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Marine Ecosystems Review - Bishop Moore High School

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					Marine Ecosystems Review
           Ecology

Ecology is the science that
studies how living organisms
relate to each other and their
environment
         BIOTIC
LIVING organisms
• Animals
• Plants
• Fungi
• Bacteria
• Protists
               ABIOTIC
NONLIVING aspects of the environment

 •   Temperature
 •   pH
 •   Currents
 •   Minerals
 •   Sunlight
 •   Rocks
 •   Water
           HABITAT

• Where the organism lives
• Area and physical conditions
  where an organism lives
• It’s “ Address”
OCEAN ZONES
   SALT MARSH – Coastal Ecosystem
          High Productivity
                       Wet and dry, long grasses,
                       thick mud, nutrients in
                       sediment




Located in Estuaries
SALT MARSH – ABIOTIC FACTORS

Flooding
Tides
Shallow water
Sunlight
Mud and Sediment
SALT MARSH – BIOTIC FACTORS
SALT MARSH – BIOTIC FACTORS
           Halophytes – Salt water
           plants….have adaptations
           allowing them to live in salt
           water




ALGAE



                 SALT GRASSES
 MANGROVE – Coastal Ecosystem
 Similar to Salt Marshes….bigger, tougher
 (trees)….found in tropical areas

• Rich in organic
  material
• tree roots
  covered in water
• nursery to many
  growing
  organisms
MANGROVE – Abiotic Factors

Mud
Shallow Waters- sunlight
Warm temperatures
Many nutrients
MANGROVE TREES – Adaptations for life
      in salt water and mud with low oxygen
Red Mangrove           Black Mangrove – roots below water.
                       “snorkel like root structures called
Has stilt like Roots
                       Pneumatophores”
MANGROVE – BIOTIC FACTORS
Why Mangrove Ecosystem Important?

Mangrove Trees Large Entangled Roots….

 1. Provide habitats for juvenile fish and
 invertebrates

 2. Hold soil well, protects shoreline from
 erosion from currents, waves, and storms
      Coral Reef – Coastal Ecosystems
             Contintental Shelf




Vast assortment of life, stony formation built from
seafloor up, sunny, warm waters, colorful
   Coral Reef – Abiotic Factors
Sunlight

Shallow water – moderate movement
to prevent sediment from accomulating
on polyps

Warm

Rocks

Shells
Coral Reef – Biotic Factors
   Kelp Forest – Coastal Ecosystems
          Contintental Shelf




Sunny, Cool waters, appears like a dense forest with kelp
growing from the seafloor to ocean surface
  Kelp Forest – Abiotic Factors
Rocky Coastlines

Sunlight

Clear Water

Cool Temperatures
Kelp Forest – Biotic Factors
Open Ocean – Polar Artic
     Arctic – Abiotic Factors
Cold, Icy Water – often dominated by ice

Ice and snow – reduces sunlight in water

Much sunlight in summer, Little sunlight
in winter

Ocean surrounded by land - bordered by
shallow continental shelves of NA,
Greenland, Russia, Eurasia
Polar Seas – Arctic
Polar Seas – Antarctic
    Antarctic – Abiotic Factors
Cold Water – often dominated by ice

Ice and snow – In winter…water at edges
freeze adding an area the size of North
America to the continent

More Extreme Climate than Arctic
Antarctica is a continent….not a frozen
sea…it has its own continental shelf
Polar Seas – Antarctic Biotic Factors
Deep Sea Floor – Abiotic Factors
Darkness

Cold

Deep water

High Pressure

No Photosynthesis occurs here

Fewer communities here
Deep Sea Floor – Benthic
 Marine Snow - is a continuous shower of
mostly organic detritus (dead organisms &
fecal matter) falling from the upper layers
               of the water.
Whale Fall
Open Ocean
Open Ocean – Abiotic Factors

Wide open spaces

Available Sunlight

Temperatures vary

No land nearby
Open Ocean – Biotic Factors

				
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posted:1/16/2014
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