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GLOBAL CRITICISAM ON HOMOEOPATHY Dr. ESWARA DAS. MD(Hom), MBA(Health care) Deputy Adviser (Homoeo) Department of AYUSH Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India, New Delhi E- mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Criticism among the profession • • • • • • • There are no standard treatment protocols Various prescription methods. Conflict of classic treatment & others No standard instructions given to the patients regarding diet, dose, etc., Use of supplementary management like vitamins, tonics etc., Genuine medicine - ambiguity. some doctors believe the system to be a religion and become obstinate and fanatic. Use of bio-chemic remedies. • Criticism from the patients • • • • All medicines look alike. Dosage is the same for all age groups. Treatment takes long time. No other medicines should be used in between the treatment, even in emergency. • Case taking process is too long and probing the personal details is not pleasant. • No two Homoeopathic doctors prescribe the same medicine for the same complaint. • Advice given to the patient regarding when to take the medicine, what not to eat etc., varies. Criticism from other system of Medicine • Homoeopaths give placebo treatment. • They don’t use the pathological and investigative methods to diagnose a case. Hence, not reliable. • Use of mother tinctures causes toxicity. Criticism from the scientific world. • Method of preparation is not according to the science. • Materialistic evidence of the medicine not available. • The action of medicine is unacceptable to the principles of science. • Lack of statistical data to prove and claim the efficacy of medicines not available. • Regarding expiry date of the medicines. Scientific theories are characterized by • empirical observation rather than the authority of some sacred text; • explaining a range of empirical phenomena; • empirically tested in some meaningful way, usually involving testing specific predictions deduced from the theory; • confirmed rather than falsified by empirical tests or with the discovery of new facts; • impersonal and therefore testable by anyone regardless of personal religious or metaphysical beliefs; • dynamic and fecund, leading investigators to new knowledge and understanding of the interrelatedness of the natural world rather than being static and stagnant leading to no research or development of a better understanding of anything in the natural world; and • approached with skepticism rather than gullibility, especially regarding paranormal forces or supernatural powers, and being fallible and put forth tentatively rather than being put forth as infallible or inerrant. HOMOEOPATHY • Historical references: An essential part of the homeopathic principle, 'like cures like', was considered by Hippocrates (c460-370 BC), who suggested that healing could either be by 'contraries' or 'similars'. However, he made no mention of extreme dilution or a process of optimization, which are both central to homeopathy. • Paracelsus (1493-1542), a Swiss physician, alchemist and scientist, also raised the possibility of like curing like and he advocated the use of herbs, minerals and chemicals as medicines. • Samuel Hahnemann, a progressed this as a fundamental principle of a new therapy which he called homeopathy. • Medical Education in the United States and Canada is a comprehensive report to the foundation, by Abraham Flexner, on medical education in the United States and Canada, with regard to the course of study, financial aspects, medical sects, state boards, post-graduate schools, and other special forms of medical education; with descriptive and tabular accounts of all of the medical schools throughout the United States and Canada; and a general plan for reconstruction, with an introduction by the president of the foundation. The Flexner Report was reproduced by photo-offset in 1950. • The Flexner Report is a study of medical education in the United States and Canada. • Written by the professional educator Abraham Flexner. • Pulished in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation. • Many aspects of the present-day American medical profession stem from the Flexner Report and its aftermath. • The Flexner Report is the most important event in the history of American and Canadian medical education. It was a commentary on the condition of medical education in the early 1900s and gave rise to modern medical education. The report is named for Abraham Flexner (1866-1959) who prepared it. PSEUDOSCIENCE • Psudo Science is set of ideas based on theories put forth as scientific when they are not scientific. • Some pseudoscientific theories not only confuse metaphysical claims with empirical claims, but they also maintain views that contradict known scientific laws and use ad hoc hypotheses to explain their belief, e.g., homeopathy. • Adherents