Lesson 10 by gabyion

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									Lesson 10

The Trial
That Rocked the World

I. Aims and Contents of Teaching:

1. the comprehension of the text and the mastery of the important language points 2. the paraphrase of certain complicated or difficult sentences

I. Aims and contents of Teaching:
 3.

the enlargement of the students' vocabulary familiarization with the styles of composition and devices of figuration

 4. the

II. Procedures of Teaching:

1. Background knowledge

2. Detailed study of the text
3. Structural analysis 4. Language features

5. Supplementary exercise

III. Background Knowledge:
1. Religions
God:

the Deity, the Divinity, Holy One, Jehovah, the Lord, Providence, the Almighty, the Creator and etc. There is only one God in heaven. But the belief in God has developed three religious sections:  Christianity, Judaism and Islam.

III. Background Knowledge:
Christianity:

Roman Catholic
Protestant

Orthodox Eastern Church
Trinity:

the Holy Father, the Holy Son and the Holy Spirit/Ghost, with Jesus Christ as its incarnation.

III. Background Knowledge:
 Bible:
Name

of the Christian Scriptures, the Old Testament and the New Testament.

III. Background Knowledge:
 Bible
Old

Testament: Christian name for the Hebrew Bible, the first portion of the Christian Bible
Genesis: first book of the Old Testament which tells the origin of the world and of man

III. Background Knowledge:
Bible
New

Testament: the distinctive Christian portion of the Bible  Gospel: Greek word for good news. the first four books of the New Testament.

III. Background Knowledge:
 Bible
fundamentalism:

conservative religious movement. Its aim is to maintain word for word interpretations of the Bible. Nowadays this word can apply to other religions.

III. Background Knowledge:
2. American governing system
a.

Legislature: parliament--Congress and Senate Executive: the president and his administration Judicial: the Federal Supreme Court

b. c.

III. Background Knowledge:
3. 4.

Civil Law: Criminal Law

5.
6.

Jury
Counselor / Counsellor

VI. Detailed Study:
1. buzz: a noise of a low hum, low confused whisper

2. sweltering: very hot, causing unpleasantness, torrid, sultry

VI. Detailed Study:
 3. counsel: a group of one or more lawyers (barristers) acting for someone in a court of law

 4. prosecution: the act of bringing a criminal charge against sb. in a court of law

VI. Detailed Study:
5. silver-tongued: (lit.) able to give fine persuading speeches, eloquent 6. orator: a good public speaker, a person who delivers an oration (formal and solemn public speeches)

VI. Detailed Study:
7. nominee: a person who has been named officially for election to a position, office, honour, etc.
a

Nobel Prize nominee / a presidential nominee

VI. Detailed Study:
8. bring about: cause
Scientists

have brought about great changes in our lives.

VI. Detailed Study:
9. involve: to cause sb. to become connected or concerned
Don't We

involve other people in your mistakes. are all involved, whether we like it or not.

VI. Detailed Study:
10. testify: to make a solemn statement, esp. under oath in a court of law, of what is true
The

witnesses testify / give evidence in the law court. One witness testified that he had seen the prisoner ran out of the bank after it had been robbed.

VI. Detailed Study:
11. on hand: available, present,
cf:
within at

reach: the distance one can reach hand: near in time or place

VI. Detailed Study:
Always

have your dictionary on hand / within reach / at hand when you study.

Please
I

be on hand at 12 sharp.

have a great deal of important work on hand.

VI. Detailed Study:
All his old friends will be on hand / present to see Jack receive the medal of honour.

I want you to be at hand / near during my interview with the boss of the company.
The post office is close at hand.

VI. Detailed Study:
12. reassure: comfort and make free from fear, stop worrying often by saying sth. kind or friendly
The She

doctor reassured the sick man about his health. won't believe it in spite of all our reassurance.

VI. Detailed Study:
cf: assure: try to cause to believe or trust in sth.; promise
The

captain assured the passengers that there was no danger.

