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MCAS Review - Middle School Science Review

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					 MCAS Review
       Mrs. McCarthy’s
Middle School Science Review
  Grade 8 MCAS

   Physical Science
    Earth Science
     Life Science
Technology/Engineering
          Test Set-up
• 2 Testing Days
  – Wednesday May 20th
  – Thursday May 21st
• About 47 Total Questions
  – 41 Multiple Choice Questions
  – 6 Open Response Questions
          Open Response
• Multi-part open response questions are 
  included on your MCAS.
• You will need to answer ALL of the 
  questions asked.
• Be sure to:
    • Pre-write / Plan / Graphic Organizer
    • Include Vocabulary Words & Definitions
    • Explain Thoroughly
    • Give Examples
    • Include Labels
    • Create Diagrams
       th
     • 8 Grade Curriculum
       –Properties of Matter
            –The Atom
–Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
             –Motion
     –Forms of Energy & Heat
•   Particle Motion & Phase Changes (15)
•   Mass vs. Weight (1)
•   Volume vs. Mass; Density (2)
•   Measuring Tools (3)
•   Conservation of Mass (4)
•   Melting Point & Boiling Point (9)
•   Physical & Chemical Changes (10)
                   Solid

• Has a definite shape and a definite volume

• Particles are held tightly in place and 
  vibrate in place

                Looks Like
                 Liquid

• Have a definite volume and no definite 
  shape
• Take the shape of a container
• Can Pour
• Particles slide past one another

                Looks Like
                     Gas
• Have NO Definite Shape or Volume

• Fill their containers

• Particles spread out and move 
  independently

                     Looks Like
                 Plasma



• Very high in energy
• Plasma has no definite shape or volume
• Particles are broken
• Plasma is the most common phase of 
  matter in the universe
• Examples: Auroras, lightning, fire, neon 
  lights
             Charles’ Law
• The volume of a gas increases as its 
  temperature increases

• For Example: 
  – A balloon expands and pops when it is 
    heated.
  – A balloon contracts and gets smaller when it 
    is cooled.
             Boyle’s Law
• The volume of gas increases as the 
  pressure decreases 




• Example: Piston
  – Lifting the Plunger Decreases the Pressure
  – Pushing the Plunger Increases the Pressure
             States of Matter
Matter changes
phases due to a
change in the
heat energy of an
                    Phases
object’s                      Add Energy/Heat ß
particles.          Changes
                              Lose Energy/Heat ←




     Solid           Liquid         Gas
           Measurement
• Mass         • Weight




• Volume       • Temperature
                     Mass

• The amount of matter in an object

• Doesn’t change with gravity

• Measured with a triple-beam balance

• SI unit of grams
                 Inertia
• A resistance to a change in motion

• The more mass an object has, the more 
  inertia it has

• Example: Grocery Carts & Cars
                 Weight

• The amount of gravitational pull on an 
  object

• Changes with gravity 

• Measured in Newtons
                   Volume
• The amount of space an object takes-up

• Can be measured with a ruler using the formula: 
         Volume   = length * width * height


  
OR  
• Volume can be measured with water and a 
  graduated cylinder using displacement



• Solid SI Unit of cm³

• Liquid SI Unit of mL
                       Density
• The amount of mass in a given volume

• Measured with the Formula:     * Labeled
       Density = Mass / Volume   in g/cm³


       Mass
  ______________

 Density  *   Volume
          Density Stackers
• Many liquid mixtures will stack up into 
  layers by their densities

  – More dense materials will be below less 
    dense materials

  – Example:
      Salad Dressing
    Characteristic Properties
• Describe substances based upon their 
  characteristics

• Example: 
          Physical Properties
          Chemical Properties
         Physical Properties
• Physically describe an object based upon 
  observable and measurable observations

Examples:
        COLOR       Density               Solubility
        Mass        Malleability    Texture
        Volume      Temperature    State
        Weight      Ductility             Melting
        Boiling
     Melting Point &
      Boiling Point
• Each Substance has its own Melting & 
  Boiling Points that are always the same 
  temperature regardless of the size
      Particle Motion &
    Temperature Increases
• Melting- the change from a
  solid to a liquid
   • Adding energy


