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					    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 6, November – December 2013                                    ISSN 2278-6856

                                Vinti Parmar1 , Meenakshi Chawla2 , Rajender Singh3
      Department of Computer Science and Applications, First Lady Teacher Mata Savitri Bai Phoole Government Girls College
                                                           Rewari ,
                                            P.O. Rewari 123401,Haryana , India

             Department of Computer Science, The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences , P.O Bhiwani-127021
                                                      Haryana , INDIA
Abstract - Cloud Computing is the emerging field of                 resource pool. Cloud computing achieve multi-level
computer science . It is growing day by day due to its rich         virtualization and abstraction through effective
features of services. It is a virtual pool of resources which are   integration of variety of computing, storage, data,
provided to the users through Internet .Cloud computing can         applications and other resources, users can be easy to use
be defined as a computing environment where computing               powerful computing and storage capacity of cloud
needs party can be outsourced to another party and when             computing only need to connect to the network.Cloud
need be arise to use the computing power or resources like
                                                                    computing is TCP/IP based high development and
database or emails, they can access them via internet. Cloud
computing is a recent trend in IT that moves computing and
                                                                    integrations of computer technologies such as fast
data away from desktop and portable PCs into large data             microprocessor, huge memory, high-speed network and
centers. The main advantage of cloud computing is that              reliable system architecture. Without the standard inter-
customers do not have to pay for infrastructure, its                connect protocols and mature of assembling data center
installation, required man power to handle such                     technologies, cloud computing would not become reality
infrastructure and maintenance                                      too. In October 2007, IBM and Google announced
                                                                    collaboration in cloud computing. The term “cloud
Keywords- cloud computing, applications, architecture,              computing” become popular from then on. Beside the web
business component of cloud computing, issues.                      email, the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) ,
                                                                    Google App Engine and Salesforce’s CRM largely
1.INTRODUCTION                                                      represent a promising conceptual foundation of cloud
The term "cloud" originates from the world of tele-                 services. The services of cloud computing are broadly
communications when providers began using virtual                   divided into three categories:
private network (VPN) services for data communications .            Infrastructure-as-a-Service      (IaaS),      Platform-as-a-
This word is a new word that appears at the fourth                  Service(PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).Cloud
season, 2007The defination of cloud computing provided              Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service
by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)            (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) . Cloud
says that: "Cloud computing is a model for enabling                 computing also is divided into five layers including
convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of            clients, applications, platform, infrastructure and servers.
configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,          The five layers look like more reasonable and clearer than
storage applications and services) that can be rapidly              the three categories This paper tries to summarize general
provisioned and released with minimal management                    characteristics of cloud computing which will help the
effort or service provider interaction. . It is an extend of        development and adoption of this rapidly evolving
changing with the need, that is to say the manufacturer             technology.     The service oriented conceptional
provide relevant hardware, software and service                     characteristic    abstracts    the    details    of   inner
according                                                           implementations. As a technical characteristic, the loose
to the need that users put forward. In fact cloud                   coupling is the key technical feature of all kinds of cloud
computing is an extend of grid computing, distributed               computing systems The ease use user experience hides
computing, and parallel computing. Cloud computing                  the complexity of cloud service providers and supply
doesn’t limit to grid, parallel and distributed computing.          cloud users with very simple interfaces. There are also
Grid Computing provides resources to the user when user             other kinds of characteristics such as TCP/IP especially
requires. Parallel                                                  Internet based, virtualization and high security.
computing executes the instruction in parallel for fast
response to complete user assigned task. Parallel                   2. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING
computing provides only fast response neither storage nor           2.1 The background of cloud computing
memory as a resource. In distributed computing,                     The underlying concept of cloud computing was
information or data is distributed in the servers situated at       introduced way back in 1960s by John McCarthy. His
different geographical areas. Cloud computing can                   opinion was that "computation may someday be
involve power of such paradigms at any level to form a              organized as a public utility. Also the characteristics of

