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					Child Development
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Slides content
3 – Pre-conceptual care 4 – Conception 5 – The development of the embryo and foetus 6 – Infertility 7 – Multiple births 8 – Family planning 9 – Healthy pregnancy 10 – Antenatal provision 11/12 – Delivery and birth 13 – Preparing for the baby 14 – Postnatal provision 15 – Nutrition 16 – Healthy eating
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17 – Planning meals for children 18/19 – Feeding the newborn baby 20 – Weaning 21 – Diet related issues 22 – The sick child 23 – Family structures 24 – Looked after children 25 – Day-care provision 26 – The community 27 – Social services 28 – Special needs children 29 – Accident prevention 30 – Safety issues
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Pre-conceptual care
• A couple needs to consider – maturity, financial support, changing lifestyles and accommodation – before deciding when to start a family. when they are ready. Pre-conceptual care – main factors: a good, nutritious diet; not to be overweight; to be as healthy as possible; to give up smoking and alcohol; to avoid drugs and medicines which may be harmful; to check with the GP if she is immune to rubella; to have genetic counselling if there is a concern about hereditary diseases. Inherited diseases: Cystic fibrosis (mucus in lungs), Haemophilia (blood does not clot), Thalassaemia (disorder of red blood cells), PKU(phenylketonuria – brain damage – mental handicapped), Muscular dystrophy (weakens muscles) Woman should take folic acid helps prevent Spina Bifida
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• Contraception allows couples to plan their family and have children
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Conception

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Menstruation occurs on average every 28 days Ovulation has occurred when an egg has been released from the ovary Fertilization - an egg and a sperm join together in the Fallopian tube If this occurs Conception will have taken place. Implantation – the fertilized egg becomes attached to the uterus lining Ovaries – control the female sex hormones and produce and release eggs Uterus – where the baby develops and grows Cervix – the neck of the uterus that is usually closed Vagina – during intercourse, sperm are deposited Seminal vesicle – stores and secretes semen, which carries the sperm Scrotum – the bag containing the testes Testis – produce sperm and the male sex hormone Sperm tube – lead from the testes where the sperm travel from Epididymis – where the sperm are stored
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
The development of the embryo and foetus

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The embryo – the fertilised egg – the cells develop rapidly – blood, bone and muscles develop, the heart starts beating at 3 weeks

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At 8 weeks – called the foetus – main organs are developing and limbs are forming 20 weeks – heart beat can be heard 28 weeks – foetus very energetic and kicks freely

• Lanugo – fine, downy hair on the foetus’s skin • Vernix – greasy coating covering the skin • The placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic sac are the support
• structures for the foetus Pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks

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The placenta – provides nutrients, oxygen to the foetus and removes carbon dioxide and excreted waste material
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Infertility

• Causes of Infertility:
1. Low sperm count - caused by medical conditions e.g. mumps in boys 12 years + 2. Failure to ovulate in the female – hormone problems, taking the pill 3. Blocked Fallopian tubes – caused by an infection 4. Cervical mucus – too thick, prevents the sperm entering 5. Cancer treatment can cause infertility

• Treatments IVF – in vitro fertilisation – sperm and eggs brought together outside the
body. The embryo is replaced in the woman’s uterus

GIFT – the eggs and the sperm are removed and placed in the Fallopian
tubes to be fertilized

ICSI – single sperm injected into an egg in the laboratory
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Multiple births

• Identical twins
• • • One fertilised egg splits into two parts – two separate individuals Share the same placenta inside the uterus Same sex and look alike – have the same genes (inherited)

• Siamese twins - if the split is not complete

• Non-identical twins
• • • • Two eggs released at the same time – fertilised by different sperm Have separate placentas – different genes Same sex, or can be a boy and a girl Two or more eggs fertilised by different sperm – triplets, quads, quins or sextuplets

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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Family Planning

• Abstention is the only method of contraception that is 100% effective • The male and female condom are barrier methods • The combined pill contains – oestrogen and progestogen – stops
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ovulation The POP (pill) contains only progestogen – makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus Progestogen injections or implants stops ovulation and thickens the cervical mucus Male and female sterilisation methods are permanent IUD (small plastic and copper device) – placed in the uterus – stops sperm meeting an egg and a fertilised egg from implanting IUS (small plastic device – releases progestogen) – function as above Emergency pills – can be taken up to 72 hours after – delays ovulation or stops a fertilised egg being implanted
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Healthy Pregnancy