• Boiling- the change from a
  liquid to a gas
   • Adding Energy
   Melting & Boiling Points
• Melting Point:    • Boiling Point:
  All Water Melts     All water boils
  at 0˚C              at 100˚C
        Physical Changes
• A change in a substance that affects one 
  or more physical properties of a substance
• The substance does not change
• Examples:
     Cutting Hair            Crushing a Can
     Sanding Wood         Broken Glass
     Melting Butter          Freezing Water
     Dissolving Salt         Bending Metal
       Chemical Properties
• Describe substances based upon their 
  ability to change into a new substance with 
  different properties
• Chemical properties are not easily observed 
  with your senses and often need to be tested
• Examples:
     Reactivity: Tarnishing, Rusting,
     Flammability   
               Chemical Changes
• When substances change into new 
  substances with different properties

• Examples:

    
                Gas Formation    Burning   Cooking
                 & Bubbles
  Reactivity
Conservation of Mass
• Mass cannot be created or destroyed
• Even during a chemical reaction, the
  mass will remain the same.
• Example- Lab with: Vinegar, Baking
  Soda, Baggies, Film Canister, & T.B.B.


                   Before          After
• There are more than 100 elements on the
  periodic table that make up ALL things (5)
• Atoms of Elements vs. Molecules of
  Compound (6)
• Examples of Elements and Compounds
  (7)
• Mixtures vs. Pure Substances (8)
           Atomic Theory
• Democritus- Proposes the Atom 440 B.C.
• Dalton- Atoms are the Smallest Particle
• Thomson- “Plum Pudding” with Electrons
• Rutherford- Gold Foil → Atom’s Nucleus
• Bohr- Electrons Travel in Energy Paths

• Schrödinger & Heisenberg- Electron Clouds
                  Atom
 • The Smallest Unit of an Element
 • Everything is made of Atoms       Energy
                                     Levels
Nucleus 
  with 
Protons 
  and 
Neutrons
                                      Electrons
                Protons

•   Charge: Positive
•   Mass:1 amu
•   Location: Nucleus
•   Proton count determines the element
•   Protons = atomic number
                Neutrons
                                   
Charge: none
Mass: 1 amu
Location: Nucleus
*To find the neutrons: atomic mass – atomic 
number 
              Electrons
• Charge: Negative

• Mass: Almost Zero

• Location: Electron Clouds

• Balanced Atoms: Protons = Electrons
            Periodic Table
•   Organized Data of Elements
•   Organized by Atomic Number
•   Over 100 Elements
•   Contains Many Patterns
•   Element Cube:
                      2          Atomic Number

                     He          Chemical Symbol

                    Helium       Element Name
                     4.0         Atomic Mass
         Pure Substances
• A substance with only one type of particle

• Examples: Elements & Compounds

• Pure Substances Cannot be Broken 
  Down and Retain their Properties
                      Elements

                         Elements




     Metals             Nonmetals              Metalloids
  Shiny, Strong                                Semiconductors,
                           Dull, Poor 
   Conductors,                                Have Properties of 
                        Conductors, Brittle
 Malleable, Ductile                           Metals & Nonmetals


Left of zigzag line   Right of zigzag line Border the zigzag line
               Mixtures
• A combination of two or more substances 
  that are not chemically combined.

• A mixture is easily separated by physical 
  means

• A mixture is NOT a pure substance.
         Separating Mixtures
Techniques:

- Magnet: uses a magnet 

- Filter: uses a sifter 

- Centrifuge: uses spinning (densities) 

- Solutions: uses dissolving

- Distillation: uses boiling point
       Chemical Reactions
• The process where one or more 
  substances changes to become one or 
  more different substances.

• LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
  –  Mass is never gained or lost in a chemical 
    reaction
Clues to Chemical Reactions
      • Gas Formation

      • Solid Formation

      • Color Change

      • Energy Change
Chemical Formulas & Equations
• A chemical formula uses symbols and 
  numbers to represent a compound

• Chemical Equations uses formulas and 
  symbols to show a chemical reaction
  – Chemical Equations MUST be Balanced and 
     follow the Law of Conservation of Mass
  Example: 
            C + O2  ß  CO2
• Motion is described by
  Position, Direction, & Speed
• Graphs of Distance vs. Time
  (S= D/T)
Motion



A change in an object’s position
 relative to reference point(s)
during a specific length of time
  Distance

Speed * Time
               Velocity
Speed an object travels in a given direction

The unit label is ALWAYS a: Distance/Time
& Direction Word
     Example: 60 miles/hour West
                     Example Direction
                     Words: North, South,
                     East, West, Left, Right,
                     Up, Down
          Force
•A push or a pull
• Exerted on one object
           by another object

•Can affect an object’s
  speed or direction
     Unbalanced forces

If the net force on an object is
          NOT ZERO.

