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iPads in the Classroom: Obstacles and Opportunities Kennedy Krieger School Fairmount Campus Overview of School Program The Kennedy Krieger School: Fairmount Campus is an educational program currently serving students Kindergarten through 8th grade with the following federal disability codes: Autism 14 Emotional Disability 06 Intellectual Disability 01 Multiple Disabilities 10 Other Health Impairments 08 Specific Learning Disability 09 Traumatic Brain Injury 13 School Program All Kennedy Krieger School-Fairmount Classrooms are highly structured and potential based. Each student has access to integrated related services, school-wide behavior management, and a team approach to case management. As a team works with each student, program modifications are made to help students reach their educational potential. Each community has a specific location within our school building Description of Study Groups: Red Community The Red Community provides layers of subtle supports that maximize cognitive abilities, nurtures social development, and leads to independence. With the aid of supports, students manage an increasingly complex environment. When success is met, the supports are systematically faded. Students access the state approved curriculum, targeted skill building, and social thinking instruction. Characteristics of the Red Community: Students are provided with supports and structures to increase their independent management of an increasingly complex environment (more transitions, less structure, managing their own homework, etc.…) and once success is met the supports are then faded. Curriculum input and output expectations are minimally altered. Students are provided direct and naturalized social thinking instruction. Strategies to organize information are directly taught and applied in a naturalized setting. Utilizes a team approach and integration of related services in the implementation of student programs. Red Community Classroom Demographics 10 students Ages 12-15 (7th and 8th grade) Primary diagnoses: Autism, Multiple Disabilities Diploma-tracked students Classroom staff: Teacher and Assistant Teacher Description of Study Groups: Green Community The Green Community focuses on the needs of students who require a highly structured and individualized environment, instruction, and behavioral program. This group has the greatest use of instructional techniques such as discrete trial, errorless learning, applied behavioral analysis, and TEACCH to meet the individual needs of students. An emphasis on spontaneous functional language or alternative modes of communication, visual learning, predictable routines, individualized schedules, and skill generalization are important facets to this program. Instructional materials are customized from the state approved curriculum with access to functional academics and community based instruction. Characteristics of the Green Community: Emphasis on environmental design, visual learning, individual schedules, predictable routines, and skill generalization Development of spontaneous functional language or alternative modes of communication are stressed Greater use of individualized instructional techniques such as discrete trial, errorless learning, 3 Step, Applied Behavioral Analysis, and TEACCH Customized presentation and/or output of instruction High level of sensory supports/ sensory integration Social skills instruction focused on initiation Access to functional academics and Community Based Instruction High staff/student ratio Students access the state approved curriculum Utilizes a team approach and integration of related services in the implementation of student programs Green Community Classroom Demographics 8 students Ages 10-13 (4th through 7th grade) Primary diagnoses: Autism, Intellectual Disabilities, Multiple Disabilities Certificate-tracked students Classroom staff: Teacher, Assistant Teacher, 7 1:1 aides Process Identified need to expand upon the way that we use technology with our student population. Acquired iPads and iPad cart. Formed workgroup (comprised of teachers, related service providers, administrators, technology specialists, etc.) Researched apps available for use in instruction. Trialed and rated education apps for appropriateness and content for students in different communities. Process Determined what subject area would be targeted and what apps would be most appropriate for different groups of students (math fluency). Developed surveys to capture background information. Home Technology Survey Teacher Technology Survey Student Technology Survey Attitude Toward Math Survey Teacher Effectiveness Survey Process Selected 1-2 apps to be used in with different student groupings. 1 app for Red/Blue communities (Math Racer) 2 apps for Yellow/Green communities (Park Math and Matching Game) Developed data sheets to collect information on student performance during iPad and traditional instruction. Determined what pre-and post-test assessment measures would be used. Brigance CIBS subtest for Red/Blue communities LAP-3 (selected items) for Yellow/Green communities Process Outlined study design and study schedule. Trained teachers on their obligations during all phases of the study. Determined schedule and how iPads would be shared among classrooms. Obtain IRB approval. The Answers are in the Room! Escalator Study design This study used reversal design (ABAB when comparing iPad-based instruction and traditional instruction). Data was collected on student behavior or academic performance during each of the four phases of the study. Additionally, standardized pre- and post-test measures were used to show overall student gains in speed and accuracy. Study Goals/Objectives §Academic