Lesson 10 The Trial That Rocked the World I. Aims and Contents of Teaching: 1. the comprehension of the text and the mastery of the important language points 2. the paraphrase of certain complicated or difficult sentences I. Aims and contents of Teaching: 3. the enlargement of the students' vocabulary familiarization with the styles of composition and devices of figuration 4. the II. Procedures of Teaching: 1. Background knowledge 2. Detailed study of the text 3. Structural analysis 4. Language features 5. Supplementary exercise III. Background Knowledge: 1. Religions God: the Deity, the Divinity, Holy One, Jehovah, the Lord, Providence, the Almighty, the Creator and etc. There is only one God in heaven. But the belief in God has developed three religious sections: Christianity, Judaism and Islam. III. Background Knowledge: Christianity: Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox Eastern Church Trinity: the Holy Father, the Holy Son and the Holy Spirit/Ghost, with Jesus Christ as its incarnation. III. Background Knowledge: Bible: Name of the Christian Scriptures, the Old Testament and the New Testament. III. Background Knowledge: Bible Old Testament: Christian name for the Hebrew Bible, the first portion of the Christian Bible Genesis: first book of the Old Testament which tells the origin of the world and of man III. Background Knowledge: Bible New Testament: the distinctive Christian portion of the Bible Gospel: Greek word for good news. the first four books of the New Testament. III. Background Knowledge: Bible fundamentalism: conservative religious movement. Its aim is to maintain word for word interpretations of the Bible. Nowadays this word can apply to other religions. III. Background Knowledge: 2. American governing system a. Legislature: parliament--Congress and Senate Executive: the president and his administration Judicial: the Federal Supreme Court b. c. III. Background Knowledge: 3. 4. Civil Law: Criminal Law 5. 6. Jury Counselor / Counsellor VI. Detailed Study: 1. buzz: a noise of a low hum, low confused whisper 2. sweltering: very hot, causing unpleasantness, torrid, sultry VI. Detailed Study: 3. counsel: a group of one or more lawyers (barristers) acting for someone in a court of law 4. prosecution: the act of bringing a criminal charge against sb. in a court of law VI. Detailed Study: 5. silver-tongued: (lit.) able to give fine persuading speeches, eloquent 6. orator: a good public speaker, a person who delivers an oration (formal and solemn public speeches) VI. Detailed Study: 7. nominee: a person who has been named officially for election to a position, office, honour, etc. a Nobel Prize nominee / a presidential nominee VI. Detailed Study: 8. bring about: cause Scientists have brought about great changes in our lives. VI. Detailed Study: 9. involve: to cause sb. to become connected or concerned Don't We involve other people in your mistakes. are all involved, whether we like it or not. VI. Detailed Study: 10. testify: to make a solemn statement, esp. under oath in a court of law, of what is true The witnesses testify / give evidence in the law court. One witness testified that he had seen the prisoner ran out of the bank after it had been robbed. VI. Detailed Study: 11. on hand: available, present, cf: within at reach: the distance one can reach hand: near in time or place VI. Detailed Study: Always have your dictionary on hand / within reach / at hand when you study. Please I be on hand at 12 sharp. have a great deal of important work on hand. VI. Detailed Study: All his old friends will be on hand / present to see Jack receive the medal of honour. I want you to be at hand / near during my interview with the boss of the company. The post office is close at hand. VI. Detailed Study: 12. reassure: comfort and make free from fear, stop worrying often by saying sth. kind or friendly The She doctor reassured the sick man about his health. won't believe it in spite of all our reassurance. VI. Detailed Study: cf: assure: try to cause to believe or trust in sth.; promise The captain assured the passengers that there was no danger. VI. Detailed Study: 13. erupt: (of a volcano) to explode and pour out fire Here, emerge, happen quickly, come down upon unexpectedly and violently; I was suddenly engulfed by the whole affair. VI. Detailed Study: 14. adhere to: to favour strongly, stick firmly to; The wallpaper won't adhere to the ceiling. adhere to the contract. They VI. Detailed Study: He resolutely adhered to what he had said at the meeting. adhere to the four cardinal / fundamental principles VI. Detailed Study: 15. prohibit: to forbid, to ban to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors / pornographic literature or video tapes / prostitution / visiting prostitutes / smoking in public places, etc. VI. Detailed Study: cf: FORBID is more direct and familiar, while PROHIBIT is more formal or official; they do