of such beliefs makes errors in judgments about causality and commit errors such as the post hoc fallacy and the regressive fallacy http://skepdic.com/refuge/bunk11.h tml • Homeopathy - It's not wizardry; in fact, it's based on the same principle as vaccination" is the title of an article by Debra Ollivier for salon.com. • Homeopathy is not based on the same principle as vaccination. Homeopathy is based on a metaphysical belief that like cures like and that healing is brought about by the vital force; vaccination is based on empirical facts regarding bacteria, viruses and the immune system. • This is just one of several errors Ollivier makes in her panegyric to a pseudoscience. Placebo Effect • A placebo (Latin for "I shall please") is a pharmacologically inert substance that produces an effect similar to what would be expected of a pharmacologically active substance. • The placebo effect is the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medication or treatment that has been administered • The physician's belief in the treatment and the patient's faith in the physician exert a mutually reinforcing effect; the result is a powerful remedy that is almost guaranteed to produce an improvement and sometimes a cure. " -- Petr Skrabanek and James McCormick, Follies and Fallacies in Medicine, p. 13. A Consumers Guide to Alternative Medicine: A Close Look at Homeopathy, Acupuncture, Faith-Healing, and Other Unconventional Treatments by Kurt Butler (Author), Stephen Barrett (Editor) • "Everyone knows that "the world's oldest profession" is the selling of fake passion..." Three-month ban for homeopathy GP Thursday, 16 January, 2003, 20:55 GMT BBC • • • • • • • • • Bethan Jinkinson complained about Kira's treatment A family doctor let her faith in alternative medicine cloud her medical judgment, the General Medical Council (GMC) has found. Dr Michelle Langdon risked the health of an 11-month-old girl and failed to get proper consent before using homeopathic medicine, the GMC's professional conduct committee decided on Thursday. Dr Langdon, a partner at the Brunswick Medical Centre in Camden, north London, treated the baby's stomach infection by using a "dowsing" ritual to select a remedy, the hearing had heard. She was found guilty of serious professional misconduct and banned from practising medicine for three months. Dr Michelle Langdon was banned for three monthsThe GMC hearing had heard that Dr Langdon told Kira Jinkinson's mother Bethan her home was built on geopathic stress lines which might be making the child ill. She then "dowsed" for a remedy by swinging a crystal attached to a chain over a book of herbal remedies. She prescribed phosphorus for Kira's stomach upset at the appointment in October 2000. Ms Jinkinson later took Kira to University College Hospital where gastroenteritis was diagnosed. The GMC ruled that Dr Langdon put Ms Jinkinson under pressure to accept homeopathic medicine and her treatment of the baby was inadequate. Cont: • Another patient, Heather Charles, was also prescribed a herbal remedy for a sore throat after the doctor dowsed for the treatment. Ms Charles was given antibiotics two days later by another doctor. • A third patient, Christopher Lemonius, was given homeopathic remedies for a sore throat. • He later went to hospital where he was diagnosed as suffering from a throat infection and an abscess. • Dr Langdon was praised by Tory MP David Tredinnick, who said he had known her for five years. • In a written testimony, he said she always put the interests of her patients first. • "Complementary therapies are often seen as bizarre before they are adopted by the medical establishment," he added. • But Professor Michael Whitehouse, chairman of the committee, told Dr Langdon her behaviour had fallen "far short of the standards expected of a registered medical practitioner". Meta-analysis • In statistics, a meta analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. The first meta-analysis was performed by Karl Pearson in 1904, in an attempt to overcome the problem of reduced statistical power in studies with small sample sizes; analyzing the results from a group of studies can allow more accurate data analysis. • Meta-analysis is widely used in epidemiology and evidence-based medicine today. Degrees in homeopathy slated as unscientific Special Report Nature 446, 352-353 (22 March 2007) doi:10.1038/446352a; Published online 21 March 2007 • Alternative therapies are now a degree subject at some British universities. But do they deserve these credentials? Jim Giles reports. • As debate rages in the United States over whether intelligent design should be taught in science classes, another topic that many researchers see as a pseudoscience is claiming scientific status within the British education system.Over the past decade, several British universities have started offering bachelor