Observation Tools Overview and User Guide - School Psychology .pptx by hcj


									Observation Tools
Overview and User
  Why Observation Tools?

Does the need to determine the impact a student's ADHD is
having in the classroom or quantitatively describe a student's
noncompliance sound familiar?

Do you need a count of how many times a day or class period
a student is out of her seat without permission or know how
long a student's average tantrum is in order to monitor
effectiveness of an intervention?
      Why Observation tools?

Regardless of specific behavior of focus, in almost all
cases data collection sets out to measure the rate of
behavior (i.e. the frequency with which the behavior
occurs over a given period of time)

And the goal of the intervention will be to reduce the
frequency of the inappropriate behaviors and increase
the frequency of appropriate behaviors.
  Observation Tools Overview

Robust observation tools
custom-designed for
School Psychologists

Event, Duration, Interval,
and ABC recording

User-defined Behaviors

Allows for optional peer
Easy to Use and Customizable

Save time by more efficiently and
effectively observing students

Easily create summaries and
reports of observational data

Customize target behaviors,
observation techniques, and report
      Event Recording

Simple counting of how many times a behavior
occurs during a specific period of time (i.e.
minutes, hours, days, weeks, months)

Best for behaviors that are discrete and short in
duration such as curse words, getting out of seat
without permission, or spitting
Event Recording
Case Study: Evan
A second grade teacher approaches you with
concerns regarding a student named Evan who
is in her reading group.

She states that Evan "frequently gets out of his
seat without permission during the 30 minute
lesson and that this behavior is disruptive to the
learning environment."

His teacher explains that Evan typically wanders
away from the table where reading group takes
place for a brief period of time (seconds) and
then willingly returns following a verbal prompt
  Event Recording
  Case Study: Evan
Before you and Evan's teacher can brainstorm intervention ideas and strategies
to address this concern, you must observe and quantify Evan's behavior so that
you can:

                  1. determine if the behavior is actually indicative of a problem, meaning
                  that it is happening as frequently as his teacher thinks it is and more
                  often than his peers are displaying this same behavior, AND

                  2. to measure progress over time and evaluate whether the
                  interventions you put in place are in fact effective

   Since Evan's behavior is described as discrete, short in duration, and as having a
   clear beginning and end, you decide to use Event Recording to gather this
   quantitative data
 Event Recording
Before you Study: observation,
Case can begin yourEvan you
must decide upon a clear operational definition
for exactly what will be counted as Evan's out of
seat behavior

You and Evan's teacher agree to call the target
behavior "out of seat without permission" and
define an occurrence of this target behavior as
"physically moving more than three feet from the
area where reading instruction is taking place."

You decide to include "more than three feet" in
your definition so that if Evan is standing briefly
next to his chair this is not counted as an
occurrence of the disruptive behavior
Event Recording
Since you Study: Evan
Case plan to observe Evan during reading
group and collect data over the course of several
sessions both before and after interventions are
put in place, you are concerned that since
different lessons will be taught on different days,
his interest and engagement in the various
activities may likely impact his out of seat
behavior and this may affect your ability to judge
if an intervention is really effective or if the
lesson was just more engaging that day

For this reason, you decide to control for the
changing lessons by gathering data not only on
Evan's out of seat without permission behavior
but also that of a peer in the same reading group
     Event Recording
     Case Study: Evan
Gathering this peer data will also help you
address the question of whether or not Evan's
behavior is truly indicative of a problem in terms
of whether or not it is happening more frequently
than his peers

There are five other students in the reading
group and you decide to rotate which peer you
will also collect data on during observation
sessions to minimize bias and so that the
comparison is reflective of the whole group
         Event Recording
Now that a clear operational
definition and other
         Case Study: Evan
parameters are established,
you will use Event Recording
to determine the number of
times Evan and a peer
display the out of his seat
without permission behavior
during a 30 minute reading

1. Tap the NEW
OBSERVATION button from
the Observations Main
Screen to begin. You will
next be asked to select the
student you will be observing
   2. Tap EVENT
Event Recording
   continue the
Case Study: Evan
   configuration of your
   new observation
   recoding session

   3. Turn PEER
   so that you can also
   observe a peer
   during this session
   for the purpose of
   comparison and

   4. Tap START
Event Recording
Case Study: Evan
   5. Tap RECORD to
   begin your
   recording. The
   running time begins
   after you tap

   6. Tap BEHAVIOR
   OCCURRED when
   Evan or his peer is
   observed out of
   seat without
Event Recording
Case Study: Evan
   7. Choose "Type a
   custom behavior" and
   input "out of seat w/o

   8. Each time the
   behavior is observed,
   OBSERVED button for
   Evan or his peer
      Event Recording
      Case Study: Evan
You may record more
than one target behavior
during a session. In fact,
there's no limit to the
number of behaviors you
can add and record
during a session.

To enter a new target
behavior, simply tap
and choose from the list
or enter additional
custom behavior as
described previously in
step #6
       Event Recording
       Case Study: Evan
button is a quick way to
record an additional
occurrence of the most
recently observed

You can also press
PAUSE at any point to
take NOTES during the
Event Recording
Case Study: Evan

   To take a note, after
   taping pause, select
   the yellow "NOTES"
   button and then use
   the keyboard to type
   your anecdotal
Event Recording
CaseAfter tapping Evan
     "STOP" you can
     review the two
     most frequently
     behaviors, create
     a report, write
     notes, or

     To create a
     report, tap
     Event Recording Report

Choose to include data
from specific observation
sessions, all sessions, or
choose the date range you
would like the report to

In this example, we will
include the data from the
one observation session
Event Recording Report

           Tap the Chart Type to toggle
           between a Bar chart or Line

           Bar charts are best used for
           a single observation
           session like in our example

           Toggle Peers "ON" to
           include peers in the report
         Event Recording Report

                After tapping
                "done," a
                frequencies is

Table                                    Bar chart

        • Toggle between table and chart to view
 Event Recording
Print/Email Report
    Tables, Charts &
    Graphs can be
    emailed or printed
    by tapping this icon
    and making your

    Tables are sent in
    .html and charts &
    graphs in ..jpeg for
    easy insertion into
    your documents
    without special
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