Volume 2, Issue 6 November – December 2013                                                                            Page 188
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 6, November – December 2013                                    ISSN 2278-6856

cloud computing were explored for the first time in 1966        each user's computer. Pay per use facility allows
by Douglas Parkhill in his book, The Challenge of the           measuring the usage of application per client on regular
Computer Utility. The history of the term cloud is from         bases. Performance can be monitored and thus it is
the telecommunications world, where telecom companies           scalable. Security can be as good as or better than
started offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services         traditional systems because providers are able to devote
with comparable quality of service at a much lower cost.        resources to solving security issues that many customers
Initially before VPN, they provided dedicated point-to          cannot afford. However, security still remains an
point data circuits which was a wastage of bandwidth. But       important concern when the data is quite confidential.
by using VPN services, they can switch traffic to balance       This delays adoption of cloud computing to some extent
utilization of the overall network. Cloud computing now         .occasional intensive computing tasks. Less IT skills are
extends this to cover servers and network infrastructure.       required for implementation. Reliable service can be
Many players in the industry have jumped into cloud             obtained by the use of multiple sites which is suitable for
computing and implemented it. Amazon has played a key           business continuity and disaster recovery. However,
role and launched the Amazon Web Service (A WS) in              sometimes many cloud computing services have suffered
2006. Also Google and IBM have started research                 outages and in such times its users can hardly do
projects in cloud computing. Eucalyptus became the first        anything .
open source platform for deploying private clouds.
                                                                3. OVERVIEW OF THE ARCHITECTURE
2.2. Cloud computing principle
It is difficult to define the cloud computing. Computing is     3.1. Cloud Computing Layers
a virtual pool of computing resources. It provides              Cloud computing is broken down into three segments:
computing resources in the pool for users through               applications, platforms and infrastructure . Each segment
internet. Integrated cloud computing is a whole dynamic         serves a different purpose and offers different products for
computing system. It provides a mandatory application           businesses and individuals around the world.
program environment. It can deploy, allocate or reallocate
computing resource dynamically and monitor the usage of         A cloud client consists of computer hardware and
resources at all times .Cloud computing can have three          software that relies on cloud computing for application
types of clouds : Public, Private and Hybrid Clouds.            delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of
                                                                cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially
2.2.1. Private cloud                                            useless without it. And the server layer consists of
It is a proprietary architecture subscribed by an               computer hardware and/or computer software products
organization, which provides hosted services to the users       that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud
within the organization. This is protected by the firewall      services.
to form a barrier against outside the world to access
hosted services from the private cloud.                         3.2. Service Models
                                                                3.2.1Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
2.2.2. Public cloud                                             Cloud application services or Software as a Service is
It is not proprietary of any organization; the services         software that is deployed over the internet and/or is
provided in these clouds can be accessed by any                 deployed to run behind a firewall in our local area
organization.                                                   network or personal computer. This is a “pay-as- you-go”
                                                                model and was initially widely deployed for sales force
2.2.3. Hybrid cloud                                             automation and Customer Relationship Management
In hybrid cloud, the services are offered to the limited and    (CRM) . The advantage of SaaS are no need of specific
well defined number of parties. It can make Internet as a       hardware to run software, pay per use instant scalability
desktop. As we work on desktop, Cloud Computing can             security reliability, examples are CRM financial
be used in the same manner. Many organizations have             planning, human resources, word processing, commercial
started implementing cloud computing like Amazon,               services are sales force.com, email cloud etc. SalesForce
Google, and Microsoft etc.In cloud computing, users             CRM is an example of SaaS provider.
access the data, applications or any other services with
the help of a browser regardless of the device used and
the user's location. The infrastructure which is generally
provided by a third-party is accessed with the help of
internet. Cost is reduced to a significant level as the
infrastructure is provided by a third-party and need not be
acquired for Sharing of resources and costs amongst a
large collection of users allows efficient utilization of the
infrastructure. Maintenance is easier in case of cloud
computing applications they need not be installed on                             Figure 1 Service Models

Volume 2, Issue 6 November – December 2013                                                                       Page 189
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 6, November – December 2013                                    ISSN 2278-6856