not widely differ in their essential implications. to forbid a child to leave the house VI. Detailed Study: 16. violate: to disregard or act against sth. solemnly promised The actress violated the terms of her contract. This is considered as a violation of the Constitution. If you violate someone's privacy or peace, you disturb it. VI. Detailed Study: 17. legality: the condition of being lawful; lawfulness The legality of this action will be decided by the court. VI. Detailed Study: 18. indict: to indict sb. for a crime means to charge them with it officially Five men were caught at the scene and indicted. VI. Detailed Study: cf: accuse, One charge, prosecute, blame accuses sb. of cheating. One One One charges sb. with cheating. prosecutes sb. for theft. blames sb. for the failure. VI. Detailed Study: least of all: to an insignificant degree Nobody Least need worry, you least of all/ least of all you. of all would I lie to you. seemed amused, least of all Nobody Jenny. VI. Detailed Study: 19. anticipate: to expect what will happen We We are not anticipating that there will be much trouble. anticipate that the enemy would try to cross the river and so seize the bridge. VI. Detailed Study: take on: begin to have (a particular quality, appearance, etc), assume sth. He has taken on some irritating mannerism. chameleon can take on the colours of its background. The Her eyes took on a hurt expression. VI. Detailed Study: 20. festoon: If you festoon sth. with decorations, lights or other things, you spread or hang these things over it in large numbers in order to decorate it. The garden was festooned with coloured lights. VI. Detailed Study: 21. sprout: to grow or come out, appear and spread rapidly n. new growth of a plant, shoot sprouts / bamboo shoots bean 22. rickety: weak in joints and likely to break rickety old man / stairs / cart VI. Detailed Study: 23. evangelist: one who preaches the gospel (good news) 24. exhort: urge earnestly or advise strongly sb. to do sth. to exhort sb. to do good / to work harder, etc. VI. Detailed Study: 25. cheer: support and encourage, shout in praise, approval or support Every The time a Chinese runner won a race the crowd cheered. crowd cheered their favourite horse. VI. Detailed Study: 26. infidel: (old & derog.) (used esp. in former times by Christians and Muslims of each other) someone who does not follow one's own religion, unbeliever 27. draw up: to form and usu. write to draw up a plan / a contract VI. Detailed Study: 28. florid: (of a person's face) having a red skin 29. paunchy: (derog. and humour) (esp. of a man) having a fat stomach, pot belly 30. attorney-general: chief law officer and legal expert of the government of a state VI. Detailed Study: 31. shrewd: clever in judgement, esp. of what is to one's own advantage a shrewd lawyer who knows all the tricks is a shrewd and sometimes ruthless adversary. He VI. Detailed Study: 32. steep: soak, to let sth. stay in a liquid for softening, bringing out a taste etc. Steep Leave the coffee the coffee to steep for 5 minutes VI. Detailed Study: 33. agnostic: person who believes that one can only have knowledge of material things and that nothing is or can be known about God or life after death cf: atheist: person who doubts the existence of God VI. Detailed Study: 34. growl /au/: to say sth. in a low rough and rather angry voice. The dog growled at me. He growled out a demand to her to stop. VI. Detailed Study: 35. preliminary: introductory, preparatory 36. spar: to box without hitting hard, argue or dispute (with sb) The children are sparring with each other. VI. Detailed Study: 37. drawl: to speak or say slowly with vowels greatly lengthened drawl out one’s words VI. Detailed Study: 38. ignorance: lack of knowledge Poverty, disease and ignorance remain major world problems. We are in complete ignorance of his plans. She is very young, and ignorant of what life really is. They ignored traffic regulations. VI. Detailed Study: 39. bigot: one who obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his own opinions and prejudices, esp. religious beliefs. bigotry: the state of having very strong, unreasonable attitudes and opinions VI. Detailed Study: 40. rampant: widespread and impossible to control Theft, robbery, trafficking in narcotics, rural women and children are rampant in some places. soil makes some plants too rampant. Rich Mosquitoes are rampant in the dormitory. VI. Detailed Study: 41. fagot: a bundle of sticks of firewood 42. enlighten: cause to understand, free from ignorance or false beliefs, give more knowledge. Can you enlighten me on this subject? the age of Enlightenment in the 18th century VI. Detailed Study: 43. contaminate: to make impure, bad by mixing with dirty or poisonous matter Don't eat the food, it may have been contaminated by the flies. The river is contaminated with waste from the factory. Our students are being contaminated