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					International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME
                                TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)
ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 240-246
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI)                   ©IAEME


                       Prof. Vikram M. Agrawal1,       Prof. Samip A. Patel2
                             IT Department, BVM Engineering College


        Mobile ad hoc networks have a collection of large number of mobile nodes that form
temporary network without aid of any existing network like physical infrastructure or central access
point. So it means in MANET it can not be identified the particular topology for particular time. The
main characteristics of MANETs are dynamic topology, node mobility, provides large number of
degree of freedom and self-organizing capability. These all properties make it completely different
from other network. Due to such properties of MANETs, to design and development of secure
routing is challenging task in open and distributed communication environments with protocols.
There is option of cryptography to give advance security to already present protocols. It may be best
option of DSDV for key management and message sending.

Keywords: MANETs, Security, Cryptography, DSDV, AODV.


       WIRELESS cellular system has been in use since 1980s. At the starting of the development
of wireless system, it operates with the help of a centralized supporting structure it means there is
one server or main point which manage the all the network. This is also known as an access point.
Recent advancement of wireless technologies like Bluetooth [3], IEEE 802.11 [4] introduced a new
type of wireless system known as Mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) [1, 2, 5, 6], which operate in
the absence of central access point or server. It provides high mobility and device portability that
enable to nodes connect network and communicate to each other anytime and anywhere. It allows
the devices to maintain connections to the network as well as easily adding and removing from the
network. User has great flexibility to design such a network which is available at cheapest cost and
minimum time. DSDV is the only proactive protocol taken for comparison with other secure
protocols. It has most common features with the traditional routing protocols in wired networks.
The sequence numbers are added to ensure loop-free routes.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME

2.     FEATURES OF MANETs (Different type of connection)

A mobile ad hoc network has following features [7]:
      Autonomous Terminal: It means each node may function as both a host and a router. So each
      node can send and receive packet as well work as mediator.
      Distributed Operation: The nodes act as a relay to implement functions. So packets are sent in
      form of relay one will send packet to second and second will send to third and so on.
      Multi-hop Routing: When delivering data packets from a source to its destination out of the
      direct wireless transmission range, the packets should be forwarded via one or more
      intermediate node [8]

                                    FIG 1: Multi Hop Routing

       Dynamic Network Topology: The mobile nodes in the network dynamically establish routing
       among themselves. When they finish the work then loose the network and move out
       Light-weight Terminal: In this network is established for some particular purpose. In these
       MANET nodes with less CPU processing capability, small memory size, and low power
       storage are exist.


        Since nodes in mobile network can move dynamically, the network tends to change its
topology very frequently just because of joining and leaving network is not managed by any central
entity. This mobile nature of the nodes may create many security and other issues in MANETs [7]:

       Lack of Centralized Management: It is impossible to detect attacks.
       Infrastructure less: Detecting faults in network is not easy. There is dynamic and free feature
       for each node in ad hoc network so fault is not detected.
       Dynamic Topology: Results in weaker relationship among nodes. Not easily find out about
       how many nodes in network at present.
       Packet Loss: Mobility of nodes, bit rate error and interference causes packet loss.
       Mobile Nodes: It is easy for malicious nodes to enter any network and hinder
       Security: Mobile nodes itself perform the major networking tasks, so it is easy for any
       attacker to acquire data or pretending to be authorised node.
       Resource Availability: Providing security in mobile network requires various resources and

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME


        The choice of the route being selected is done by the routing algorithm [11]. As in Fig 2 it is
clearly shows the classification of the routing protocols.

                   FIG 2: DIFFERENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN Manets

4.1     Reactive protocol
        Reactive protocols are also called on-demand protocols because they maintain or discover
route only on demand or required [11]. A control message is flooded to the routes to discover the
appropriate route. It only establishes the route when any node in the network wants to send a
message or a packet to another node in the network. The advantage of these protocols are that it
reduces the routing table overflow and its major disadvantage is that due to its on demand nature
while route discovery a longer delay is been found. The example of this type of protocol are DSR
(dynamic source routing), AODV (ad hoc on demand distance vector routing), LAR (location aided
routing), TORA (temporally ordered routing algorithm). These types of protocol maintain the details
when it is required to send packets. So this is good when there are many dynamic nodes are available
in one ad hoc network.

4.2     Proactive protocol
       Proactive protocols are also named as table driven routing protocol. They maintain the
routing table of the entire network constantly like where the packets are sent, how they sent and
which route are used to send packets. Each node has to maintain one or more tables to store routing
information and also response to changes in network topology by broadcasting acknowledgement
and propagating. [12] The routing tables are constantly updated whenever the network topology
changes. Each node in the network sends a broadcast message to the entire network if there is any
change in the network topology. This feature of maintaining routing entries of the entire network
may affect the routing table but it provides the actual information of the entire network. For very
large network the proactive routing protocols may not be recommended because they maintain

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME

entries of each node in the network which causes more bandwidth consumption and overload to
routing table. The examples of proactive routing protocol are DV (distance vector), DSDV
(destination sequence distance vector), OLSR (optimised link state routing), and WRP (wireless
routing protocol) which is an enhanced version of DSDV.

4.3    Hybrid protocols
       As according to the name hybrid routing protocols are a combination of both reactive and
proactive routing protocols. Basically to overcome the shortcomings of reactive and proactive
routing protocol the hybrid is used. It uses the route discovery and on demand mechanism of reactive
routing protocol and the routing table management mechanism of proactive routing protocol. In
hybrid routing protocol a large network is divided into zones. The routing inside the zones is done by
using reactive approach and the routing outside the zone is done using reactive approach. [13] It is
the most effective and appropriate routing protocol amongst all. The examples of hybrid protocols
are ZRP (zone routing protocol), ZHLS (zone based hierarchical state).