 The resulting effect is the
 object changes its motion.
     Balanced forces
If the net force on an object
      is ZERO
 the resulting effect is the
        object has
 NO change in its motion.
           Friction
•Resists Motion Between 2
Objects
•Dependent on Texture of
Surfaces

•4 major types: Rolling, Sliding,
Static, Fluid
            GRAVITY
Gravity is a force of attraction
 • Exists between any two objects
                   •The force is
                   dependent upon
                   The size of the
                   objects and the
                   distance they
                   are from one
                   another
Law of Universal Gravitation



•The force of Gravity is
dependent upon the size of the
object and the distance they
are from one another.
Gravitation force increases
• as masses increase
• as the distance decreases
•Bigger & Closer

Gravitation force decreases
• as masses decrease
• as the distance increases
•Smaller & Farther
•Weight is a measurement of
a planet’s gravitational pull
on the mass of an object.
  •Therefore, weight is
        different on different
               planets and
  other             celestial
     Mass vs. Weight
• Measured         • Measured 
  with a triple      with a 
  beam               Newton 
  balance.           spring 
                     scale.
• Acceleration is the rate at which 
  velocity changes.
• Gravity causes all objects, regardless 
  of size, to fall at the same 
  acceleration
• On Earth, all objects fall at a rate of 
  9.8 m/s/s
   Projectile Motion

 Occurs when an object has
  two forces acting on it:
         gravity &
  a push-horizontal- force.


The result is a curved path
• Potential Energy vs. Kinetic Energy and
  Energy Changes (13)
• Heat is Energy that causes temperature
  changes (14)
• Heat causes Phase Changes (15)
• Heat moves from warmer objects to
  cooler objects (16)
    Different forms of 
          Energy
Heat/Thermal         Nuclear
                      Light
  Chemical        Sound


       Elastic   Electromagnetic
        •Energy
•the ability to do work
•Work occurs when an
object moves in the
direction of the applied
force
  Energy, like work, is measured in
              joules (J).

Energy exists in many different forms
  and can change between them:
        Energy conversion
       Energy transformation
         Types of Energy

• Potential        • Kinetic
  Energy:            Energy:
 –Stored Energy     –Energy of
                     Motion
     Energy Changes
• Energy can be Transferred 
  between Potential Energy and 
  Kinetic Energy
Law of Conservation of
        Energy
 Energy can not be
created or destroyed.
It can change forms.
             Heat
    Heat is a form of thermal energy.
 Heat is Energy that causes temperature
                changes.
Each Substance has unique Melting and
           Boiling points.
Heat Changes Particle Motion and Causes
           Phase Changes.
Heat Moves from Warm Objects to Cooler
               Objects.
            Temperature
• Temperature is a Measurement of Heat
• Temperature is Measured with a Thermometer
• Temperature Scales:
  – Celsius (˚C)
  – Fahrenheit (˚F)
  – Kelvin (k)
     Melting Point &
      Boiling Point
• Each Substance has its own Melting & 
  Boiling Points that are always the same 
  temperature regardless of the size
      Particle Motion &
    Temperature Increases
• Melting- the change from a
  solid to a liquid
   • Adding energy


• Boiling- the change from a
  liquid to a gas
   • Adding Energy
   Melting & Boiling Points
• Melting Point:    • Boiling Point:
  All Water Melts     All water boils
  at 0˚C              at 100˚C
             States of Matter
Matter changes
phases due to a
change in the
heat energy of an
                    Phases
object’s                      Add Energy/Heat ß
particles.          Changes
                              Lose Energy/Heat ←




     Solid           Liquid         Gas
Heat Transfer
• Heat moves in predictable
  ways from warm objects to
  cooler objects
Heat energy moves in three ways:    



Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Conduction :occurs
when energy is
passed directly from
one item to another
     Convection
Convection : movement of
 gases or liquids from a
 cooler spot to a warmer
 spot.
Examples- Air Masses,
 Earth’s Mantle; Ocean
Convection : movement of FLUIDS 
(GAS OR LIQUID) 
from a cooler  spot to a    warmer spot. 
       cooler

                        WIND



                                   EARTH



             BOILING
Radiation :The sun's rays
travel in straight lines called heat
rays. When sunlight hits the
earth, its radiation is absorbed or
reflected.