VI. Detailed Study:
13. erupt: (of a volcano) to explode and pour out fire
Here,

emerge, happen quickly, come down upon unexpectedly and violently;

I

was suddenly engulfed by the whole affair.

VI. Detailed Study:
14. adhere to: to favour strongly, stick firmly to;
The

wallpaper won't adhere to the ceiling. adhere to the contract.

They

VI. Detailed Study:
He

resolutely adhered to what he had said at the meeting.

adhere

to the four cardinal / fundamental principles

VI. Detailed Study:
15. prohibit: to forbid, to ban
to

prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors / pornographic literature or video tapes / prostitution / visiting prostitutes / smoking in public places, etc.

VI. Detailed Study:
cf: FORBID is more direct and familiar, while PROHIBIT is more formal or official; they do not widely differ in their essential implications. to forbid a child to leave the house

VI. Detailed Study:
16. violate: to disregard or act against sth. solemnly promised The actress violated the terms of her contract. This is considered as a violation of the Constitution. If you violate someone's privacy or peace, you disturb it.

VI. Detailed Study:
17. legality: the condition of being lawful; lawfulness
The

legality of this action will be decided by the court.

VI. Detailed Study:
18. indict: to indict sb. for a crime means to charge them with it officially
Five

men were caught at the scene and indicted.

VI. Detailed Study:
cf:
accuse,
One

charge, prosecute, blame

accuses sb. of cheating.

One
One One

charges sb. with cheating.
prosecutes sb. for theft.

blames sb. for the failure.

VI. Detailed Study:
least of all: to an insignificant degree
Nobody
Least

need worry, you least of all/ least of all you.
of all would I lie to you. seemed amused, least of all

Nobody

Jenny.

VI. Detailed Study:
19. anticipate: to expect what will happen
We We

are not anticipating that there will be much trouble. anticipate that the enemy would try to cross the river and so seize the bridge.

VI. Detailed Study:
take on: begin to have (a particular quality, appearance, etc), assume sth.
He

has taken on some irritating mannerism. chameleon can take on the colours of its background.

The

Her

eyes took on a hurt expression.

VI. Detailed Study:
20. festoon: If you festoon sth. with decorations, lights or other things, you spread or hang these things over it in large numbers in order to decorate it.
The

garden was festooned with coloured lights.

VI. Detailed Study:
21. sprout: to grow or come out, appear and spread rapidly
n.

new growth of a plant, shoot sprouts / bamboo shoots

bean

22. rickety: weak in joints and likely to break
rickety

old man / stairs / cart

VI. Detailed Study:
23. evangelist: one who preaches the gospel (good news) 24. exhort: urge earnestly or advise strongly sb. to do sth.
to

exhort sb. to do good / to work harder, etc.

VI. Detailed Study:
25. cheer: support and encourage, shout in praise, approval or support
Every The

time a Chinese runner won a race the crowd cheered. crowd cheered their favourite horse.

VI. Detailed Study:
26. infidel: (old & derog.) (used esp. in former times by Christians and Muslims of each other) someone who does not follow one's own religion, unbeliever 27. draw up: to form and usu. write
to

draw up a plan / a contract

VI. Detailed Study:
28. florid: (of a person's face) having a red skin 29. paunchy: (derog. and humour) (esp. of a man) having a fat stomach, pot belly 30. attorney-general: chief law officer and legal expert of the government of a state

VI. Detailed Study:
31. shrewd: clever in judgement, esp. of what is to one's own advantage
a

shrewd lawyer who knows all the tricks is a shrewd and sometimes ruthless adversary.

He

VI. Detailed Study:
32. steep: soak, to let sth. stay in a liquid for softening, bringing out a taste etc.
Steep
Leave

the coffee

the coffee to steep for 5 minutes

VI. Detailed Study:
33. agnostic: person who believes that one can only have knowledge of material things and that nothing is or can be known about God or life after death
cf:

atheist: person who doubts the existence of God

VI. Detailed Study:
34. growl /au/: to say sth. in a low rough and rather angry voice.
The

dog growled at me.