                   TABLE 1: Comparison of Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid
                           Advantages                               Disadvantages

                   •   Up-to-date routing              •   Slow convergence
      Proactive        information                     •   Tendency of creating loops
                   •   Quick establishment of          •   Requires more resources
                       routes                          •   Routing information not fully used
                   •   Less delay

      Reactive     •   Saving resources                • Not always up-to-date routes
                   •   Reduces routing load            • More delay
                   •   Loop free                       • Control traffic and Overhead cost

                   •   Scalability                     • Inter-zone delay
       Hybrid      •   Limited search cost             • Requires more resources for large size
                   •   Up-to-date routing                zones
                       information within


        AODV does not take security into account. AODV messages are neither encrypted nor
authenticated nor integrity protected. So it is basically always assumed as trusted. Based on the
possibility to forge packets and on the distributed and uncontrolled nature of the network many
attacks are possible. Because of forge packets, destination can not identify the integrity of the
message or packets. Due to these reasons many security techniques should be implemented on
AODV. There are some following techniques provide security to ad hoc routing protocols.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME

        SAODV: - Secure AODV is an extension to AODV routing protocol. It is proposed by M.
Zapata and N. Asokan. It is based on public key cryptography and hash algorithm. SAODV routing
messages (RREQs, RREPs, and RERRs) are digitally signed, in order to guarantee their integrity and
authenticity [14]. So we can easily identify that is there any unauthorised activity is placed or not.
There is a key management system which makes it possible for each node to obtain public keys from
the other nodes of the network. How this is achieved depends on the key management scheme. There
are different approaches for key management. Two mechanisms are used to secure the AODV
messages: digital signatures to authenticate, and hash chains to secure the hop count information (the
only mutable information in the messages). For the non-changeable information, authentication is
performing in an end-to-end manner, but the same kind of techniques cannot be applied to the
changeable information. To preserve the collaboration mechanism of AODV, SAODV that allows
intermediate nodes to reply to RREQ messages, when any node want to send message. This is called
the double signature to get idea of authenticated source when a node A generates a RREQ message,
in addition to the regular signature, it can include a second signature, which is computed on a
pretended RREP message towards intermediate node itself.
        A-SAODV – Adaptive secure AODV is another approach to secure AODV routing protocol
from attacks and from malicious users. It is based on the AODV-UU implementation by Uppsala
University. Unlike AODV-UU, A-SAODV is a multithreaded application [15]. In A-SAODV, there
are two execution threads: one carries the cryptographic operations and the other to all other
functions (routing message processing, SAODV routing table management, timeout management,
SAODV message generation, and data packet forwarding). The two threads communicate via a first
input first output (FIFO) queue containing all the messages that must be signed or verified. [15]
        SEAD – Secure efficient Ad hoc distance vector is a proactive routing protocol. It is another
routing protocol which is secure as it is based on one way hash functions to provide authentication.
Each node contains its individual hash chains which are separated into segments to prevent an
attacker to forge sequence numbers [16]. So with this sequence number we can identify that there is
some unauthorised message in between in actual packets.
        ARIADNE - It is another On-Demand Routing Protocol presented by Hun, Johnson & Perrig
based on DSR. It is a secure on-demand routing protocol that can authenticate messages using one of
the three ways: shared secrets between each pair of nodes, shared secrets between communicating
nodes combined with broadcast authentication, or digital signature[16]. In shared secrets key twos
nodes (source and destination) mutually and securely share the key so no one can open the key. In
second method there is disadvantage of broadcasting of secret key because if any unauthorised nodes
to pretend real actor then he can also get broadcasted secret key. The third method provides more
security then other two methods because by digital signature, we can easily identify the person is
authorised actor or not.
        ARAN - It is proposed by Dahill. Authenticated Routing for ad hoc networks detects the
attacks from malicious nodes and also protects the network from forged actions. It uses
cryptographic certificates for authentication purpose. The certificate includes the IP of the node, the
public key of the source node, a timestamp of the time at which the certificate was created and
another timestamp of the time at which the certificate expires. So by using the timestamp user or
node can use particular certificate for particular time. The disadvantage of timestamp is that suppose
some packet takes less time as per valid time certificate then an intruder can use certificate to send
the forge packets. This is the first step which is covered. After the successful completion of the first
step second step is preceded. It discovers the shortest path to the destination. It is an on- demand
routing protocol. It is successful in protecting the network against impersonation attack but is
vulnerable to wormhole attack. [16]

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME

Relation between attacks and different security protocols is shown in table 2.

                         TABLE 2: Relation between Attacks and Protocols


                                  SAODV            SEAD            ARIADE            ARAN

              ATTA CKS

            BLACK HOLE              NO             YES                NO              NO

                 DOS               YES             YES               YES              YES

              SPOOFING              NO             YES                NO              NO

             WORMHOLE              YES             YES               YES              YES

7.         CONCLUSION

        In conclusion we can say that there is some ambiguity to provide security in reactive protocol
AODV and proactive protocol SEAD. If we provide some functionality to DSDV then we can best
option for key management and sending packets. The table in section 6 indicate that there is
possiblility of attack in SAODV, SEAD, Ariadne, and ARAN. There is another approach to provide
security with DSDV. DSDV is the only proactive protocol taken for comparison. It has most
common features with the traditional routing protocols in wired networks. The sequence numbers
are added to ensure loop-free routes. If we short out the problem of mobility and join the protocol in
long time then DSDV can be best approach for key management and sending packet then other protocols.

8.         REFERENCES

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     [2]   Y. Hu, A. Perrig and D. Johnson, Ariadne: A Secure On-demand Routing Protocol for Ad
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME

 [7]    Kuldeep Sharma, Neha Khandelwal and Prabhakar.M, “An Overview of security Problems in
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