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Midterm Review_

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									Midterm Review:
     1st Semester
Which of the following exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature
                         and nurture on our behavior?




   1.    The issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on
         behavior
   2.    The issue of the relative influence of rewards and punishments on
         behavior
   3.    The debate as to the relative importance of heredity and instinct in
         determining behavior
   4.    The debate as to whether mental processes are a legitimate area of
         scientific study
   5.    The debate of environmental influences on behavior



                                                                               25
     This approach to psychology focuses on rewards, punishments, and
                               associations.



1.    Behavioral
2.    Psychoanalytic
3.    Socio-Cultural
4.    Neuroscience
5.    Cognitive




                                                                        25
     The biological approach is most closely
       associated with the discipline of:
1.   Evolution
2.   Chemistry
3.   Development
4.   Neuroscience
5.   Natural selection



                                               25
       Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic
     theory has been criticized for being:
1.    Appropriate for female patients,
      but not male patients
2.    Only applicable to research
      settings, not therapy settings
3.    Based on large groups, not
      individual cases
4.    Unscientific and unverifiable
5.    Too closely tied to behavioristic
      thought
Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC Company to help them retain their employees without lowering
    the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their
workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for
                           jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely to be:

1.    A forensic psychologist
2.    An
      industrial/organizational
      psychologist
3.    A counseling psychologist
4.    A clinical psychologist
5.    An engineering
      psychologist



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            Participant Scores
0   Participant 1    0     Participant 11
0   Participant 2    0     Participant 12
0   Participant 3    0     Participant 13
0   Participant 4    0     Participant 14
0   Participant 5    0     Participant 15
0   Participant 6    0     Participant 16
0   Participant 7    0     Participant 17
0   Participant 8    0     Participant 18
0   Participant 9    0     Participant 19
0   Participant 10   0     Participant 20
  Psychologists use experimental research in
      order to reveal or to understand:

1. Correlational
   Relationships
2. Dependent variables
3. Hypotheses
4. Theories
5. Cause-and-effect
   relationships

                                               25
 The procedure designed to ensure that the experimental and
 control groups do not differ in any way that might affect the
                experiment’s results is called:

1. Variable controlling
2. Random assignment
3. Representative
   sampling
4. Stratification
5. Double-blind
   procedure

                                                                 25
  In an experiment to determine the effects of
     exercise on motivation, exercise is the:

1. Confounding
   variable
2. Intervening variable
3. Independent variable
4. Super-ordinate
   variable
5. Dependent variable

                                                 25
After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that
  the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions.
       Which research method did the psychologist use to deduce this?


1. Case Study
2. Survey
3. Correlational
   Experiment
4. Controlled
   Experiment
5. Naturalistic
   Observation
                                                                            25
     Which of the following numbers indicates a
          stronger statistical correlation?

1.   +.97
2.   -.98
3.   +.05
4.   -.03
5.   -.14


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            Participant Scores
0   Participant 1    0     Participant 11
0   Participant 2    0     Participant 12
0   Participant 3    0     Participant 13
0   Participant 4    0     Participant 14
0   Participant 5    0     Participant 15
0   Participant 6    0     Participant 16
0   Participant 7    0     Participant 17
0   Participant 8    0     Participant 18
0   Participant 9    0     Participant 19
0   Participant 10   0     Participant 20
       While hurdling at the League track meet, Kim fell and hit her
     head on the track. After the trainer assessed her, he determined
      she had a concussion. What type of scan will the doctor most
       likely use in order to see if she has any damage to her brain?




1.   PET
2.   MRI
3.   EEG
4.   FMRI
5.   CAT

                                                                        25
       A research study looking at severely overweight rats
     would most likely be interested in studying this part of the
                               brain:

1.     Hippocampus
2.     Thalamus
3.     Hypothalamus
4.     Amygdala
5.     Pineal Gland



                                                                    25
      This is an example of a sympathetic
                    function:
1.   Promoting your sexual
     development
2.   Monitoring the operation of the
     body’s routing functioning
3.   Picking up a dime off the floor
4.   Preparing yourself to fight an
     oncoming attacker
5.   Figuring out the answer to a
     difficult test question




                                            25
Your brain is involved in every perception, thought, and emotion,
         as are its neurons and their neurotransmitters.
       Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that:
1.   Carry information primarily in the
     endocrine system
2.   Fuel the endocrine system
3.   Travel from the axon terminals
     along the axon and create an
     action potential
4.   Assist neurons by providing
     physical support, nutrition, and
     waste removal
5.   Travel across the synapse and
     affect adjoining neurons




                                                                    25
     A neuron without terminal buttons
            would be unable to:
1.   Receive information from
     neighboring neurons
2.   Generate action potential
3.   Secrete neurotransmitters to
     other neurons
4.   Transport ions across the cell
     membrane
5.   Fire the appropriate inhibitory
     transmitters




                                         25
            Participant Scores
0   Participant 1
0   Participant 2
0   Participant 3
0   Participant 4
0   Participant 5
The process by which sensory information
 is converted into neural energy is called:
     1.   Conversion
     2.   Emersion
     3.   Eversion
     4.   Transduction
     5.   Transformation



                                              25
  Genie, the “wild child” hearing music for the very
 first time would be using this type of processing to
              understand her situation.
1. Bottom –up processing
2. Top-down processing
3. Both bottom-up and top-
   down processing
4. Perceptual constancy
5. None of the above



                                                        25
    The receptors for body position and
          movement are located:
1. In the parietal cortex
2. In the inner ear
3. In the outer layer of
   the skin
4. Within the corpus
   callosum
5. Within the spinal cord