He

growled out a demand to her to stop.

VI. Detailed Study:
35. preliminary: introductory, preparatory 36. spar: to box without hitting hard, argue or dispute (with sb)
The

children are sparring with each other.

VI. Detailed Study:
37. drawl: to speak or say slowly with vowels greatly lengthened
drawl

out one’s words

VI. Detailed Study:
38. ignorance: lack of knowledge Poverty, disease and ignorance remain major world problems. We are in complete ignorance of his plans. She is very young, and ignorant of what life really is. They ignored traffic regulations.

VI. Detailed Study:
39. bigot: one who obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his own opinions and prejudices, esp. religious beliefs.
bigotry:

the state of having very strong, unreasonable attitudes and opinions

VI. Detailed Study:
40. rampant: widespread and impossible to control
Theft,

robbery, trafficking in narcotics, rural women and children are rampant in some places. soil makes some plants too rampant.

Rich

Mosquitoes

are rampant in the

dormitory.

VI. Detailed Study:
41. fagot: a bundle of sticks of firewood

42. enlighten: cause to understand, free from ignorance or false beliefs, give more knowledge.
Can 

you enlighten me on this subject?

the age of Enlightenment in the 18th century

VI. Detailed Study:
43. contaminate: to make impure, bad by mixing with dirty or poisonous matter Don't eat the food, it may have been contaminated by the flies. The river is contaminated with waste from the factory. Our students are being contaminated by foreign ideas.

VI. Detailed Study:
44. snort: to make a rough noise by blowing air down the nose, to express impatience or anger by this sound We ran when the bull began to snort. cf: snore: breathe heavily and noisily through the nose and mouth while asleep

VI. Detailed Study:
45. evidence: (in law) words which prove a statement, support a belief There wasn't enough evidence to prove him guilty. Have you any evidence to support this statement? not a bit / piece / scrap / shred of evidence

VI. Detailed Study:
46. brandish: to wave threateningly sth. esp. a weapon about, this word stresses threat.
I

shall brandish my sword before them.

VI. Detailed Study:
47. denounce: to criticise severely and publicly, announce threateningly
The A

newspapers denounced the new taxes. mass meeting denounced him as a traitor.

VI. Detailed Study:
48. sonorous: having a pleasantly full loud sound
the

sonorous tones of the priest

the

sonority of the bass voices

The

church clock chimed sonorously.

VI. Detailed Study:
49. reconcile: make peace between, make friendly again I cannot reconcile the two points of view. I asked how he would reconcile apartheid with Christianity. The two girls quarrelled but are now reconciled.

VI. Detailed Study:
50. jungle: tropical forest too thick to walk through easily. 51. image: likeliness, form, copy You see your image in the mirror. I can close my eyes and see images of things and persons. The coin bears an image of the emperor.

VI. Detailed Study:
52. divine: of, related to, or being god or a god 53. thrust: to push forcefully and suddenly, to make a sudden forward stroke with a sword, knife, etc.
He

thrust the fork into the meat.

VI. Detailed Study:
54. Applause: n.
applaud:
Everyone The The

v.
stood up to applaud.

audience applauded the singer for 5 minutes.
crowd bursts into applause and shouts "Hurray!"

VI. Detailed Study:
55. fervour: passion, zeal, enthusiasm, intense heat
speak

with great fervour

fervent: a 

showing strong and warm feelings, hot, passionate fervent love / hatred a fervent lover / admirer

VI. Detailed Study:
56. arena: an area of land or a large room where sports, entertainment and public events take place.
The

city built a new sports arena.

After

World II Japan entered the arena of international trade.