Darker surfaces absorb more of the
radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the
radiation.
    th
   7 Grade Curriculum
     –Mapping the Earth
      –Earth’s Structure
        –Heat Transfer
       –Earth’s History
–The Earth in the Solar System
        Mapping the Earth
• Recognize, Interpret, & Create models of 
  Earth’s Features with Mapping.

Topographic
Maps show the 
elevation of an 
area of land using 
contour lines. 
              Earth’s Structure
              The Layers of the Earth

Crust- Solid, Oceanic & 
Continental
Mantle- Largest Layer 
with lithosphere & 
asthenosphere; 
convection currents
Outer Core- Liquid Molten 
Metal
Inner Core- Dense; Solid; 
Iron
Heat Transfer
• Heat moves in predictable ways
  from warm objects to cooler
  objects

• Heat Energy Moves in 3 ways:
   • Conduction
   • Convection
   • Radiation
Conduction :occurs
when energy is
passed directly from
one item to another
     Convection
Convection : movement of
 gases or liquids from a
 cooler spot to a warmer
 spot.
Examples- Air Masses,
 Earth’s Mantle; Ocean
Convection : movement of FLUIDS 
(GAS OR LIQUID) 
from a cooler  spot to a    warmer spot. 
       cooler

                        WIND



                                   EARTH



             BOILING
Radiation :The sun's rays
travel in straight lines called heat
rays. When sunlight hits the
earth, its radiation is absorbed or
reflected.


Darker surfaces absorb more of the
radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the
radiation.
                Earth’s History
Millions of years ago
all of Earth’s land
masses were
together in one large
super continent
called Pangaea.
Over time Pangaea
spread apart due to
continental drift and
sea-floor spreading.
Today, we have 7
continents on Earth.
                   Evidence
Evidence of the Continental Drift
 Theory include:
•   Physical Evidence (Puzzle-like Continents)
•   Fossil Evidence
                                   Africa
•   Glacial Evidence
                        South
•   Climate Evidence    America
•   Plant Evidence
     The Changing Surface
• In addition to plate tectonics, Earth’s
  surface is ever changing due to:
   –Earthquakes
   –Volcanoes
   –Weathering, Erosion & Deposition 
• Earthquakes occur when Earth’s
  plates shift and cause shaking on
  the surface
• Most Earthquakes occur at Plate
  Boundaries
• A Tsunami is a tidal wave in the
  ocean caused by tectonic
  (Earthquake) movement of
  Earth’s plates.
Most volcanoes form at plate boundaries

                 • Diverging- mid ocean 
                   ridge, rift valley
                 • Converging- island 
                   arcs/ Mt. St. Helens
                 • Hot spots- not on a 
                   boundary- Hawaii
Rock is broken into
  smaller pieces by:
• Freezing & Thawing
• Release of Pressure
• Growth of Plants
• Action of Animals
• Water
• Abrasion
Earth in the Solar System
           All objects are
           affected by GRAVITY.
           Gravity’s force is
           stronger on larger
           objects. Our solar
           system is held
           together by the Sun’s
           gravity. The Sun’s
           gravity keeps the
           planets orbiting
           around it. 
Just as the planets orbit around the
sun due to the Sun’s strong gravity,
the moon orbit’s Earth due to
Earth’s Gravity. 

             The moon rotates on
             its axis and revolves
             around Earth at the
             same rate, that’s why
             only one side of the
             moon is visible from
             Earth.
                                                                         




                                               Phases of the Moon 

Lunar Phases
The Moon appears to go through a complete set of 
phases as viewed from the Earth because of its motion 
around the Earth, as illustrated in the following figure.
          Lunar Eclipses




During a Lunar Eclipse, the Sun, Earth,
& Moon align so that the moon is not
reflecting any of the Sun’s light. The
moon is not visible from Earth at this
time.
            Solar Eclipses
During a Solar Eclipse, the
Sun, Moon, & Earth align so
that the Sun’s light is not
reflecting on Earth. The Sun is
not visible from Earth at this
time.
             Day & Night
• Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 
  hours (1 day).
• When Earth is turned toward the Sun, it is 
  daytime.
• When Earth is turned away from the sun, it 
  is nighttime. 
Earth revolves around the sun once
every 365 ¼ days (1 year).

