Manifestations

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					 The Great Awakening




A Colonial Source to U. S. Identity
                 Books To Read




Thomas S. Kidd, Jon Butler, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, Rhys Isaac
         The Great Awakening
• Series of Religious Revivals from 1730s through 1760s.
• Sources—Continental Pietism, Scots-Irish
  Presbyterianism, Anglo-American Puritanism.
• Outcomes—protean Evangelicalism; Baptists and
  Methodists movements.
• Outcomes—ambiguous challenge to and affirmation of the
  social and ecclesiastical orders
• Outcomes—encouraged Democratic tenor in British North
  America
• Responses—Anti-revivalists; moderate evangelicals;
  radical evangelicals
             Manifestations
• Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691-1747)
• Dutch Calvinist—ministered in New Jersey’s
  Raritan Valley.
• emphasized pietism, conversion, repentance, strict
  moral standards, private devotions,
  excommunication, and church discipline
• Brought revivalism to middle colonies and worked
  closely with Gilbert Tennent.
            Manifestations
• Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
• Northampton, Mass., revival—1734 (reality
  of sin and sovereignty of God in salvation)
• “A Narrative of the Surprising Work of
  God” (1736)
• “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
  (1741)
• Affirmation of Revivalism
             Manifestations
•   George Whitefield (1714-1770)
•   Parish minister in Savannah in 1738
•   Grand Itinerant (1739)
•   Benjamin Franklin printed his sermons
•   Emphasis on “New Birth” (John 3:1-8)
•   Moderate Calvinism/Revivalism
            Manifestations
• Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764)
• “On the Dangers of an Unconverted
  Ministry”
• Extended the work of the Log College
  (forerunner of Princeton University) in
  ministerial education.
             Manifestations
• Samuel Davies (1723-1761)
• Educated in Pennsylvania and licensed to preach
  as a dissenting minister in Virginia
• Converted many Anglicans to Presbyterianism—
  emphasis on New Birth
• Converted slaves in 1750s in Va.
• Ran afoul of Establishment
• With Tennent, traveled to England to raise money
  to bail out the fledgling Princeton University
Freylinghuysen, Edwards,
Whitfield, Tennent, Davies
 Middle Colonies Course of Awakening
• 1720’s: Theodore Fruelinghausen
 N. New Jersey Dutch pastor – Rariton River Valley

• He noticed some of his Deacons were becoming
 converted

• New Brunswick, NJ – Presbyterians
 William Tennent and his Irish sons
   05/09/2010                                10
             William Tennent

• 1673-1745
• Presbyterian
  evangelist
• Log College


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    Northern Course of Awakening

• 1734-37: Connecticut River Valley -
  Congregationalists: Northampton to the Atlantic
• Died down for 3 years
• Enflamed under Whitefield:
  Boston, Salem, Portsmouth, all of New England
• Leadership and writings of Jonathan Edwards
 05/09/2010                                  12
               “Evangelicalism”
• Premise: conversion, “new birth”
• Puritans: public profession
• 1730s, 40s: “Awakenings”
  Colonies, England, Wales, Scotland
• Mass conversions, open air preaching of the
  Word
• Split churches: “New Lights/New Side” vs.
  “Old Lights/Old Side”
  05/09/2010                             13
    Southern Course of Awakening

• Presbyterians in N. Virginia
• Baptists (Separate Congregationalists) in
  New England (Connecticut) expands to
  Separate Baptists in N. Carolina
• From 6,000 – 20,000 in 3 years, foundation of
  Southern Baptists
 05/09/2010                                   14
              Baptists

• In America since
        th
 17 century
• Galvanized by
 Great Awakening
 05/09/2010              15
                       The 3 W’s




                        Whitefield




05/09/2010                                    16
             EdWards                 Wesley
             George Whitefield
• 1714 - 1770
• In 1738 made 1st of
  7 visits to the America
• Ordained Anglican
• “Great Itinerant”
• Member of Wesley’s Oxford
  “Holy Club”
• Popular as G. Washington
• Huge crowds: 30,000
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             Preaching in the Field
• Collapsible Field pulpit




05/09/2010                            18
               The New Birth
• John 3:1-8
• Whitefield: “How this
  glorious Change is
  wrought in the Soul cannot
  easily be explained."



  05/09/2010                   19
        Ben Franklin on Whitefield
• Heard Whitefield
  preach in Colonies &
  England:
• Philadelphia Hall
• Georgia orphanage
• Size of crowds
• Pleased with discourse
05/09/2010                           20
                John Wesley

• 1703 - 1791

• “a brand plucked
    from the burning”




05/09/2010                    21
             Wesley vs. Whitefield
   Son of Anglican rector               Son of tavern keeper

   Strict religious upbringing          Worldly influences

   Conversion: Aldersgate, 35           Oxford, 21

   Preaching: Intellectual, doctrinal   Dramatic, emotional

   Arminian (semi-Augustinian)          Calvinistic

   Exceptional organizer                Exceptional preacher
05/09/2010                                                22
              Methodism

• Hierarchical
• Episcopal




05/09/2010                23
        Methodists: Francis Asbury

• 1745-1816
• Leader in
  2nd Great Awakening




05/09/2010                           24
05/09/2010   25
             Jonathan Edwards

• 1703-1758
• Interpreter of and
  apologist for the
  Great Awakening


05/09/2010                      26
      First Churches, Northampton
• Fifth Meeting House




05/09/2010                          27
              Jonathan Edwards
  In memory of Jonathan Edwards
      Minister of Northampton
From Feb 15, 1727 to June 22, 1750

“The law of truth was in his mouth,
  and iniquity was not found in his
  lips: he walked with me in peace
    and equity, and did turn many
         away from iniquity”
             Malachi 2:6
 05/09/2010                           28
 Sinners in the
   Hands of an
   Angry God.
Enfield, July 8,
             1741
05/09/2010          29
 Revival of
Northampton



05/09/2010    30
             Jonathan Edwards, A Life




05/09/2010                              31
02/14/2010   32
                 “Denominationalism”
• Primary expression of American Christianity, post 1740’s
• Based, in part, on freedom to differ
• Denomination vs. Sect
• Inclusive vs. Exclusive
• The true church cannot be identified with any
  single ecclesiastical structure
• Seed planted by Reformers: not of bishops but of believers
• Architected by Congregationalists at Westminster Assembly
    05/09/2010                                         33
      Effects of the Great Awakening
• 80% of Americans unified in common
  understanding of Christian life and faith

• Dissent/dissenters enjoyed greater respect: Baptists,
  Methodists, Presbyterians

• Emphasis on education: Univ. of Penn, UNC

    05/09/2010                                    34
  Effects of the Great Awakening, cont
• Preaching to Indians and Slaves

• Reinterpreted Covenant: man’s response

• Dissolution of Theocracy: disestablishment in VA &
  NC, democratization

• Breakdown in theological consensus: New/Old Lights
    05/09/2010                                 35
               1-Word Summary
• Pilgrims                Separatists
• Puritans                Saints
• Denominations           Inclusive
• Whitefield              Dramatic
• Wesley                  Methodism
• Edwards                 Glory
• Great Awakening         Fire
  05/09/2010                            36

				
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posted:1/1/2014
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