VI. Detailed Study:
57. prairie: (in North America) a wild treeless grassy plain. 58. scorch: to burn (part of ) a surface so as to change its colour, taste
The a

hot iron scorched the tablecloth. hot weather scorched the grass.

scorched-earth policy

The

VI. Detailed Study:
59. observe: to make a remark, to say, to comment
He

observe that the house seemed to be too small.

VI. Detailed Study:
60. passion: strong, often uncontrollable feeling
The

poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved. filled with passion, eager two groups had a passionate debate.

passionate: The

VI. Detailed Study:
61. sip: to drink in small quantities cf: suck: to draw (as liquid) into the mouth  to suck milk from his mother's breast sap: to drain the fluid part of a plant,

VI. Detailed Study:
62. jug: a large deep, usu. earthenware or glass container with a narrow mouth, a handle and a lip for pouring

VI. Detailed Study:
63. appeal: to make a strong request for help, support, mercy; beg He appealed to his attacker for mercy. He appealed to me for help. v. please, attract, interest Some people say Peking Opera is too old-fashioned to appeal to people any longer. The idea appealed to me.

VI. Detailed Study:
64. intellect, intellectual, intelligence, intelligent intellect: the ability to understand or deal with ideas and information, the ability to reason rather than to feel or act.

VI. Detailed Study:
intellectual:
adj.

concerning the intellect, able to use the intellect well, showing unusual reasoning powers

VI. Detailed Study:
intellectual:
 n. a person who works and lives by

using his mind. It is man's intellect that distinguishes him from the beasts. Chess is a highly intellectual game. He is an intellectual person / an intellectual.

VI. Detailed Study:
intelligence: a. good ability to learn and understand quickly b. information gathered by the government or the army about their country's enemies and their activities. intelligence quotient (IQ) Use your intelligence. CIA

VI. Detailed Study:
intelligent: having or showing powers of reasoning or understanding.
Dr.

Smith is a man of great intelligence but Prof. Brown earns the respect of his colleagues for his high intellect.

VI. Detailed Study:
An Intellectual or Intellectual person is one who has developed his brain and is highly educated. One can be very intelligent / have great intelligence, without knowing much. A small child with a clever quick mind is intelligent but he can hardly be an intellectual.

VI. Detailed Study:
65. duel: unlawful fight between two persons who have quarrelled, usu. with swords or pistols, at a meeting arranged and conducted according to rules, in the presence of two other persons called seconds.

VI. Detailed Study:
66. roar: to give a deep loud continuing sound.
tigers He n.

roaring in their cages

just roared (ie laughed loudly) when he heard that joke! long loud deep sound

VI. Detailed Study:
67. mortal: n. a human being as compared with a god, a spirit, etc.
All

human beings are mortal.

adj. causing death; fatal
a

mortal wound, injury, etc

The

collapse of the business was a mortal blow to him and his family.

VI. Detailed Study:
68. agency:
Truth

does not need any human influence to support it. News Agency
Central Intelligence Agency

Xinhua
the

VI. Detailed Study:
69. momentary: transitory, lasting for a very short moment

70. hush: silence, stillness, quiet, calm

VI. Detailed Study:
71. rule: decide officially
The The I

jury ruled that he was innocent of all charges.
club ruled against accepting new members. cannot rule out / exclude the possibility of trouble.

VI. Detailed Study:
72. adjourn: to bring a meeting, trial, etc to a stop, esp. for a particular period or until a later time 73. hawker: a person who travels from place to place selling things, usu. with a cart.

VI. Detailed Study:
74. ponder: to consider, to think about sth. carefully
Each Give

chess player will have five minutes to ponder his next move. me a few days to ponder over it.

VI. Detailed Study:
75. brute: an animal, esp. one that you feel sorry for The lions I am talking about are the poor half-starved brutes reserved for tourists. stupid, animal-like or cruel person, esp. one who has a tendency to behave violently. He is an unfeeling brute.