• Signs of pregnancy – nausea, tender and enlarged breasts, passing

urine more frequently, darkening of the skin around the nipples, constipation • Healthy diet – balanced diet, folic acid, avoid fried and spicy foods • Avoiding certain diseases: Listeriosis – caused by bacteria in certain foods – can cause a miscarriage Avoid – soft cheeses, cook-chill meals undercooked, undercooked meat, raw eggs and products containing raw egg, liver, Pate Infectious diseases: Rubella (German Measles) – abnormality in baby i.e. deafness, blindness; Chickenpox; Toxoplasmosis • Avoiding certain substances: medicines, drugs, alcohol, smoking, aromatherapy

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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Antenatal Provision

• Antenatal clinic is where mothers-to-be go for regular testing to

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ensure they are as well as possible and the baby is developing normally Routine Tests – mother’s weight; blood pressure – to check for preeclampsia can be harmful to mother and baby; examination of the uterus – checks baby’s size and position; urine – for sugar and protein First blood test – mother’s blood group, mother’s Rhesus factor, immunity to Rubella, check for anaemia, if mother has syphilis, if mother has Hepatitis B Ultrasound scan – checks baby’s age, position, size, position in the placenta, baby’s heart beat, development, abnormalities Amniocentesis and CVS are both tests which can detect Down’s syndrome Antenatal class – expectant mothers find out about looking after their baby and what to expect during labour. Fathers can attend, to find out how to support the mother
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Delivery and birth – part 1

• Hospital deliveries are more common than home deliveries because
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many women are advised to have their babies in hospital Reasons to have a baby in hospital: first baby, previous pregnancy problems, miscarriage, over 35 years, multiple births, those from poor homes Hospital delivery – special equipment in an emergency, better monitoring during labour, little privacy, unknown midwife, unfamiliar surroundings Home delivery – know midwife and doctor, more choice, no hospital routine, no contact with other mothers, problems: lack of specialist equipment, little rest The process of giving birth is called labour There are three stages of labour Some complications in labour – baby needs special assistance or treatment to be delivered safely – Forceps delivery, Ventouse, Caesarian section, Induction
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Delivery and birth – part 2

• Labour – a show (plug of mucus), breaking of the waters, contractions

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(slowly at first every 20-30 minutes) Stage 1 – the contractions of the muscles of the uterus wall gradually open the cervix (fully dilated 10cm), can last a long time Stage 2 – contractions are very strong and push the baby along the birth canal. Crowning – when the baby’s head come put from the vagina. Episiotomy – small cut to make the opening wider if the vagina does not stretch enough. Stage 3 – the umbilical cord is clamped in two places and cut between. Contractions push out the placenta. Pain Relief: Relaxation and breathing exercises, Entonox – nitrous oxide and oxygen breathed in from a mouthpiece, Pethidine – injection, TENS – gentle electric current – passed through pads on mothers back, Epidural anaesthetic – numbs mother from the waist down Alternative – music and aromatherapy, homeopathy, acupuncture, water birth

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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Preparing for the baby • Parents and carers need to be prepared for the arrival of the new baby so that they can provide the appropriate environment

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Parents and carers should be aware that the way they behave and react towards their new baby will influence how the baby develops
close contact, smiling, talking to the baby, providing toys and things to look at

• Social and emotional needs – cuddling, comfort, baby feels secure,

• Physical needs – clothing, nappies and equipment
Clothing – Layette. Clothes should be warm, soft, loose and comfortable, washable, non-irritant, flame resistant, easy to put on and take off Nappies – Terry (hard-wearing, absorbent); Disposable (save time, more expensive); Reusable (washable, flannelette, shaped) Equipment – Some items of nursery equipment are non-essential. All equipment should carry a safety label
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Parenthood and Pregnancy
Postnatal provision • The midwife - responsible for the welfare of the baby and mother for the first ten days after birth Examination of baby after birth by a doctor – eyes, heart, fingers and toes, mouth for cleft palate, movement of the hips Vitamin K injection – given within first 24 hours – aids blood clotting Neo-natal screening test – at 6 days blood sample taken from the baby’s heel. Check for Phenylketonuria (PKU), Congenital hypothyroidism, Cystic fibrosis The health visitor is responsible for the baby’s developmental progress and well-being up to six weeks and then at clinic for up to 1 year – weighs baby regularly The mother is required to have a postnatal examination 6 weeks after the birth to check she is healthy Postnatal depression – can be caused by lack of sleep, hormonal changes, mother feeling she has no time for herself
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Nutrition and health
Nutrition • • • • • • Foods contain a range of nutrients Macronutrients are foods that the body needs in large amounts Protein is needed for the growth and repair of body tissues Fats and carbohydrates provide the body with energy Dietary fibre (NSP) helps the digestive system work properly Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients and are needed in small amounts by the body Deficiency diseases are caused by a shortage of a nutrient or energy needed Dietary reference values (DRVs) are measures of the amount of a nutrient or energy needed. To maintain an energy balance the kilocalories taken in as food needs to be balanced with the kilocalories used as energy for activities Energy requirements vary – activity, age, size, height and gender (boys have a higher basal metabolic rate than girls)
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Nutrition and health
Healthy eating

