away from the body surface; more internal
             Regional Terms
Axial
n makes up the main axis of the body. 

n consists of the head, neck, and trunk

Appendicular
n consists of the appendages or limbs
               Body Planes & Sections
Sagittal section
n A cut made along the lengthwise or 

  longitudinal plane of the body
n Divides the body into right and left parts

Midsagittal/Median section
n The cut is made down the median plane of the 

  body and the right and left parts are equal in 
  size
                Body Planes & Sections
Frontal section
n A cut made along a lengthwise plane that 

  divides the body (or an organ) into anterior 
  and posterior parts
n Also called a coronal section

Transverse section
n A cut is made along a horizontal plane, 

  dividing the body or organ into superior and 
  inferior parts
n Also called a cross-section
               Body Cavities
DORSAL BODY CAVITY
n  Has two subdivisions which are continuous 
   with each other
  1. Cranial cavity: the space inside the skull

  2. Spinal cavity: extends from the cranial 
     cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral 
     column
                 Body Cavities
VENTRAL BODY CAVITIES
n  Much larger than the dorsal cavity
n  Contains all the structures in the chest and abdomen
n  Two major subdivisions:
  1. Thoracic cavity: houses the lungs, heart and 
     mediastinal structures
  2. Abdominopelvic cavity: stomach, liver, intestines, 
     spleen, reproductive organs, urinary bladder, etc
Abdominopelvic
Quadrants and
Regions
Body types
• There are 3 somatotypes;
1. Endomorph
2. Mesomorph
3. Ectomorph
Somatotyping – Endomorph

• Wide hips and narrow shoulders

• A lot of fat on the body

• A lot of fat on the upper arms

• Quite slim wrists and ankles

• Large percentage of body fat
                                          Pear-shaped
• Low centre of gravity

• Wider from front to back than from side to side
Somatotyping – Mesomorph

• Broad shoulders and narrow hips

• A large cubical head

• A muscular body

• Strong forearms and thighs

• Lower percentage body fat

• Narrow from front to back
                                    Wedge-shaped
• Heavily muscles arms and legs
Extreme
Mesomorph


• Body Builders
Somatotyping – Ectomorph

• Narrow shoulders and hips

• A thin face and high forehead

• A thin narrow chest & abdomen

• Thin legs and arms

• Very little muscle or body fat
                                   Thin & Tall
Somatotyping

It has been noted that;-

• Extremes of these body types are rare.

• Most people are a combination of each type.

• Successful sport performers tend to have
a high level of mesomorphy.
1. The science dealing with the functions of the body
parts is called

A. physiology.
B. cytology.
C. anatomy.
D. biology.
2. The level of organization when different
tissues join together is called the

A. chemical level.
B. cellular level.
C. tissue level.
D. organ level.
3. The condition in which the body's internal
environment stays within physiological limits is

A. responsiveness.
B. homeostasis.
C. differentiation.
D. growth.
4. All of the following belong to feedback
systems which control homeostasis EXCEPT

A. control center
B. receptor
C. effector
D. receiver
5. In a negative feedback system, the response
of the effector

A. enhances the original stimulus.
B. eliminates the original stimulus.
C. reverses the original stimulus.
D. does not change the original stimulus.
6. In the anatomical position the subject
is

A. lying down.
B. has arms placed above the head.
C. is standing upright facing the observer with
the palms backwards.
D. is standing upright facing the observer with
the palms forward.
7. The plane that divides the body into superior
and inferior portion is the

A. saggital plane.
B. transverse plane.
C. oblique plane.
D. frontal plane.
8. The anatomical term which best describes a
structure toward the head is

A. superficial.
B. deep.
C. inferior.
D. superior.
9. The best anatomical term to describe the back
region of the body would be

A. ventral.
B. dorsal.
C. gluteal.
D. deep.
10. The brain and the spinal cord are located in
the

A. ventral cavity.
B. dorsal cavity.
C. abdominal cavity.
D. thoracic cavity.
6.


      Smooth muscle is an 
      example of which 
      level of structural 
      organization?
       

       
                             A. Tissue level.
       
                             B. Chemical level.
       
                             C. Organ level.
       
                             D. Cellular level.
7.



_____________ investigates the body's
structure, whereas __________ investigates the
processes or functions of living things.

•Physiology, cytology
•Physiology, anatomy
•Histology, cytology
•Anatomy, physiology
8. Explain the significance of
homeostasis.
p. 34 in Textbook. Answer review
questions and critical thinking
questions.

				
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