When the Northern Hemisphere is angled
toward the Sun (direct rays), it is summer.
When Northern Hemisphere is angled
away from the sun (indirect rays), it is
winter.


                                     Winter in N.H.
Summer in N.H.
                                     Summer in S.H.
Winter in S.H.
  UNIVERSE


 GALAXIES

SOLAR SYSTEMS


    PLANET
• The Universe is made of billions of
  Galaxies
• Galaxies are made of billions of Stars
• We live in the Milky Way Galaxy
• The Sun is the only Star in Our Solar
  System
                                UNIVERSE
• We live on Planet Earth
                              GALAXIES
                             SOLAR SYSTEM
                                PLANET
   th
 6 Grade Curriculum
    – Classification of Organisms
  – Structure and Function of Cells
      – Systems in Living Things
      – Reproduction & Heredity
      – Evolution & Biodiversity
– Living Things & Their Environment
       – Energy & Living Things
– Changes in Ecosystems Over Time
 Structure and Function of Cells
Cells are the basic units
of life.
All living things are made
of cells.
Cells are very small and
can only be seen with a
microscope.
                    Cells

• There are different types of cells:
  – Animal Cells
  – Plant Cells
• Some living things are multi-cellular
  – Example: plant, animal
• Some living things are unicellular
  – Example: bacteria, yeast
                  Parts of the Cell
Cell Wall-the outside of the cell
that strengthens the cell
membrane
Cell Membrane- keeps
cytoplasm in; allows nutrients
in & waste out
Chloroplasts-hold green
chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Vacuoles- store water & fluid
Nucleus- holds cell’s DNA
Cytoplasm-fluid in cell
Mitochondria- breakdown food
in the cell
Plant Cell
             Plant Cells are
             found in plants.
             Unlike Animal
             Cells, Plants
             Cells contain:
             Cell Wall &
             Chloroplasts so
             that they can
             make food using
             photosynthesis.
Animal Cell

          Animal Cells are
          found in
          animals.

          Unlike Plants
          Cells, Animal
          Cells do not
          contain: Cell
          Wall &
          Chloroplasts.
         Cellular Functions
• Cells function similar to living
  organisms:
  –Extracting Energy from Food
  –Disposing of Waste
  –Reproduction (Mitosis)
              Heredity
• All living things have traits.
• Traits are stored in chromosomes.
• These are passed on from one
  generation to the next in genes.
• Human cells contain about 30,000
  different genes on 23 different
  chromosomes.
• Punnett Squares show
  possible inheritance.
            Reproduction
There are 2 types of reproduction:

  – Sexual: 2 Parent Cells Join Together to
    Form a New Individual; Offspring Inherit
    Half of Their Genes from each Parent
     • Example: Plants & Animals

  – Asexual: only 1 Parent Cell is Needed;
    Parent Cell is Copied; Mitosis Occurs
     • Example: Single-celled Organisms
Genes of DNA


Cells & Body
  Tissues


  Organs


  Systems
     Systems in Living Things
• The Human Body’s Major Systems:
  – Digestion: Food Energy
  – Respiration: Breathing
  – Reproduction: Population
  – Circulation: Blood Flow
  – Excretion: Waste
  – Immune: Protection from Disease
  – Movement, Control, Coordination: 
    Moving, Thinking, Planning, Processing
 Classification of Organisms
Classification is the arrangement of 
organisms into orderly groups based on 
their similarities.
                                 Hint:
Levels:                         King----Kingdom
Kingdom- large general group    Philip---Phylum
Phylum-                         Came--Classes
              Kingdom’s are
Classes-      continuously      Over----Orders
              broken down
Orders-       into classified   For------Families
              groups until
Families-                       Grape--Genus
              species
                                Soda---Species
Genus- 
Species- one kind
               Kingdoms
     Plantae                   Protista
•  All living organisms belong to one of the
   kingdoms
• There are five Kingdoms:
  – Bacteria- E. coli,
  – Protista- single-celled organisms
  – Plantae- plants, flowers & trees Animalia
  – Fungi- fungus, mold & mushrooms
  – Animalia- animals, people, pets, bugs