• Healthy eating habits established when the child is young will reduce
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their chances of developing a diet-related illness Diets high in calories and fat and low in fibre may result in health problems – obesity, coronary heart disease and diabetes

• Childhood obesity – more children are becoming overweight. Many

foods that appeal to children contain few nutrients but lots of calories due to high fat or sugar content called extrinsic sugar and can be harmful to teeth as plaque is formed when bacteria in the mouth convert the sugar to acid

• Sugar – only provides energy. Sugars in manufactured products is
• The Balance of Good Health – guidelines for a healthy diet:

* Enjoy you food * Eat a variety of different foods * Eat plenty of foods that are rich in starch and fibre * Don’t eat too may fatty or sugary foods * Look after the vitamins and minerals in your foods
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Nutrition and Health
Planning meals for children • • Include proteins, calcium, iron, and vitamins A and D – growth High fibre food. Pureed fruit and vegetables at the start, then firmer textures for a toddler to learn to chew Whole milk – provide enough energy and vitamin A Variety of foods – range of tastes and textures Use healthier methods of cooking – grilling, baking Plenty of liquids – water, milk, unsweetened drinks Children should be independent in feeding themselves Mealtimes should be regular with limited snacks in between Serve small, attractive portions Family meals – happy, social occasions Adults and older children – set an example so the younger children eat a variety of foods and learn good table manners

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Feeding the newborn baby part 1 Babies are born with the natural reflex to suck Breast milk supplies all the nutrients a baby requires Formula milks are modified to make sure they contain the right amounts of nutrients for babies • Factors to consider whether or not to breastfeed: Cost * Mother’s employment pattern * Parents’ or carer’s lifestyles * Personal viewpoint of parents * Cultural background • • •

Nutrition and health

Breastfeeding
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Provides the correct amount of nutrients Easier for the baby to digest Contains antibodies to protect the baby from infections Baby less likely to have gastroenteritis Reduces the risk of allergies and diseases e.g. eczema Convenient way of feeding – milk is clean and at the right temperature
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Feeding the newborn baby part 2

Nutrition and health

Bottle feeding
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Advantages

Choose the correct type of formula milk for the age of the baby Accurately measure the correct amount of feed Make sure all feeding equipment is thoroughly washed and sterilised The sterilising process – by chemical, microwave or electric steam sterilising equipment. All equipment should be sterilised – prevents bacteria spreading When feeding the baby, hold the bottle at the correct angle to prevent wind. Best way to do this – hold baby against the shoulder, rub back Mother can see exactly how much milk the baby is having Other people besides the mother can feed the baby – build a bond Babies can be fed anyway – prevents embarrassment in public Less tiring for some mothers
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Nutrition and health
Weaning • Babies need to go at their own pace when learning about new tastes and textures Babies like to feed themselves, which is messy, but it is a stage they need to experience Babies know when they have eaten enough so they should not be forced to eat more As much care in food hygiene needs to be taken when preparing weaning foods for baby as when preparing milk feeds Weaning foods – can be prepared at home by sieving, mashing or liquidising. No added salt or sugar

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• Prepared food products

Advantages: tamper-proof packaging, easy and quick to use, nutritional content is stated on the packet, useful to use when travelling Disadvantages: more expensive, some wastage, some additives may be present
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Nutrition and health
Diet –related issues
Food refusal: • Children go through developmental stages where they will not cooperate • Children enjoy mealtimes and enjoy playing with the food as much as eating it • May not like the taste of the foods • Some may have small appetites • Attention seeking • They will eat when they’re hungry • Don’t force feed and don’t give snacks between meals Food intolerance • This is a reaction to a food or an ingredient in a food product • Foods that commonly cause food intolerance include milk, eggs, nuts and wheat • Specialist products are available for children who have a food intolerance • Labels can give essential information to parents and carers about the content of food products • Labels – provide information : storage, ingredients, nutritional information, specific details of ingredients, description

