MON-3B-Lobaccaro-57334

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					Session MON-3B: Solar Architecture / Urban Planning


Solar Energy in urban environment:
how urban densification effect existing buildings




                     Gabriele Lobaccaro
                                                        hnology
                     NTNU - Norwegian of science and Technology

                     Francesco Frontini
                     University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI)
Outlines
Introduction
Open questions and objectives


Solar potential in urban area
Solar optimization design and solar reflection
Solar parametric design optimization - generative geometry


Overshadowing effect in Urban environment
Solar availability analysis


Urban daylight
Urban daylight on the public spaces

Conclusion
European Directive on the energy
performance of buildings (EPBD)
2010/31/EU


20-20-20 plan - EU-27 2020:
- 20% emissione gas effetto serra
- 20% consumi energetici
+ 20% uso energie rinnovabili


In Europe the buildings produce:
36% emissions CO       2

40% energy consumptions

Renewable Energy Sources
Cities



                                    75%              Energy consumed




                                    80%              Emissions




                                                                                        London
                                                                 Source: Charles Knight/Rex Features


G. Masera, G. Lobaccaro - Cities shaped by energy

From Urban sprawl




                    Rio de janeiro
To Dense Urban City




                      Masdar City
           International, national and local
           urban regulations:




           Minimize the use of land,

           limiting the extension of cities

           Demolition and rebuilding in
           the existing sites.




New Buildings in the urban existing areas
                              The Shard (London)
         International, national and local
         urban regulations:




         Promotion for intervention of
         demolition and rebuilding



         New green areas




Demolition and rebuilding interventions
                                City life - Milan
Net ZERO ENERGY Cities?




                     Shanghai
SUSTAINABLE Cities?




                      Hong Kong
RENEWABLE Cities?




                    Sao Paulo
  why
not using the cities for producing the energy   ?
                                                

International research activities
     The total solar energy
absorbed from the earth is equal:

       3,850,000 EJ

   The use of primary energy
     in 2009 was equal to:

           510 EJ

           Electricity:

             62EJ
      Energy Unused
Objectives



1 – Solar Optimization of the building shape;


2 – Analyzing of solar access on the existing building;


3 – Analyzing of solar daylight availability in the existing public square.
Criteria for solar design – Building Scale




   Heights of the              Solar Reflections         Depth of the spaces
     buildings                                           % of glazed façades




   Plot ration/ Buildability Index/       Orientation – Solar exposure
           Urban Canyon
Case study and simulation
                                                             Lugano Paradiso (Swi)




Site localization
Source: Google Earth




                                        Solar maps
                            Source: http://www.oasi.ti.ch/
Case study and simulation
                                Lugano Paradiso (Swi)




                                            Current scenario




Previous scenario




                            N




                                          Source: Google Earth
Case studies and simulations
                                                        Lugano Paradiso (Swi)



                                                            C
                   C
                                                       A
                                                                  B




          Initial Scenario                        Current Design Scenario




                                  ?
                      Does exist a solar optimized scenario
                                          

                  maintaining the constant volume and the solar
                                            

                       availability of the

 existing building
                                        

Case studies and simulations
                                                  Lugano Paradiso (Swi)




                                                          Section of the ground




                                                              ?
            Section on the site project



                        How to simulate the slope of the ground            

Case studies and simulations
                                                                      Parameters setting




            Standard Daysim simulation (without ground)
                  Ref_0: ground reflectance equal to 0.0
                  Ref_1: ground reflectance equal to 0.15




             Daysim simulation importing the ground geometry
           Sim_0: ground reflectance equal to 0.0; Specularity 0.0
          Sim_1: ground reflectance equal to 0.15; Specularity 0.15

                          How to simulate the slope of the ground             ?            

Case studies and simulations
                                                                                                                   Parameters setting

Set of “rtrace” parameters used for all radiance-based simulations
 ambient             ambient          ambient super-               ambient             ambient               specular             direct              direct
 bounces             division            sample                   resolution           accuracy             threshold           sampling              relays
   1–3                 1000                     20                   300                  0.1                 0.15                0.20                  2




Radiance material set for the external walls of buildings.
         Material             Radiance material          Number of values             R refl.     G refl.     B refl.     Specularity             Roughness
Concrete block plaster           void plastic                     005                 0.549       0.549        0.549            0.00                 0.00




Results of the simulations for setting the ground Radiance parameters.
 Code         Gr.     Radiance      Num.          R        G          B        Sp.       Rg.          Irr. Glob.         %              Irr. Glob.       %
             refl.    material      values       refl.    refl.      refl.                           [kWh/year]                        [kWh/year]
 Ref_0       0%           -            -             -      -          -        -          -          1211283             -        10522844.5               -
 Sim_0       0%      void plastic    005         0.0      0.0        0.0       0.0        0.0         1203184           -0.67      10448321.5          -0.71
 Ref_1       15%          -            -             -      -          -        -          -          1323908             -            11327422             -
 Sim_1       15%     void plastic    005         0.0      0.0        0.0       0.15       0.0         1314812           -0.69          11227560        -0.88
Generative parametric solar optimization process
A New approach for Urban Planning

Tools of parametric/generative
          modelling              Link                        Solar Analyses and
                                                                 solar maps