    Fungi
                               Bacteria
      Evolution & Biodiversity
• Evolution: organisms adapt and change
  over time
• Evidence: geology, fossils, comparative
  anatomy
• Extinctions: many species have not been
  able to adapt to habitat changes over time 
       Survival of the fittest
       Living Things & Their
            Environment

• Organisms interact with one another
  and have different functions within an
  ecosystem that enable the ecosystem
  to survive.
• Circle of Life
• Food Web- Energy from food flows from 
     one organism to another

• Parts of the Food Web:
  – Producers- use sunlight to make food
      • Example: Plants
  – Consumers-eat producers & organisms
      • Example: animals
  – Decomposers-break down remains of
     dead organisms
      •  Example: bacteria & fungi
 Decomposers & Nitrogen Cycle
• Decomposers- Living organisms break 
  down dead plants & animals (bacteria, 
  fungus)
• Nitrogen is produced in this cycle.
• Broken down material is used for compost 
  and has nutrients in it that contribute to the 
  system.
• Plants use energy from sunlight to make 
  sugars from carbon dioxide and water 
  through photosynthesis.
• This food can be used immediately, stored 
  for later use, or used by other organisms.
             Photosynthesis
• The process where plants capture light energy 
  from the sun and change it into food.
          Ecosystems
• Ecosystem- the habitat of living
  organisms
• Land: Forests, Grasslands,
  Deserts, Tundra
• Marine: Beaches, Seafloor, Reefs
• Freshwater: Moving Water, Still
  Water, Wetlands
        Changes in Ecosystems
             Over Time
• Changes in the ecosystem can cause 
  extinction, habitat damage, & global warming.

• Ecosystems are effected by:
  – Pollution
  – Resource Depletion
  – Alien Species
  – Human Population Growth
  – Habitat Destruction
          Energy Resources
Energy Resources: Natural, Fossil Fuels, &
 Alternatives
Natural Resources include wood, gasoline, wind

Fossil Fuels: nonrenewable energy resource
  - Made over millions of years from buried
  organisms
 - Create environmental pollution problems
  - Examples: coal, natural gas, petroleum

Alternatives: renewable & easy to replace resources
  - Most are cleaner & safer.
  - Examples: Solar, Wind, Hydroelectric, Biomass,
    Nuclear (Dangerous)
Middle School Curriculum
–Materials, Tools, & Machines
–Engineering Design
–Communication Technologies
–Manufacturing Technologies
–Construction Technologies
–Transportation Technologies
–Bioengineering Technologies
   Materials, Tools, & Machines
 • Appropriate materials, tools, & machines 
   enable us to solve problems, invent, & 
   construct


                                           Pliers
                                                    Hammer & Nail
                  Hand Saw

      Skill Saw




                             Wrench &
Tape Measure      Screws     Screwdriver            Drill
                Engineering Design

• Engineering Design Involves Modeling and 
  Developing Solutions
• Example- Balloon Powered Car Challenge
  – Plan Materials
  – Sketch / Prototype / Model
  – Construct & Build
  – Test
  – Evaluate 
Communication Technologies
• Ideas can be communicated 
  through drawings, reports, & 
  pictures
Manufacturing Technologies
• Manufacturing is the process of converting raw 
  materials into physical goods
• Example-Sneaker Factory:
  – Research & Development                  Research

  – Production / Assembly
  – Marketing / Sales / PR
  – Quality Control
  – Store Distribution          Marketing


                             Distribution      Production
  Construction Technologies
• Building structures for transportation, 
  shelter, business, etc




Suspension Bridge                   Beam Bridge
                    Arch Bridge
              Parts of a House
•   Foundation- base; stabilizes house
•   Roof-covers house; protection
•   Framing-shapes house; supports walls 
•   Insulation- temperature control
•   Siding- protects insulation
Transportation Technologies
• Systems & Devices that move goods and 
  people from one place to another by land, 
  air, water, or space.



                         Water
  Land                               Space
               Air
                    Forces
•   Force- a push or a pull
•   Pressure- the amount of force in an area
•   Lift- an upward force that opposes gravity
•   Thrust- a forward force
•   Drag- opposes motion in fluids
Bioengineering Technologies
• Explore the production of mechanical 
  devices, products, & natural substances 
  that can improve health & daily life.

				
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posted:1/19/2014
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