by foreign ideas. VI. Detailed Study: 44. snort: to make a rough noise by blowing air down the nose, to express impatience or anger by this sound We ran when the bull began to snort. cf: snore: breathe heavily and noisily through the nose and mouth while asleep VI. Detailed Study: 45. evidence: (in law) words which prove a statement, support a belief There wasn't enough evidence to prove him guilty. Have you any evidence to support this statement? not a bit / piece / scrap / shred of evidence VI. Detailed Study: 46. brandish: to wave threateningly sth. esp. a weapon about, this word stresses threat. I shall brandish my sword before them. VI. Detailed Study: 47. denounce: to criticise severely and publicly, announce threateningly The A newspapers denounced the new taxes. mass meeting denounced him as a traitor. VI. Detailed Study: 48. sonorous: having a pleasantly full loud sound the sonorous tones of the priest the sonority of the bass voices The church clock chimed sonorously. VI. Detailed Study: 49. reconcile: make peace between, make friendly again I cannot reconcile the two points of view. I asked how he would reconcile apartheid with Christianity. The two girls quarrelled but are now reconciled. VI. Detailed Study: 50. jungle: tropical forest too thick to walk through easily. 51. image: likeliness, form, copy You see your image in the mirror. I can close my eyes and see images of things and persons. The coin bears an image of the emperor. VI. Detailed Study: 52. divine: of, related to, or being god or a god 53. thrust: to push forcefully and suddenly, to make a sudden forward stroke with a sword, knife, etc. He thrust the fork into the meat. VI. Detailed Study: 54. Applause: n. applaud: Everyone The The v. stood up to applaud. audience applauded the singer for 5 minutes. crowd bursts into applause and shouts "Hurray!" VI. Detailed Study: 55. fervour: passion, zeal, enthusiasm, intense heat speak with great fervour fervent: a showing strong and warm feelings, hot, passionate fervent love / hatred a fervent lover / admirer VI. Detailed Study: 56. arena: an area of land or a large room where sports, entertainment and public events take place. The city built a new sports arena. After World II Japan entered the arena of international trade. VI. Detailed Study: 57. prairie: (in North America) a wild treeless grassy plain. 58. scorch: to burn (part of ) a surface so as to change its colour, taste The a hot iron scorched the tablecloth. hot weather scorched the grass. scorched-earth policy The VI. Detailed Study: 59. observe: to make a remark, to say, to comment He observe that the house seemed to be too small. VI. Detailed Study: 60. passion: strong, often uncontrollable feeling The poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved. filled with passion, eager two groups had a passionate debate. passionate: The VI. Detailed Study: 61. sip: to drink in small quantities cf: suck: to draw (as liquid) into the mouth to suck milk from his mother's breast sap: to drain the fluid part of a plant, VI. Detailed Study: 62. jug: a large deep, usu. earthenware or glass container with a narrow mouth, a handle and a lip for pouring VI. Detailed Study: 63. appeal: to make a strong request for help, support, mercy; beg He appealed to his attacker for mercy. He appealed to me for help. v. please, attract, interest Some people say Peking Opera is too old-fashioned to appeal to people any longer. The idea appealed to me. VI. Detailed Study: 64. intellect, intellectual, intelligence, intelligent intellect: the ability to understand or deal with ideas and information, the ability to reason rather than to feel or act. VI. Detailed Study: intellectual: adj. concerning the intellect, able to use the intellect well, showing unusual reasoning powers VI. Detailed Study: intellectual: n. a person who works and lives by using his mind. It is man's intellect that distinguishes him from the beasts. Chess is a highly intellectual game. He is an intellectual person / an intellectual. VI. Detailed Study: intelligence: a. good ability to learn and understand quickly b. information gathered by the government or the army about their country's enemies and their activities. intelligence quotient (IQ) Use your intelligence. CIA VI. Detailed Study: intelligent: having or showing powers of reasoning or understanding. Dr. Smith is a man of great intelligence but Prof. Brown earns the respect of his colleagues for his high intellect. VI. Detailed Study: An Intellectual or Intellectual person is one who has developed his brain and is highly educated. One can be very intelligent / have great intelligence, without knowing much. A small child with a clever quick mind is intelligent but he can hardly be an intellectual. VI. Detailed Study: 65. duel: unlawful fight between two persons who have quarrelled, usu. with swords or pistols, at a meeting arranged and conducted according to