VI. Detailed Study:
76. cower: to bend low and draw back as from fear, pain, shame, cold etc.
The

dog cowered when its master beat it.

crafty

expert agents fresh from the cowing and tying down of a dozen countries

coward:

a person unable to face danger because he lacks courage

VI. Detailed Study:
77. sulphur: AmE. sulfur. 硫磺 sulphurous: scathing, harsh 78. dispatch: a report sent by a journalist who is in a different town or country. I picked up the paper and read a dispatch from a correspondent in New York.

VI. Detailed Study:
79. collapse: fall down or in, break to pieces.
The If

roof collapsed under the weight of the snow. you work too hard, your health may collapse.

Their

marriage collapsed.

VI. Detailed Study:
80. resume: go on after stopping for a time We'll stop here and resume working at 2 o'clock. Those standing may resume their seats. resume---curriculum vitae

VI. Detailed Study:
81. squat: to sit on one's heels, or on the ground with the legs drawn up close to the body 82. perch: rest, stand or sit on the edge of sth. that is not intended to be a seat. Dr Smith perched on the corner of his desk. The sparrow perched upon the television antenna.

VI. Detailed Study:
83. gawk: look at sth. in a foolish way

84. spring: to bring forward suddenly, to produce as a surprise
He

sprang his marriage on his parents. film made her spring into fame. sprang a new proposal.

The He

VI. Detailed Study:
85. trump card: (in card games such as bridge or poker) each card of a suit that has, for the time being, higher value than the other three suits
Hearts

(spades, clubs, diamonds) are trumps.

to

play one's trump card: to make used of one's most valuable resource

VI. Detailed Study:
86. startle: to give a shock or surprise
You I

startled me. I didn't hear you come in. was startled to hear his news / by his news.

VI. Detailed Study:
87. wile: a trick intended to deceive, skill in outwitting
wily:

full of wiles, cunning,

crafty
The the

serpent by his wiles persuaded Eve to eat the apple. wiles of the Devil

VI. Detailed Study:
88. campaign: a series of planned activities to gain a special object
a

political / advertising campaign

89. passage: passing of a bill so that it becomes law.
Passage

of such a resolution depends on public support.

VI. Detailed Study:
90. resolute: fixed in determination or propose, firm
You He

must be resolute and do what you think best. was a serious, resolute student.

VI. Detailed Study:
91. strode: walk with long steps

92. repel: to drive back by force, rebuff
to

repel an attack

This

material will repel heat and moisture.

VI. Detailed Study:
93. punctuate: to interrupt from time to time
a

speech punctuated with cheers

94. Amen: may this be true, so be it 95. enquire, inquire: question

VI. Detailed Study:
96. mop: to wipe up with a mop, to wipe away sweat with a handkerchief 97. bald: hairless, leafless, featherless 98. dome: rounded roof with a circular base, sth. shaped like a dome

VI. Detailed Study:
99. snigger: (AmE snicker) to laugh in a disrespectful more or less secret way
cf:

giggle, snort

VI. Detailed Study:
100. twirl: to turn round and round quickly, to cause to spin
The She

secretary twirled the pencil round in her fingers. twirled her hair round her fingers.

VI. Detailed Study:
101. pursue: to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat
The She

policeman pursued the thief down the road. felt their eyes pursuing her.

The

poet pursued fame all his life.

VI. Detailed Study:
102. condemn: a. to declare sb. to be wrong or evil
Everyone

condemned his foolish

behaviour.
Most

people condemn nuclear war.

b. to sentence, to state the punishment
The

judge condemned the criminal to ten years in jail.

VI. Detailed Study:
cf: Condemn

carries very strong judicial connotations. It implies a final decision or a definitive judgement. Denounce adds to condemn the implication of public declaration. When meaning to criticise, the two words are similar in usage.

