Overview – Britain in the Second World War - the Marist Schools.ppt by hcj


									Overview – Britain in the
  Second World War
                  The War Begins
     September 1, 1939                   Devastating effects
• Germany attacked Poland           • Polish air force destroyed
• World War II begins               • Soldiers fought; no match for
                                      German forces
• Blitzkrieg or “lightning war”
                                    • No natural barriers in the way

      Support for Poland             German troops in position
• Britain and France declared war   • On Germany’s western border
  on Germany
                                    • Hitler eager for assault on
• Allies gave no real help            France
• Poland fell into German hands     • Plans for invasion made
Attack on France
• Denmark and Norway captured; the Netherlands and Belgium
• Tank attack through Ardennes; overwhelmed light resistance there
• Heroic Dunkirk rescue; France surrendered in June 1940

Battle for Britain
• Great Britain stood alone against German war machine; Churchill
  now leader
• Radar technology secret weapon for air defense
• British stood firm during Battle of Britain; Hitler called off invasion
   Invasion of the Soviet Union
• June 1941, Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union
  had initial successes
• Major goals of Leningrad and Moscow not
  reached before harsh Soviet winter
• Soviet armies had time to rebuild and would fight
    With what events did the war begin?

Answer(s): invasion of Poland, followed by the
massing of German troops on its western border
Chapter 24, Section 2   Europe Goes to War
     • How did the German invasion of Poland
       lead to war with Britain and France?
     • What wartime victories and setbacks did
       Germany experience in western Europe?
     • Why was the Battle of Britain an important
       victory for Britain?
Chapter 24, Section 2   Invasion of Poland
     • After Hitler invaded other parts of Czechoslovakia,
       Britain and France ended their policy of appeasement.
       They warned Hitler that an invasion of Poland would
       mean war.
     • Hitler, however, had stopped believing Britain and
       France. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded
       Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany
       two days later.
     • Germany quickly overran Poland using a new military
       tactic called blitzkrieg, or “lightening war.” Blitzkrieg
       tactics involved a fast, concentrated attack that took
       the enemy by surprise.
     • To avoid war on two fronts, Germany signed a
Chapter 24, Section 2   War in the West
     Early Stages of War in the West
     • “Phony War” and the Maginot Line: After Poland fell,
       the war entered a quiet period. The American press
       called this lack of combat a “phony war.” France
       prepared a massive string of fortifications, known as
       the Maginot Line, along its border with Germany.
     • Germany Attacks: In April and May 1940, Germany
       attacked and quickly conquered Denmark, Norway,
       the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
     • Dunkirk: When Germany advanced on France, British
       and French forces retreated to the French coastal city
       of Dunkirk. From there, hundreds of thousands of
       soldiers were ferried to Great Britain in one of the
Chapter 24, Section 2   The Fall of France
     • On June 22, 1940, France officially
       surrendered to Germany.
     • In accordance with the surrender terms,
       Germany occupied most of France, while the
       French government controlled an area known
       as Vichy France in the south. Vichy France
       adopted a policy of collaboration, or close
       cooperation, with Germany.
     • A French Resistance movement, supported by
       the Free French government in exile in Britain,
       sought to undermine German occupation.
Chapter 24, Section 2   German Aggression
    Between 1939 and 1941, Germany invaded and
    conquered much of Europe.
Chapter 24, Section 2   German Aggression
    Between 1939 and 1941, Germany invaded and
    conquered much of Europe.
Chapter 24, Section 2   The Battle of Britain
     Relentless Attack                    Courageous Defense
     • Before attempting to invade        • Although greatly outnumbered,
       Great Britain, Germany wanted        Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF)
       to establish superiority in the      worked to shoot down German
       air.                                 bombers.
     • In August 1940, Germany            • Despite massive losses, the
       launched an air assault on           British people kept their will to
       Britain, called the Battle of        fight.
       Britain, which continued well      • By February 1940, British
       into September.                      scientists cracked the German
     • At first, Germany only attacked      secret communication code.
       British military sites. However,     This enabled Britain to get a
       it later began bombing London        general idea of Hitler’s battle
       and other cities to decrease         plans.
       British morale.
                        Europe Goes to War—
Chapter 24, Section 2

     How did Britain and France react to Hitler’s invasion of Poland?
           (A) They declared war on Germany.
           (B) They continued their policy of appeasement.
           (C) They signed a nonagression pact with the Soviet Union.
           (D) They surrendered to Germany.

