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Draft BDCP Highlights 12-9-13




Bay Delta Conservation Plan   December 2013
December 2013

                                                         December 13, 2013

                                                         Dear Reader,

                                                         After seven years of discussion, collaboration, research, independent review, and informal public
                                                         scrutiny, the Bay Delta Conservation Plan has been released for formal public review and comment.
                                                         This document, titled Highlights of the BDCP, gives an overview of the legal basis for the plan and
                                                         its central elements, which intend to meet the co-equal goals of ecosystem restoration and water
                                                         supply reliability, as mandated by the 2009 Delta Reform Act. This document is based on technical
                                                         information and is not intended to substitute for the 9,000 pages of material in the actual plan,
                                                         available at

                                                         Few parts of California are disconnected from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Nearly half of
                                                         California’s land surface drains to the Delta, while water drawn from this low-lying estuary sustains
                                                         cities and farms from San Jose to San Diego.

                                                         The historic abundance and diversity of the region’s wildlife was legendary, from massive sturgeon
                                                         to thick flocks of waterfowl. Several Delta species are now listed under state and federal laws to
                                                         prevent extinction, and they have come to symbolize the estuary’s compromised ecology.

                                                         California has struggled for several decades to balance competing demands for the Delta’s
                                                         resources. The Bay Delta Conservation Plan offers a comprehensive, long-lasting, adaptive
                                                         approach to both restore ecological functions and improve water supply reliability.

                                                         The plan details 22 separate conservation measures intended to reverse the decline of the Delta’s
                                                         native fish, plant and wildlife species. The plan identifies changes to the Delta water delivery
                                                         system that would both reduce harm to fisheries and protect against risks posed by the failure of
    This Highlights of the BDCP provides                 levees. Earthquakes, sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and ongoing subsidence of
    a high-level overview of the public                  Delta islands together threaten Delta levees.
    Draft Bay Delta Conservation Plan.                   Analysis of alternatives and impacts to Delta communities are described in a separate document,
    It is intended to acquaint the reader                the Bay Delta Conservation Plan Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement.
    with the contents of the public Draft                This 25,000-page document is also available for public review and comment.
    BDCP, and help the reader navigate
    that document. The Highlights of the                 The public review period for both documents will last until April 14, 2014. Government agencies,
    BDCP is not part of the Bay Delta                    cities, counties, elected officials, tribes, landowners, organizations, businesses, and the general
    Conservation Plan.                                   public are encouraged to review and comment on the plan and its potential impacts.

                                                         At stake are California’s natural heritage and economic prosperity. The Bay Delta Conservation Plan
                                                         reflects the widespread recognition that we cannot stabilize water deliveries from the Delta without
                                                         reversing recent ecological trends. It also reflects the general agreement that the current situation
                                                         in the Delta is unsustainable, and we must act now for the sake of future generations.

                                                         John Laird, Secretary
                                                         California Natural Resources Agency

    Photos are courtesy of DWR unless otherwise noted.
    On the cover: Swainson’s hawk (left)
                                                                         For more information, visit
                                                                                                                                                                             December 2013

Table of Contents
Introduction                                  1
  The Delta
  The Delta as a Place
  The Problem
  BDCP Solutions
  BDCP Approach
  Habitat Conservation Planning
  BDCP in Context of Other Delta Efforts

Overview of the Plan                          12
  Description of Chapters

                                                                                                                                                                                    Delta Smelt
  Covered Species

Science Overview                              18
  BDCP Science Program                             The Delta
  Science Review and Input
  Biological Goals and Objectives                  The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta                 The Delta is the critical link in California’s water delivery system.
                                                   (Delta) is a vitally important ecosystem and           About half of California’s annual runoff flows to the Delta. Two out
Conservation Strategy                         24   home to hundreds of aquatic and terrestrial            of three Californians and 3 million acres of farmland receive some
  Conservation Zones                               species, many of which are unique to the               water delivered from the Delta. A multitude of fish and wildlife
  Conservation Measures                            area. The Delta is home to more than 500,000           species depend upon the Delta for survival.
                                                   people, and a thriving agricultural economy.
Expected Outcomes                             52   The Delta is also a critical link in California’s
  Development of Effects Analysis Models           water supply system.
  Climate Change                                                                                                                                                        Delta
  Effects Analysis for Natural Communities         Freshwater originating in the Sierra Nevada
                                                                                                                                                                        Primary Water Sources
  Effects Analysis for Covered Fish                and eastern coastal range flows to the
                                                                                                                                                                        SWP/CWP Service Areas
                                                   Delta, providing water supplies for 25
                                                   million Californians and the economies                                                                               Out ow to Ocean
Implementation                                78
  Adaptive Management and Monitoring               of the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central
                                                   Valley, and Southern California. This water                                    Sacramento
  Implementation Schedule                          irrigates farms where much of the nation’s
                                                   domestic fresh produce is grown. The Delta           San Francisco
  Cost and Funding
                                                   supports critical infrastructure of statewide
Alternative BDCP Approaches                   96   importance, including energy transmission                                                   Fresno
  BDCP Alternatives to Take                        lines; transportation routes for ships, trains and
  Economic Benefits of Take Alternatives           trucks; and water delivery structures. The Delta
                                                   is also home to historic towns, working farms,                                  Bakers eld
Environmental Review                         106   and waterways popular with boaters, birders,
  The Alternatives Screening Process               and other recreationalists.
  EIR/EIS Alternatives Analysis                    As one of California’s most valuable natural                                             Los Angeles
  Public Participation                             resources, the Delta has been stretched to
                                                   the breaking point. Its ecosystem is in steep
Acronyms and Definitions                     111                                                                                                       San Diego
                                                   decline, which jeopardizes the Delta’s ability to
                                                   deliver water supplies and support fisheries.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Introduction 1
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                             December 2013