VI. Detailed Study:
103. livid: blue-grey, as of marks on the skin after being hit (bruise) 104. slur: an unfair damaging remark
Don't The

slur my brother's reputation.

rumours cast a slur upon my good name.

VI. Detailed Study:
105. gravel: hammer 106. quell: to quiet, to put down The dictator quelled the uprising. The police used fire hoses and tear gas to quell the rioters. 107. hubbub: a mixture of loud noises cf: din: distressing hubbub, causing the ear to suffer

VI. Detailed Study:
108. forlorn: (one who is) left alone and unhappy
as

forlorn as King Lear at the end of his days.

VI. Detailed Study:
109. hail: a. to salute, greet with enthusiastic approval The crowd hailed the victor. The people lined the streets to hail the returning heroes. b. to summon by calling to hail a taxi / a passing boat

VI. Detailed Study:

110. on the books : (here) still listed in the law

VI. Detailed Study:
111. wake: track left by a ship on smooth water in the wake of: after, following Seagulls followed in the wake of the ship. The car left clouds of dust in its wake. Many troubles follow in the wake of war.

IV. Structural Analysis
Part 1: A buzz ran ... his views the setting of the scene Part 2: By the time ... for an oil company
the

trail itself

Part 3: Not long ago...with the passing years the ending

IV. Structural Analysis
The process of the trial
Day

1: Preliminary fight J. Scopes is here because ignorance and bigotry are rampant. Today it is the teachers, and tomorrow it will be the magazines,… After a while, it is the setting of man against man... "That damned infidel."

IV. Structural Analysis
. The


process of the trial

Day 2: calling witnesses

Bryan: “The Christian believes that man came from above... The evolutionist believes…”

IV. Structural Analysis
Judge ruled against permitting the scientists to testify for the defence.

Climax of the trial: Darrow's trick to trap Bryan.

IV. Structural Analysis
.

The process of the trial

Day

3: verdict: guilty, $100 fine and costs. Victorious defeat.

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Metaphor:  my case would snowball into... our town ...had taken on a circus atmosphere. The street ...sprouted with ... … had not scorched the infidels...  …after the preliminary sparring over legalities…

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Hyperbole:  The trial that rocked the world Transferred epithet Darrow had whisper throwing a reassuring arm round my shoulder. Antithesis The Christian believes that man came from above. The evolutionist believes that he must have come from below.

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Assonance:
when

bigots lighted faggots to

burn... Repetition:
The

truth always wins...the truth...the truth...

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Pun: Darwin is right --- inside. A pun is a play on words, or rather a play on the form and meaning of words. a. Words or phrases having two or more distinct meanings. Homonyms.

V. Rhetorical Devices:
For

a church outreach visitation program, I was paired with a rather reserved woman. We knocked on one house’s front door. Thinking no one was home, we started to walk away. Just then, a man wrapped in a bath towel, dripping wet, appeared at the upstairs window. “We hope you can visit our church sometime,” my partner called up. “We’d like to see more of you.”

V. Rhetorical Devices:
“My

daddy’s an account.” “Really?” “Yeah. What does your daddy do?” “He’s a lawyer.” “Honest?” “ No, just the regular kind.”

V. Rhetorical Devices:
The

major was about to address his men when the general came. The general talked to the soldiers and left. Then the major announced:" The general had just made a general speech. Now listen the major points."

V. Rhetorical Devices:
b. words having the same or almost same sound but differing in form and meaning. Homophones.
Seven

days without water makes one weak.

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Then

there was the man in the restaurant. “You're not eating your fish,” the waitress said to him. “Anything wrong with it?”

“Long time no see (sea),” the man replied.

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Oxymoron: formed by conjoining of two contrasting terms. Malone called my conviction a "victorious defeat". bitter sweet memories proud humility orderly chaos a damned saint

V. Rhetorical Devices:
Irony
marching

backwards to the glorious age of the 16th century liveliest city in
the world

Hiroshima---the

Lesson 10

Thank you.


								
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