Macromolecule Review - Canton Public Schools.pptx

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					Macromolecule Review
• What are the four categories of biological
•   Carbohydrates
•   Proteins
•   Lipids
•   Nucleic acids
• What process is used to make polymers from
• Condensation/dehydration synthesis-the
  removal of a water molecule between two
• What is a common term for carbohydrates?
• Sugars
• What process breaks down polymers into
  their smaller monomers?
• Hydrolysis-the addition of water to break
  apart a polymer into its smaller monomers
• What are the monomers of the following:
  – Carbohydrates
  – Proteins
  – Nucleic acids
– Monosaccharides
– Amino acids
– nucleotides
What elements are found in all four
• Carbon
• Hydrogen
• oxygen
• What element do proteins and nucleic acids
  have in common that are not a significant
  component of lipids and carbohydrates?
• Nitrogen-that’s one thing that makes them
  similar to each other!
• Name 2 functions of carbohydrates
•   Energy metabolism
•   Cell-cell communication
•   Elimination of waste (fiber)
•   Structural components of cells
• What’s the difference between a mono, di and
• The number of monosaccharides bonded
  together (1 alone, 2 bonded, more than 2
• Name 2 polysaccharides
•   Starch
•   Cellulose
•   Glycogen
•   Chitin
    – Remember polysaccharides are CARBOHYDRATES
• Name 2 monosaccharides
• Glucose
• Fructose
• galactose
• What is the one characteristic that ALL lipids
  have in common?
• Part or all of them is hydrophobic
  – Hydrophobic means does not dissolve in water
  – Water is polar and lipids are non polar-therefore
    they do not mix
• Give at least two examples of lipids
•   Fats
•   Oils
•   Pigments
•   Steroids/cholesterol
•   Waxes
•   phospholipids
• Chose 1
  – Saturated/unsaturated fats have at least one
    double bond between carbon atoms
• unsaturated
• Which lipid makes up the majority of your cell
• Phospholipids
• Name two functions of lipids
• Energy Storage
• Protection & Cushioning of Body Organs
• Structural Components of Membranes
• Chemical Messengers (hormones)
• What is the maximum number of covalent
  bonds can carbon form?
  – This is important because it can form long chains,
    bond with other elements, make shapes like rings
    and branched sheets.
  – Versatility allows carbon to be the backbone of
    most molecules
  – It can form single, double and triple bonds with
    other atoms
• Which molecule makes a better immediate
  energy source and can easily be converted
  into ATP?

  – carbohydrates or lipids
• Carbohydrates
  – They are easier to break apart and are in the
    correct form to be used to make energy
• Name a function of proteins
• Enzymes
• Structural Proteins
• Chemical Messengers
• Hormones
• Antibodies
• What are the functions of nucleic acids?
• Genetic Instruction Set (DNA)
• Protein Synthesis (DNA & RNA)
• Energy Metabolism (ATP)-not a nucleic acid
  but a nucleotide
• All organic compounds contain which
• Carbon
  – Carbon is considered the common thing all
    organic molecules have in common.
  – Inorganic structures generally do not contain
• What does the T in ATP stand for?
• Tri
  – ATP has 3 phosphate groups
  – The last phosphate is removed to release energy
    by breaking that bond
  – The last phosphate is replaced and energy is
    stored in that bond
• What is the generic term used to describe
  small subunits of a polymer?
• monomer
• True or False
  – Saturated fats have 1 or more double bonds
    between carbon atoms ie
         HHH         HHHHH
• Name 1 disaccharide
• Sucrose
• Maltose
• lactose
• Amino acids are to _____________ as
  nucleotides are to nucleic acids
• Proteins
• Long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms
  can most likely be found in which
• Lipids
  – Long chains of hydrocarbons are very non-polar
    and defining characteristic of lipids
• Name the two nucleic acids
• DNA and RNA
  – ATP are nucleotides similar to the nucleotides that
    make up DNA and RNA
  – ATP doesn’t come together to form nucleic acids
  – ATP has 3 phosphates that when broken release
    energy and when created store energy
• Which of the following is considered insoluble
  in water?
  – Proteins
  – Lipids
  – Nucleic acids
  – carbohydrates
• Lipids

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