     Why was the Battle of Britain considered a victory for Great
          (A) It gave Britain control of Denmark and Norway.
          (B) It resulted in very little damage to London.
          (C) It failed to decrease British morale.
          (D) to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
          Want It helped the French Resistance reconquer France.
• Invasion of
• The Fall of
• North Africa
• Stalingrad
• Battle of the
• Hitler demanded the Baltic Sea port which was
  in Polish control
• Alleged allies such as Britain & France were
  going to back Poland’s refusal for the sea port
• Germany turned to the USSR for support in
  invasion of Poland
• Germany attacked from the west and the
  USSR from the east
• The warfare became known as blitzkrieg –
  “lightening war” using tanks & aircraft
• Poland Fell to German forces on October 5th
• The Maginot line were bunkers built in
  protection against Germany
• Hitler simply went around the Maginot line and
  invaded through the Netherlands,Belgium &
• France was caught by surprise leaving the
  French & British forces trapped in Belgium
• A miracle occurred at a port called Dunkirk
  when German forces halted giving time for
  evacuation & saved the country from complete
  defeat by Hitler
• US president Roosevelt invaded Morocco & Algeria
  for the experience and to aid Britain in the fight
  against Germany in Egypt.
• During El Alamein General Erwin Rommel who lead
  the German forces planned to trap US and British
  forces in between Tunisia and Libya
• US forces did not fare well up against German force
  causing 7,000 casualties and losing 200 tanks
• Luckily Both American and British Forces forced
  Germany to surrender in North Africa
• With confidence and
  persistency Hitler wanted
  to cut off supplies to
  Stalingrad which would
  keep the Soviets in the
• Joseph Stalin ordered all
  troops to hold forcing
  German forces to the front
• Soviets surrounded
  250,000 German troops
• 91,000 surrendered & only
• One last desperate
  attempt by Hitler
  involved blocking
  supplies coming
  through Belgium
• Germany caught
  Americans surrounding
• General Patton and
  troops saved the
  Americans by attacking
  German forces
• Germany lost the battle
  with 100,000 casualties
• President Roosevelt and Churchill planned the
  invasion of France which was lead by General
• The US forces were going to surprise Germany using
  rubber tanks,and dummy landing craft. This
  completely fooled Germany while they attacked
  through Normandy
• 100,000 soldiers by boat
• 23,000 paratroopers
• Soviet troops began a massive attack on German
  Troops sending German forces back to Poland
• The Soviets had Germany by the Eastern border and
  America had attacked German forces by the Western
• This crushed the German forces causing the suicide of
• The Surrender of Germany was on May 8th 1945
Lightning War
       • The alliance of Britain,
         France and Poland had
         more soldiers and more
         infantry division than
       • Each German division
         had superior firepower-
         more machine guns,
         artillery and other
• German practiced a new form of attack that they
  unveiled in the invasion of Poland.
• Called blitzkrieg, this new military tactic included a fast,
  concentrated air and land attack that took the enemy’s
  army by surprise.
• Using the blitzkrieg tactic, German troops overran
  Poland in less than a month.
• They imposed German laws, and imprisoned and
  murdered Jewish citizens.
• Soviet forces joined the German attack. Stalin seized
  eastern Poland for the Soviet Union.
           War in the West
• After Poland fell, the war entered a quiet
  period. The British and French held back
  their troops, fearing tremendous losses.
• The key defense for the French was the
  Maginot Line, a massive string of
  fortifications along France’s border with
Maginot Line
      • Maginot Line provided
        housing for troops,
        recreational areas, and
        even air conditioning.
      • The two major problems
        with this line was that it
        only protected part of
        France and all of its
        heavy guns pointed east,
        towards Germany.
             Germany Attacks
• On April 9, 1940, Hitler
  began a successful attack
  on Denmark and Norway.
• The German army
  overran Luxembourg in a
• German motorized and
  made their way all the
  way into northern France.
• The German drive west divided British and
  French troops into two pockets, one in the north
  and one in the south.
• In the face of Germany’s advance, French and
  British forces in the north retreated to the coastal
  city of Dunkirk.
• Braving merciless attacks by the Luftwaffe,
  about 900 vessels carried some 340,000
  soldiers across the English to Great Britain
  (most heroic escape in history)
The Fall of France
         • On June 10, the French
           government abandoned
         • Italy declared war on
           France and Great Britain
           on the Same day.
         • On June 14, German
           troops entered Paris and
           on June 22, France
• According to the surrender terms,
  Germany occupied the northern 3/5 of
  France and the entire Atlantic Coast
  southward to Spain.
• Free France, a government in exile in
  London, continued the struggle against the
  German invaders from bases in Britain
  and colonies in Africa.
               Battle of Britain
• “We shall fight on the
  beaches, we shall
  fight on the landing
  grounds, we shall
  fight in the fields and
  in the streets, we
  shall fight in the hills;
  we shall never
  surrender” Churchill
• Britain’s large and well equipped navy stood
  between Hitler and England. German had to
  control the air to neutralize the standoff.
• Hitler turned to the Luftwaffe to destroy the
  British’s air defense.
• In Late August, a group of German bombers
  strayed off course and dropped their bombs on
  London. Two nights later British plans bombed
         Courageous Defense
• Britain’s Royal Air Force stoutly defended its
  homeland even though they were greatly
• In December 1940, German bombing of London
  started some 1500 fires, setting the center of the
  historic city ablaze.
• By the end of 1941, when the German air raids
  ended, some 20,000 Londoners had been killed
  and more than 70000 injured.
  1   Hitler’s Lightning War