rules, in the presence of two other persons called seconds. VI. Detailed Study: 66. roar: to give a deep loud continuing sound. tigers He n. roaring in their cages just roared (ie laughed loudly) when he heard that joke! long loud deep sound VI. Detailed Study: 67. mortal: n. a human being as compared with a god, a spirit, etc. All human beings are mortal. adj. causing death; fatal a mortal wound, injury, etc The collapse of the business was a mortal blow to him and his family. VI. Detailed Study: 68. agency: Truth does not need any human influence to support it. News Agency Central Intelligence Agency Xinhua the VI. Detailed Study: 69. momentary: transitory, lasting for a very short moment 70. hush: silence, stillness, quiet, calm VI. Detailed Study: 71. rule: decide officially The The I jury ruled that he was innocent of all charges. club ruled against accepting new members. cannot rule out / exclude the possibility of trouble. VI. Detailed Study: 72. adjourn: to bring a meeting, trial, etc to a stop, esp. for a particular period or until a later time 73. hawker: a person who travels from place to place selling things, usu. with a cart. VI. Detailed Study: 74. ponder: to consider, to think about sth. carefully Each Give chess player will have five minutes to ponder his next move. me a few days to ponder over it. VI. Detailed Study: 75. brute: an animal, esp. one that you feel sorry for The lions I am talking about are the poor half-starved brutes reserved for tourists. stupid, animal-like or cruel person, esp. one who has a tendency to behave violently. He is an unfeeling brute. VI. Detailed Study: 76. cower: to bend low and draw back as from fear, pain, shame, cold etc. The dog cowered when its master beat it. crafty expert agents fresh from the cowing and tying down of a dozen countries coward: a person unable to face danger because he lacks courage VI. Detailed Study: 77. sulphur: AmE. sulfur. 硫磺 sulphurous: scathing, harsh 78. dispatch: a report sent by a journalist who is in a different town or country. I picked up the paper and read a dispatch from a correspondent in New York. VI. Detailed Study: 79. collapse: fall down or in, break to pieces. The If roof collapsed under the weight of the snow. you work too hard, your health may collapse. Their marriage collapsed. VI. Detailed Study: 80. resume: go on after stopping for a time We'll stop here and resume working at 2 o'clock. Those standing may resume their seats. resume---curriculum vitae VI. Detailed Study: 81. squat: to sit on one's heels, or on the ground with the legs drawn up close to the body 82. perch: rest, stand or sit on the edge of sth. that is not intended to be a seat. Dr Smith perched on the corner of his desk. The sparrow perched upon the television antenna. VI. Detailed Study: 83. gawk: look at sth. in a foolish way 84. spring: to bring forward suddenly, to produce as a surprise He sprang his marriage on his parents. film made her spring into fame. sprang a new proposal. The He VI. Detailed Study: 85. trump card: (in card games such as bridge or poker) each card of a suit that has, for the time being, higher value than the other three suits Hearts (spades, clubs, diamonds) are trumps. to play one's trump card: to make used of one's most valuable resource VI. Detailed Study: 86. startle: to give a shock or surprise You I startled me. I didn't hear you come in. was startled to hear his news / by his news. VI. Detailed Study: 87. wile: a trick intended to deceive, skill in outwitting wily: full of wiles, cunning, crafty The the serpent by his wiles persuaded Eve to eat the apple. wiles of the Devil VI. Detailed Study: 88. campaign: a series of planned activities to gain a special object a political / advertising campaign 89. passage: passing of a bill so that it becomes law. Passage of such a resolution depends on public support. VI. Detailed Study: 90. resolute: fixed in determination or propose, firm You He must be resolute and do what you think best. was a serious, resolute student. VI. Detailed Study: 91. strode: walk with long steps 92. repel: to drive back by force, rebuff to repel an attack This material will repel heat and moisture. VI. Detailed Study: 93. punctuate: to interrupt from time to time a speech punctuated with cheers 94. Amen: may this be true, so be it 95. enquire, inquire: question VI. Detailed Study: 96. mop: to wipe up with a mop, to wipe away sweat with a handkerchief 97. bald: hairless, leafless, featherless 98. dome: rounded roof with a circular base, sth. shaped like a dome VI. Detailed Study: 99. snigger: (AmE snicker) to laugh in a disrespectful more or less secret way cf: giggle, snort VI. Detailed Study: 100. twirl: to turn round and round quickly, to cause to spin The She secretary twirled the pencil round in her fingers. twirled her hair round her fingers. VI. Detailed Study: 101. pursue: to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat The She policeman pursued the thief down the road. felt their eyes pursuing her. The poet pursued fame all his life. VI. Detailed Study: 102. condemn: a. to declare sb. to be wrong or evil Everyone condemned his foolish behaviour. Most people condemn nuclear war. b. to sentence, to state the punishment The judge condemned the criminal to ten years in jail. VI. Detailed Study: cf: Condemn carries very strong judicial connotations. It implies a final decision or a definitive judgement. Denounce adds to condemn the implication of public declaration. When meaning to criticise, the two words are similar in usage. VI. Detailed Study: 103. livid: blue-grey, as of marks on the skin after being hit (bruise) 104. slur: an unfair damaging remark Don't The slur my brother's reputation. rumours cast a slur upon my good name. VI. Detailed Study: 105. gravel: hammer 106. quell: to quiet, to put down The dictator quelled the uprising. The police used fire hoses and tear gas to quell the rioters. 107. hubbub: a mixture of loud noises cf: din: distressing hubbub, causing the ear to suffer VI. Detailed Study: 108. forlorn: (one who is) left alone and unhappy as forlorn as King Lear at the end of his days. VI. Detailed Study: 109. hail: a. to salute, greet with enthusiastic approval The crowd hailed the victor. The people lined the streets to hail the returning heroes. b. to summon by calling to hail a taxi / a passing boat VI. Detailed Study: 110. on the books : (here) still listed in the law VI. Detailed Study: 111. wake: track left by a ship on smooth water in the wake of: after, following Seagulls followed in the wake of the ship. The car left clouds of dust in its wake. Many troubles follow in the wake of war. IV. Structural Analysis Part 1: A buzz ran ... his views the setting of the scene Part 2: By the time ... for an oil company the trail itself Part 3: Not long ago...with the passing years the ending IV. Structural Analysis The process of the trial Day 1: Preliminary fight J. Scopes is here because ignorance and bigotry are rampant. Today it is the teachers, and tomorrow it will be the magazines,… After a while, it is the setting of man against man... "That damned infidel." IV. Structural Analysis . The process of the trial Day 2: calling witnesses Bryan: “The Christian believes that man came from above... The evolutionist believes…” IV. Structural Analysis Judge ruled against permitting the scientists to testify for the defence. Climax of the trial: Darrow's trick to trap Bryan. IV. Structural Analysis . The process of the trial Day 3: verdict: guilty, $100 fine and costs. Victorious defeat. V. Rhetorical Devices: Metaphor: my case would snowball into... our town ...had taken on a circus atmosphere. The street ...sprouted with ... … had not scorched the infidels... …after the preliminary sparring over legalities… V. Rhetorical Devices: Hyperbole: The trial that rocked the world Transferred epithet Darrow had whisper throwing a reassuring arm round my shoulder. Antithesis The Christian believes that man came from above. The evolutionist believes that he must have come from below. V. Rhetorical Devices: Assonance: when bigots lighted faggots to burn... Repetition: The truth always wins...the truth...the truth... V. Rhetorical Devices: Pun: Darwin is right --- inside. A pun is a play on words, or rather a play on the form and meaning of words. a. Words or phrases having two or more distinct meanings. Homonyms. V. Rhetorical Devices: For a church outreach visitation program, I was paired with a rather reserved woman. We knocked on one house’s front door. Thinking no one was home, we started to walk away. Just then, a man wrapped in a bath towel, dripping wet, appeared at the upstairs window. “We hope you can visit our church sometime,” my partner called up. “We’d like to see more of you.” V. Rhetorical Devices: “My daddy’s an account.” “Really?” “Yeah. What does your daddy do?” “He’s a lawyer.” “Honest?” “ No, just the regular kind.” V. Rhetorical Devices: The major was about to address his men when the general came. The general talked to the soldiers and left. Then the major announced:" The general had just made a general speech. Now listen the major points." V. Rhetorical Devices: b. words having the same or almost same sound but differing in form and meaning. Homophones. Seven days without water makes one weak. V. Rhetorical Devices: Then there was the man in the restaurant. “You're not eating your fish,” the waitress said to him. “Anything wrong with it?” “Long time no see (sea),” the man replied. V. Rhetorical Devices: Oxymoron: formed by conjoining of two contrasting terms. Malone called my conviction a "victorious defeat". bitter sweet memories proud humility orderly chaos a damned saint V. Rhetorical Devices: Irony marching backwards to the glorious age of the 16th century liveliest city in the world Hiroshima---the Lesson 10 Thank you.