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Nutrition and health
The sick child
• • • • • • • • • • • • Infectious diseases are spread by contact and droplet infection The incubation period in the time between the first contact with the bacteria and the first symptoms of the disease If a child develops an infectious disease the parents/carers must contact the GP Immunisation protects the body against infections The NHS provides an immunisation programme for children Immunisation has made sure that diseases which were once common, such as diphtheria and polio are now rare A contra-indication is a reaction to a previous vaccine All children become ill at some point in their childhood A high temperature is a reliable sign that a child is unwell Doctors should be consulted before giving medicine to children A sick child needs care, attention and to feel secure at home in bed Hospital stays are difficult for children, so parents/carers need to be with them if possible
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The family and the community
Family structures • • • • The family forms the basic unit of society The four main types of family structure in the UK are nuclear, extended, lone-parent and reconstituted Function of the family – provide the basic physical needs of shelter, food, warmth and clothing * protection and support * love and security * opportunities for learning and development The family plays a key role in the socialisation of children – they need to learn how to behave and act in different situations. Sense of values Kibbutzim – large community. The adults share the work and the children are brought up in a separate area and their care is shared Social changes have affected family structures Most couples getting married today see family responsibilities as a shared role The role of women in society is changing and affecting their status in the home There is an increase in the number of lone-parent families
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The family and the community
Looked after children Children are taken into local authority care when their parents are unable to look after them, or when there is evidence of neglect or abuse Residential care for children – reasons why children are placed here: • Special support and treatment are required – trained staff to help • Children in the same family can be kept together • The child may have a poor experience of foster care • Abuse has occurred within the family – unsuitable to be placed with another family Foster care is seen to be a suitable types of care for children – • provides a secure family environment either short or long term • Allows the child to develop as an individual Adoption is the legal process where adults become parents they have not given birth to. Social changes in society have reduced the number of babies available – birth control, more support for lone-parents
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The family and the community
Day-care provision Increase in the need for day-care provision because: • Many families have one or both parents/carers working, and need to find other carers for their children during the day • It is recognised that children benefit from early years experiences before they start formal school • The child may have special needs and require special provision to enable them to make progress • Day nursery – good basic care, hours to suit the working hours of the parents, social interaction, provide a range of resources and activities • Workplace crèche – day nursery on the premises • Nursery schools – more formal educational setting. Subject to regulation and inspection • Childminders – flexible hours, home more appropriate, cheaper option • Playgroups/pre-schools – children aged 3 – 5 attend, learn through play, are inspected to assess the value of the education provision
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The family and the community
The Community Services provided to meet the needs of the community: • Personal needs of the family – housing, education, and health • Community facilities – parks, sports centres and libraries • Protection – emergency services • Environmental services – street cleaning, refuse, recycling Statutory support – help in finding housing, financial (benefits), advisory (help in managing a special needs child) Means-tested benefits are targeted at families in greatest need: • Working Families’ Tax Credit * Income support * Housing benefit * Council tax benefit * Sure start maternity grants * free medical treatment * free formula milk Universal benefits – available to everyone entitled, not means-tested:* Child benefit * Disability allowance * free dental treatment, prescriptions, eye tests for all children in full-time education
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The family and the community
Social services and voluntary agencies • • • • • • • Personal social services try to meet the needs of vulnerable families Social workers deal with family issues: - parenting problems, financial problems for a family, violence in the home, child protection, provision of statutory services The Child Support Agency has a responsibility to make sure an absent parent contributes to the up keep of his/her child Lone-parent families are often in need of financial support The Welfare to Work Scheme is an initiative to encourage loneparents to return to work Voluntary agencies work with the statutory services to provide care Voluntary agencies can help families such as direct assistance (NSPCC), advice and counselling (CAB, ChildLine), self-help groups (Gingerbread), pressure groups (Shelter) and non-profit making groups (WRVS)

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The family and the community
Special needs children • A child with special needs requires help and support to live a fulfilling life A congenital disability is one that is present at birth Down’s syndrome is a congenital disability Autistic children find it difficult to communicate with others All children should have equal opportunities to education Families with children who have special needs are entitled to a range of statutory benefits and support Statutory provision for the special needs child and his/her family includes access to additional benefits, housing and social services Respite care is a support system that enables families of special needs children to have a break from caring for their child Early intervention programmes help speed the developmental progress of the pre-school special needs child
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The family and the community
Accident prevention Why children have accidents? • Unaware of the danger in their surroundings • Lack experience and understanding of the consequences of their actions • Naturally curious – can lead them into danger • Are small and cannot see the hazards around them Accident prevention • An awareness of the most likely hazards can reduce the risk of accidents • Young children should never be left unsupervised • Serious accidents often happen in the kitchen • All homes should have a basic first aid box • Many household chemicals are hazardous, therefore keep them out of sight and of reach of children
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The family and the community
Safety issues
Safety outside the home • Gardens can contain many hazards for young children • The Green Cross Code is a system to help children understand how to cross the road safely • All children who travel in a car must be in a safety restraint • All child restraints must carry a British Standards Kitemark Safety issues • Products used with children should be safe and carry a suitable safety mark and comply with standards set down by the government • CE mark –European Community symbol – found on toys • ‘Lion’ mark – is found on toys made in the UK – meets safety requirements of the British Toy manufacturers • Low flammability labels – all children's’ nightwear must be made from fabric that will not burn easily • ‘Keep away from fire’ label – extreme care is needed, fabric doesn't burn slowly

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