                                     Section    1     Assessment

                1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
                thoughts. Identify the effects of each of the early
                events of World War II that are listed below.

                      Cause                                         Effect

        First blitzkrieg                            The fall of Poland

                                                    338,000 soldiers saved
        Allies stranded at Dunkirk
                                                    British forces leave Western Europe.

                                                    British able to hold off German
        British radar detects German aircraft

                                                    U.S. supplied Allies with war goods.
        Lend-Lease Act
                                                    U.S. decision to favor the Allies
                                                                                           continued . . .
  1   Hitler’s Lightning War

                          Section   1   Assessment

           2. Great Britain and the Soviet city of Leningrad
           each fought off a German invasion. Other
           countries gave in to the Germans without much
           resistance. What factors do you think a country’s
           leaders consider when deciding whether to
           surrender or to fight?
               • the country’s ability to fight
           THINK ABOUT

               • the costs of resisting
               • the costs of surrendering


                                                               continued . . .
  1   Hitler’s Lightning War

                               Section   1   Assessment

                  Ability to Fight: army large enough to fight the
      :           enemy, sufficient weapons
                  Costs of Resisting: major civilian and military
                  deaths, destruction of property, economic
                  Costs of Surrendering: enemy control of the
                  government, repression of the population

                                                                     End of Section 1
  1   Hitler’s Lightning War

                               Section   1   Assessment

                  Ability to Fight: army large enough to fight the
      :           enemy, sufficient weapons
                  Costs of Resisting: major civilian and military
                  deaths, destruction of property, economic
                  Costs of Surrendering: enemy control of the
                  government, repression of the population

                                                                     End of Section 1

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