Goal § Increase basic math fluency §Behavioral Goal § Decrease level of teacher prompts (increase independent behavior and task completion) §Teaching practices § Identify opportunities/obstacles for using iPads as instructional tools in the classroom Procedure Results: Red Community Results: Red Community Results: Red Community Results: Red Community Results: Red Community Results: Red Community Interpretation The students in the Red Community showed gains in both speed and accuracy, thus a general improvement in math fluency over the course of the study window. During instruction, the Red Community students were able to answer more problems correct per minute during iPad instructional phases than during traditional instructional phases. Results: Green Community Results: Green Community Results: Green Community N=7 Results: Green Community N=7 Interpretation: Green community The level of support and prompting the Green Community Students required to complete tasks was much lower when using iPad-based instruction than when using more traditional methods and materials. In other words, these students were able to work more independently during iPad instruction phases that during traditional instruction phases. 5/7 students maintained or showed an improvement in their raw score on the LAP-3 over the study window. Obstacles Obstacles for Students: Instruction vs. Reinforcement What do kids instinctively want to do on a cool new device? We need to teach our students that while this device is fun to play with, it can also be fun to learn with. Obstacles for Students: Problem Behaviors Kids will demonstrate problem behaviors in school. The use of “Expected Behaviors” and simply not providing a student who’s not ready with the device. Obstacles for Students: Accommodations What about kids who have trouble accessing the device? Using a binder board Touch screen stylus Voice output Screen lock Volume lock Obstacles for Staff: Technology What? Staff will have varying degrees of comfort with tablet technology. Specific training is needed to outline specifics from turning the device on to saving conventions and exporting products. Obstacles for Staff: Planning! The use of tablet technology adds another layer to planning. Obstacles for Staff: Sharing Technology Staff need to think thoughtfully about scheduling the use of this technology. May have to be flexible with planning and scheduling. Obstacles: Logistics Charging, storing, and syncing Pick a day to sync Only teachers plug in the devices Obstacles: Logistics Purchasing Apps Think about how to manage this task! Who’s buying? For all devices? Budget? There are many, many cool free apps! Obstacles: Logistics It broke?!? Have a clear plan in place about what do to if something goes wrong with the device. Opportunities Opportunities for Students: Level of Engagement Increases Similar tasks can be more engaging on the iPad then they are using more traditional instructional tools. Opportunities for Students: Level of Independence Increases Tablets can be more accessible for some students given the touch screen and other features. We found they are easier for many of our students to independently manipulate than traditional instructional tools and a computer with a mouse. Opportunities for Students: Motivation Increases Many of our students were more motivated to complete work when an iPad was present. Opportunities for Students: Advancement in Technology It is becoming increasingly important that our students be able to use technology to participate in instruction and vocational opportunities. If we are not giving them the opportunity to access these tools, we are not adequately preparing them for the transition to adulthood. Think of all the jobs and careers that require people to be able to use technology in some form. The list is endless! Opportunities for Students: Opportunities for Study Students can use tablets to study areas of interest, compile and store information, generate reports or projects in many forms. Opportunities for Students: Incidental Learning/Teaching Opportunities There are countless teachable moments that come up throughout each and every school day. This is no different when using an iPad as an instructional tool. Social Skills – sharing, taking turns Fine Motor Executive Functioning – following a checklist or schedule Opportunities for Staff: Ability to Differentiate With individual tablets, students can be using different apps to target their individual skill needs. Many apps also have the ability to differentiate built in. Opportunities for Staff: UDL Opportunities http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines Opportunities for Staff: Advancement in Technology There are opportunities for staff to become more proficient in the use of technology. As this happens, teachers acquire more and more tools to help them effectively teach the students in their class. Opportunities for Parents: Opportunities for Repeated Practice and Exposure at Home Many of our families were interested in knowing what apps we were using and what skills we were targeting so they could do the same thing at home. This allows parents to have students complete assignments or homework with less assistance or prompting from parents who have busy schedules. “Kitchen table test” Resources and Tools Name of App Age/level range(s) Likes Dislikes Google Earth Drum Kit Piano Talking Tom AvatarBook Easy-Bake Cupcakes IBooks Fruit Ninja Lite Pet Shop Math Ninja Periodic Table Solar Walk Data Sheet Resources and Tools Questions/Comments Contact Information Please email us if you’d like more information! Claire Donehower: firstname.lastname@example.org Brooke Wesley: email@example.com Thank you!
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