3.2.2 Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)                             Cloud computing does not allow users to physically store
Cloud platform services or Platform as a Service, another      of their data, so data storage is done by the provider.
SaaS and this kind of cloud computing provide
development environment as a service. We can use the           3.3.6. Data security and privacy protection
middleman’s equipment to develop our own program and           The security of user data is considered to be the security
deliver it to the users through Internet and servers . The     problem of computing platforms, security problem of
advantages of PaaS are no need to buy special hardware         computing platform is an important issue of cloud
and software to develop and deploy enterprise                  computing. Cloud computing infrastructure with a multi-
applicationns, pay per use, instant scalability, security,     tenant properties, manufacturers generally cannot
reliability; the popular services are storage, database,       guarantee that the data of two different users to achieve
scalability etc. and the examples are Google Apps,             physical separation. In addition, considering the massive
Microsoft Windows Azure etc.                                   expansion (scalability) requirements, the physical location
                                                               of the data may not be guaranteed.
3.2.3 Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
Cloud infrastructure services or Infrastructure as a service   3.3.7. Data access and storage model
delivers a platform virtualization environment as a            Now that the storage models provided by big vendors
service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data        need to adapt too many different usage scenarios. Thus,
center space or network equipment, clients instead . The       they may favor to simple memory model or a simple
advantages of IaaS are pay per use, instant scalability,       hierarchical model which based on binary object.
security, reliability, Application Programming Interfaces      Although it has brought significant flexibility, it also
(APIs) and the examples are flexi scale, AWS: EC2 etc.         increase the burden to the application logic explains the
                                                               relationship between different data elements.
3.2.4 Hardware-as-a-Service (HaaS)
According to Nicholas Carr, “the idea of buying IT             3.3.8. Lack of standards and vendor locking
hardware or even an entire data center as a pay-as-you-go      Most vendors have defined standards based mechanisms
subscription service that scales up or down to meet your       e.g. HTTP, REST (REpresentational State Transfer),
needs. But as a result of rapid advances in hardware           SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) etc. to access and
virtualization, IT automation and usage metering and           use its services. However,the standard of development
pricing, we think the concept of HaaS and may at last be       services in cloud computing is just rising and now the
ready for prime time. This model is advantageous to the        lack the function of write once and run everywhere.
enterprise users, since they do not need to invest in
building and managing data centers. Potentially,               3.3.9. Services Interoperability
everything from generic word processing software to            Currently, cloud computing doesn’t have enough support
customized computer programs designed for a specific           for the interoperability of services, this have a lots
company could work on a cloud computing system.                problems for the service of cross platform or the services
                                                               between different service.
3.3. Challenges
Although the cloud computing technology is emerging we         4. FUTURES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
think there are several challenges in cloud computing          The system administration, configuration and network
technology. These are described briefly below.                 management will become an important field bursting with
                                                               innovation. Trends of large vendors entering into cloud
3.3.1. Regulatory Compliance                                   computing will be accelerated. All major Integrated
When outsourcing to a provider, customers are                  Development Environments (IDEs) will offer Cloud
responsible for the security and integrity of their own        deployment options. Platform-as-a- Service will take its
data, even when it is held by a third party provider.          first steps into the mainstream. A next generation of
                                                               Middleware for the Cloud will rise in dominance over
3.3.2. Dependency                                              traditional J2EE application servers. Cloud computing is
It is only possible to use applications or services that the   widening, but focus on an open platform mainly.
provider is willing to offer.                                  Windows Azure is mostly a better platform of Exchange.
                                                               Google would increase the area of investment in the
3.3.3. Data Location & Privacy Restrictions                    enterprise; more business users will use Google Apps.
US & EU have different privacy standards, subject to           The first batch of SaaS 1.0 companies will face the risk of
differing laws.                                                bankruptcy. The number of firms who abandon the use of
                                                               its own server increased significantly. Private cloud
3.3.4. Recovery                                                computing services have been popular. Business
Data segmentation makes back-ups more difficult.               Intelligence (BI) will be SaaS’s next target. SAP or
                                                               Oracle will enter Platform-as-a Service area. Enterprise
3.3.5. Data Storage

Volume 2, Issue 6 November – December 2013                                                                     Page 190
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 6, November – December 2013                                    ISSN 2278-6856

adoption and usage of social networks will be faster and
so on.

This paper presents all about of cloud computing which is
a new emerging technology in present world. Although
there are several issues and challenges in cloud
computing technology, a huge scope for research and we
can say that it is a development trend in near future. It is
predicted that this technology brings for us an infinite
capability of computing, fast micro processor, huge
memory, high-speed network, reliable system architecture
etc. by solving the existing issues and challenges and we
will enter a new era of next generation computing
through cloud computing technology.

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Volume 2, Issue 6 November – December 2013                                          Page 191

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