                                   Geco - Grasshopper



                                  Tools for solar dynamic simulation




                                             Elaboration data
Generative parametric transformations of the volumes

                                                                                                  Slope West –         Twist and
                      Initial Shape      Twist West         Twist East        Slope South
                                                                                                      East              Slope

Constant data of                                                               Slope of the        Slope of the      Combination of
  the building                          Rotation of the    Rotation of the   façades from on    façades on east or   twist and slope
                       Without any
                                       roof from 15       roof from 15        south direction    west direction 5°    on south and
                      transformation
                                           45 west            45 east         5° to 20° from     to 20° from the        east/west
                                                                                the vertical         vertical           direction

Building A
Footprint: 570 m2
Floor area: 570 m2
Height: 50 m
Volume: 28500 m3

Total surfaces area     5535 m2            5586 m2            5586 m2           5765 m2             5647 m2             5993 m2
Building B
Footprint: 450 m2
Floor area: 450 m2
Height: 20 m
Volume: 9000 m3
Total surfaces area     2300 m2           2476.5 m2          2476.5 m2          2336 m2           2417.5 m2             2630 m2
                                                                                 S_S5            S_W5 – S_E5
                                           T_W15              T_E15                                                  T_W/E15/45 –
Transformation’s                                                                 S_S10          S_W10 – S_E10
                            0              T_W30              T_E30                                                    S_S5/20 –
IDs                                                                              S_S15          S_W15 – S_E15
                                           T_W45              T_E45                                                   S_W/E5/20
                                                                                 S_S20          S_W20 – S_E20
Solar irradiation simulations- District analyses
Considering the surrounding (mutual reflections)
                                                                 DIVA solar maps simulations



              A
              A                                        A
                                                        A
                       B
                       B                                           B
                                                                   B
                                                             B          A
                   B        A




         Current design scenario                   Solar optimized scenario



                   Building A              + 7.3%

                   Building B              + 7.2%
Case study and simulation
                                                            Lugano Paradiso (Swi)



                                           C                             C
            C
                                      A        B                     A       B




     Initial scenario            Current design scenario      Optimized design scenario


 Scenario                       [kWh/yr]       [kWhm2/yr]   Radiation variation [%]
 Initial scenario                942542            579.5                 -
 Current design scenario         929783            572               -1.3
 Optimized design scenario       945735            581.5              0.3

                           Solar availability on the building C
Case study and simulation
                                                                                             Lugano Paradiso (Swi)
                               0,5%


                               0,0%                                                                Scenarios
     Radiation variation [%]

                                       Optimized design   Opt_3   Opt_2   Current design   Opt_1
                                           scenario                         scenario
                               -0,5%


                               -1,0%


                               -1,5%


                               -2,0%


                               -2,5%




                                                     Solar availability on the building C
Case study and simulation
                                                                                                            Lugano Paradiso (Swi)


                     Entire building envelope                                                                      East façade
        Jan   Feb    Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec            Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
0,0%                                                                              0,0%

                                                                                  -1,0%
-0,5%
                                                                                  -2,0%
-1,0%
                                                                                  -3,0%

-1,5%                                                                             -4,0%

                                                                                  -5,0%
-2,0%
                                                                                  -6,0%
-2,5%
                                                                                  -7,0%
-3,0%                                                                             -8,0%

-3,5%                                                                             -9,0%

                                                                                 -10,0%




                                              - 9.2% Solar gains
                                   Solar availability on the building C
                        Entire building - East façade during the morning hours
                    Comparison between initial scenario and current design scenario
Case study and simulation
                                                                                                           Lugano Paradiso (Swi)


              Entire building envelope - Milan                                                 Entire building envelope - Sydney
        Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec            Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
0,0%                                                                             0,0%


-0,5%                                                                            -2,0%


-1,0%                                                                            -4,0%


-1,5%                                                                            -6,0%

-2,0%                                                                            -8,0%

-2,5%                                                                           -10,0%

-3,0%
                                                                                -12,0%




                                  Until - 10.4% Solar gains
                              Solar availability on the building C
                   Entire building - East façade during the morning hours
               Comparison between initial scenario and current design scenario
Case study and simulation
                                                        Lugano Paradiso (Swi)


    Urban Daylight – Initial scenario     Urban Daylight – Current design scenario




             - 7.5% Daylight availability

                Annual urban daylight analysis on the public square
Case study and simulation
                                                            Lugano Paradiso (Swi)


   Urban Daylight – Current design scenario   Urban Daylight – Optimized design scenario




            +56% Daylight availability

                 Annual urban daylight analysis on the courtyard
Conclusion

METHOD_
A New Urban Planning approach for planners, architects and engineers



UTILITY_
Use of the tool for supporting design decisions during the early design phases



ANALYSES_
Holistic design approach for sustainable and integrated design
Future developments

Improving the methods and the tools (design and analysis)


Analysis of the effects on the surrounding


Studying of dynamic solar shading devices


Analysis Costs & Benefits
                                              Gabriele Lobaccaro
                         NTNU - Norwegian of science and Technology
                                        gabriele.lobaccaro@ntnu.no




                                               Francesco Frontini
University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI)
                                            Francesco.frontini@supsi.ch

				
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