                                          25
     These are used to make a mental
     representation of a task at hand.
1.   Constructs
2.   Prototypes
3.   Schemas
4.   Categorical maps
5.   Cognitive maps
     The classic “gorilla and basketball”
          example shows us that:
1.   We tend to focus only on lighter
     colors
2.   The basketball passes distracted
     our ability to focus
3.   Selective attention allows our
     mind to process only a small
     amount of what’s actually going
     on.
4.   The gorilla was distracting
     enough that most people
     identify it quickly
5.   Both 2 and 4 are correct
            Participant Scores
0   Participant 1
0   Participant 2
0   Participant 3
0   Participant 4
0   Participant 5
 According to Freud, the manifest content
           of a dream refers to:
1.   The setting of the dream
2.   The story line of the
     dream
3.   Whether the dream is in
     the color or black and
     white
4.   The emotional tone of the
     dream
5.   The symbolic meaning of
     the dream

                                            25
Which of the following is true of hypnosis?
1.   Hypnosis is a form of REM sleep
2.   Hypnosis is accompanied by
     delta wave activity of the brain
3.   Hypnosis is a state of
     awareness associated with
     relaxation and susceptibility
4.   Hypnosis is a form of non-REM
     sleep
5.   Hypnotic analgesia is blocked
     by the drug naloxone




                                          25
 The most frequently used psychoactive drug in
             the United States is:
1.   Alcohol
2.   Cocaine
3.   Caffeine
4.   Heroin
5.   Marijuana



                                                 25
     Which of the following best describes the stability of
                        sleep cycles?
1.     They are innate so they cannot
       be modified
2.     They are innate but can be
       modified in times of stress
3.     They are entirely learned but
       are difficult to modify
4.     They are entirely learned and,
       thus, may be easily modified
5.     They are learned and allow us
       to change them at our will




                                                              25
          Sleepwalking and talking:
1.   Occur most often in association
     with night terrors
2.   Occur during REM sleep and is
     therefore rather brief
3.   Occur during sleep stages 3 and
     4
4.   Is the outward expression of
     dream content
5.   Are dangerous sleep disorders




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            Participant Scores
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0   Participant 2    0     Participant 12
0   Participant 3    0     Participant 13
0   Participant 4    0     Participant 14
0   Participant 5    0     Participant 15
0   Participant 6    0     Participant 16
0   Participant 7    0     Participant 17
0   Participant 8    0     Participant 18
0   Participant 9    0     Participant 19
0   Participant 10   0     Participant 20
What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the Strange
                 Situation when their mothers return?


1.   They tend to ignore their mothers
     because they are secure about her
     care
2.   Sometimes they run over to their
     mothers and sometimes the do
     not; there’s no consistent pattern
     in their responses
3.   They tend to go to their mothers
     for comfort
4.   They tend to run over to their
     mothers and beg them not to leave
     again.
5.   They hit their mothers


                                                                            25
 When baby Stephanie starts crying, her mother or father hurries to see if she
needs anything, and they comfort her when she is upset. According to Erikson,
                       Stephanie is likely to develop:


1.    Competence
2.    Trust
3.    Inferiority
4.    Mistrust
5.    Autonomy



                                                                             25
           A critical period is a stage in
               development when:
1.   Specific stimuli have a major effect
     on development that they do not
     produce at other times
2.   Children are resistant to any kind of
     discipline by their parents
3.   New learning is prevented by older
     learning
4.   Bonding between the child and
     parent first takes place
5.   The child first enters elementary
     school and needs positive
     reinforcement



                                             25
   If Heinz decides to choose to steal the drug in Kohlberg’s “Heinz
 Dilemma”, which main stage of moral development is he exercising?

1.   Obedience and
     punishment
2.   Individualism and
     exchange
3.   Universal principles
4.   Maintaining social order
5.   Interpersonal
     relationships



                                                                       25
Piaget used this term to refer to the mental structures
                  that guide thoughts:

1.   Operations
2.   Phonemes
3.   Strategies
4.   Schemas
5.   Imprints



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            Participant Scores
0   Participant 1    0     Participant 11
0   Participant 2    0     Participant 12
0   Participant 3    0     Participant 13
0   Participant 4    0     Participant 14
0   Participant 5    0     Participant 15
0   Participant 6    0     Participant 16
0   Participant 7    0     Participant 17
0   Participant 8    0     Participant 18
0   Participant 9    0     Participant 19
0   Participant 10   0     Participant 20
Once Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of
       a tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n):

1. Unconditioned
   stimulus
2. Neutral stimulus
3. Conditioned stimulus
4. Responsive Stimulus
5. Conditioned response



                                                         25
                             Shaping is:
1.   A pattern of responses that must
     be made before classical
     conditioning is completed
2.   Rewarding behaviors that get
     closer and closer to the desired
     goal behavior
3.   Completing a set of behaviors in
     succession before a reward is given
4.   Giving you chocolate pudding to
     increase the likelihood you will eat
     more carrots
5.   Inhibition of new learning by
     previous learning


                                            25
While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive at the
answer to a chemistry problem you’d been working on several hours
                   before. This is an example of:

1. Insight
2. Backward
   conditioning
3. Latent learning
4. Discrimination
5. The Premack
   Principle
                                                                       25
Negative and positive reinforcers are similar in that these
  always ______ the likelihood of ensuing responses.

1.   Decrease
2.   Increase
3.   Extinguish
4.   Eliminate
5.   Have no effect on



                                                          25
    Operant conditioning, in contrast with classical
 conditioning, emphasizes events (such as rewards and
                punishments) that occur:
1. After the behavior
2. Concurrently with
   another response
3. At the same time as
   another stimulus
4. During the behavior
5. Before the behavior


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