High Seas Conservation Opportunities for progress at the global level

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					   High Seas Conservation:
Opportunities for progress at the
          global level
     IUCN World Conservation Congress
           10 September, 2012

         Dr. Susan Lieberman
     Director, International Policy
     The Pew Environment Group

The ocean has reached a critical tipping

        State of the World’s Fisheries
• The combined estimates for fully exploited, over exploited,
  depleted or recovering from depletion is the highest ever

• Over half of fish stocks (53%) are fully exploited with no
  room for further expansion

• 32% areeither overexploited (28%), depleted (3%) or
  recovering from depletion (1 percent).
Source: FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010

Global Protected Area Coverage

            Source UNEP WCMC 2011

     To conserve High Seas Biodiversity

Actions need to be taken to:
• Establish marine protected areas and reserves on
  the high seas (legal framework needed)
• Require prior environmental impact assessments
  for activities in areas beyond national jurisdiction
• Improve monitoring, control and surveillance of
  high seas fishing vessels

Existing Legal Frameworks and High Seas
Management Instruments
  – constitution for the ocean
• RFMOs and Regional Seas Conventions
  – different mandates, incomplete coverage
  – remit limited to the Area
  – narrow mandate, sectoral approach
  – EBSA process

International Oceans Governance
• UN General Assembly (UNGA )
    – Sustainable Fisheries Resolution
    – Oceans Resolution
    – Working Group on Biodiversity in Areas Beyond
      National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)
    – Informal Consultative Process (ICP)
•   RFMOs, Regional Seas Conventions
•   CBD
•   IMO
•   ISA

Governance gaps
The sectoral nature of current high seas governance
means that there is no mechanism for

  ØCreating multi-sector marine protected areas
  ØCoordinating environmental assessments, strategic
   environmental assessments
  ØManaging impacts, including cumulative impacts,
   across sectors.

A new legal framework—such as
an implementing agreement under UNCLOS—
is essential for the Conservation of High Seas Biodiversity

Potential elements of a new agreement on the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in
areas beyond national jurisdiction
• Area-based management tools, including identification
  and establishment of MPAs and reserves
• Environmental Impact Assessments
• Technology transfer, information sharing
• Capacity building
• MGRs, including fair and equitable sharing of benefits

  United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

                          June 2012

Rio+20 basics
•Largest UN Conference
ever held (45,381

•Delegations from 188

•Over 100 Heads of
State and Government

•500 official side events

•4,075 members of the
media                       ‹#›
Where did the ocean fit in?

How did oceans get on the agenda?

18 months of preparatory work, including:

  10 Priority Issues
Unemployment, Decent      Forests
Work and Migration

                          Food and Nutrition
Economic and Financial
                          Energy for All

Fighting Poverty

Sustainable patterns of   Sustainable Cities
production and            and Innovation
consumption                                    ‹#›

Outcome document

The Future We

 •9 drafts

 •20 ocean paragraphs

Oceans and Seas
• 162 – Address high seas conservation
• 168 – Commit to achieve sustainable fisheries
• 169 – Fully implement UNFSA, the Code of Conduct for
       Responsible Fisheries and the FAO international
  plans of action and technical guidelines
• 170 – Eliminate Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported
• 172 – Enhance transparency and accountability of
• 173 - Eliminate subsidies that contribute to IUU and
• 177 - Reaffirm the importance of area-based
  conservation measures including MPAs
Sustainable Development Dialogue Days

Media Coverage

          HIGH SEAS (162)

  Decide in 2 ½ years on the way forward—
including new implementing agreement for the
  conservation and sustainable use of marine
       areas beyond national jurisdiction      ‹#›
162. We recognize the importance of the conservation
and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas
of national jurisdiction. We note the ongoing work under
the General Assembly of an ad hoc open-ended informal
working group to study issues relating to the conservation
and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond
areas of national jurisdiction. Building on the work of the
ad hoc working group and before the end of the sixty-
ninth session of the General Assembly we commit to
address, on an urgent basis, the issue of the conservation
and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas
beyond national jurisdiction, including by taking a decision
on the development of an international instrument under
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

    Where do we go from here?
•   Sept 2012—IUCN World Conservation Congress
•   Oct 2012—CBD CoP, India
•   Oct and Nov 2012—UN Oceans Omnibus negotiations
•   Nov 2012—UN Sustainable Fisheries negotiations
•   Dec 2012—adoption of the UNGA resolutions
•   Early 2013—BBNJ workshops on high seas issues
•   Mid-2013—BBNJ meeting
•   Oct-Nov 2013—UN Oceans Omnibus negotiations



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