of science (BSc) degrees in alternative medicine, including six that offer BSc degrees in homeopathy, a therapy in which the active ingredient is diluted so much that the dose given to the patient often does not contain even a single molecule of it. The Challenge "Unusual claims require unusually good proof" JamesRandi James Randi is so convinced that homeopathy will not work, that he has offered $1m to anyone who can provide convincing evidence of its effects. The programme, Horizon conducts its own scientific experiment, to try and win his money. If they succeed, they will not only be $1m richer they will also force scientists to rethink some of their fundamental beliefs. Sofar no one has claimed the money. • Homeopathetic 1. a pathetic person, specifically a "true believer" in homeopathy; 2. an adjective describing such a person; 3. a common spelling error, often made by illiterate "true believers" in homeopathy • Homeopathy: The Ultimate Fake: Stephen Barrett, M.D. Homeopathic "remedies" enjoy a unique status in the health marketplace: They are the only category of quack products legally marketable as drugs. This situation is the result of two circumstances. First, the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which was shepherded through Congress by a homeopathic physician who was a senator, recognizes as drugs all substances included in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States. Second, the FDA has not held homeopathic products to the same standards as other drugs. Today they are marketed in health-food stores, in pharmacies, in practitioner offices, by multilevel distributors, through the mail, and on the Internet The Christian controversy HOMOEOPATHY - a Christian Medical Perspective Robina Coker • Many Christians in the UK today are concerned that homoeopathy may involve the occult. Hahnemann was a freemason and a hypnotist, but was reportedly a welleducated and empathetic practitioner. However, the answer to the question of whether homoeopathy involves the occult is not immediately evident. It depends on where the 'immaterial and vital' force is thought to originate from. This will follow to some extent, but not necessarily wholly, from the therapist's world-view. There is certainly evidence from continental Europe of a link between homoeopathy and the occult, where it has been alleged that homoeopathic practitioners carry out research during seances and use occult practices such as the pendulum. This is probably less common in Britain, but anecdotal reports are of concern. Christian homoeopathic practitioners should obviously not use these practices. Written by a committed Christian and homoeopath of many years experience this is a clear and well researched book that explains why Christians need have no fear of homoeopathy. It is also an excellent introduction to the scientific principles underlying homoeopathy. A book to be read by all Christians who have concerns about homoeopathy as a safe and appropriate treatment for themselves and their family. It is also invaluable for practitioners who may need to explain their therapy to Christian patients or groups. • • • • • • • • • • • • Jacques Benveniste was a French immunologist (March 12, 1935 October 3, 2004). In 1979 he published in the French Compte rendus de l'Académie des Sciences a well-known paper where he contributes to the description of the structure of the platelet-activating factor and its relationships with histamine. He was at the center of a major international controversy in 1988 when he published a paper in the prestigious scientific journal Nature reporting on the action of very high dilutions of anti-immunoglobulin E on the degranulation of human basophils. Biologists were puzzled by these results as only molecules of water, and no molecules of the initial substance (anti-IgE) are expected to be found in these high dilutions. These results seem to indicate that the configuration of molecules in water may be biologically active. A journalist coined the term water memory for this hypothesis. As a condition for publication, Nature asked for the results to be replicated by independent laborites, which was done. The article was then published. A follow-up investigation of Benveniste's laboratory by a team including Nature editor Dr. John Maddox and "professional pseudo-science debunker" James Randi, with the cooperation of Benveniste's own team, failed to replicate the results. Subsequent investigations have yielded mixed results. Benveniste's reputation was damaged, but he refused to retract his controversial article. He began to fund his research himself as his external sources of funding were withdrawn, and in 1997 he founded the company DigiBio to further his research:: "The principal mission of DigiBio is to develop and commercialize applications of Digital Biology."
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