                                               The Delta as a Place
                                               The Sacramento, San Joaquin, Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and Calaveras
                                               rivers converge in the Delta—the largest estuary on the west coast.
                                               The Delta of today is made up of dozens of islands and channels,
                                               and more than 1,000 of miles of levees. Not only is the Delta
                                               important for fish and wildlife and California’s water delivery system,
                                               it also supports distinctive geographic and cultural characteristics.
                                               There are 6 counties and 5 cities within the Delta with a resident        BDCP Impacts in the Delta
                                               population of more than 500,000 people.
                                                                                                                         The implementation of the proposed Bay Delta Conservation Plan (BDCP) conveyance facilities and
                                               The Delta sustains an important agricultural industry, features many      habitat protection and restoration are expected to have temporary and permanent impacts on the
                                               historic sites, draws visitors for numerous recreational activities and   Delta. The current proposed BDCP has been modified to reduce the project footprint and make use
                                               supports infrastructure of regional and statewide importance.             of public lands to reduce impacts to communities and landowners. The public Draft Environmental
                                                                                                                         Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) for the BDCP provides the complete analysis
                                               Agriculture in the Delta – Beginning in the 1850s, settlers began         of BDCP’s potential temporary and permanent impacts. The public Draft EIR/EIS is available for review
                                               to reclaim the marsh lands of the Delta for farming by channelizing       and comment at
                                               sloughs, building levees, and creating islands. Since that time, the
                                               agriculture industry in the Delta has grown into a nearly $800 million    Agricultural Land Stewardship Plan
                                               dollar industry and a way of life for generations of family-owned         The BDCP Draft EIR/EIS proposes a number of mitigation measures designed to reduce the effects of
                  Historic Delta Communities
                                               and -operated farms. The agriculture industry of the Delta not only       BDCP implementation on agricultural resources. Draft EIR/EIS Chapter 14, Agricultural Resources, sets
                                               supports the regional economy, but also is fundamental to the             forth the primary Mitigation Measure, AG-1: Develop an Agricultural Lands Stewardship Plan (ALSP)
                                               character of the Delta.                                                   to preserve agricultural productivity and mitigate for loss of Important Farmland and land subject
                                               Historic Character of the Delta – The Delta is home to numerous           to Williamson Act contracts or in Farmland Security Zones. There are a number of other mitigation
                                               historic communities. During the mid-19th century, communities            measures and environmental commitments proposed in the BDCP EIR/EIS that would avoid or lessen
                                               large and small began to emerge to meet the needs of a growing            effects on agriculture. A number of measures are proposed in chapters that relate to other resource
                                               population and economy. Residential and commercial buildings as           areas that also would reduce effects on agriculture.
                                               well as historic districts constructed during this era of growth still    The state is developing the ALSP as a framework for an integrated and collaborative approach to using
                                               exist today. These historic buildings have intrinsic cultural value and   a variety of agricultural stewardship strategies for addressing the conversion of agricultural land. This
                                               are an important component of the fabric of the Delta’s character.        approach strives to minimize impacts to the agricultural land resources in the Delta and to avoid long-
                                                                                                                         term cumulative impacts to the agricultural economy and/or to wildlife that depend on farmland for
                                               Recreation in the Delta – The Delta has been a haven for                  habitat. This approach focuses on maintaining the viability of Delta agriculture.
                                               sportsmen since the 1920s. Today, the Delta’s 500 miles of navigable
                                               waterways are a recreation destination for boaters, anglers, wind         The ALSP approach takes into account the desire of individual Delta farmers to continue working on
                                               surfers, kayakers, and canoers. Wildlife viewing, bird watching,          their land, the long-term viability of regional agricultural economies, the economic health of local
                                               hiking, cycling, camping, picnicking, and hunting are popular             governments and special districts, and the Delta as an evolving place. This approach is designed to
                                               recreational activities in the Delta. Sightseeing, wine tours, and        encourage early planning that results in multiple benefits and long-term partnerships with local
                                               festivals draw tourists to the Delta.                                     interests. The goal of this approach is to develop projects with sustainable outcomes that benefit both
                                                                                                                         the environmental and social-economic communities in the Delta. Finally, the approach recognizes
                                               Transportation and Navigation in the Delta – In addition to a             that local interests, including Delta farmers, have unique and specialized knowledge and seeks to
                                               network of roads, highways, freight, and passenger rail in the Delta,     involve these interests in the process. Learn more about the Agricultural Land Stewardship Planning
                                               marine facilities within the Delta serve as extensions of the surface     Process at
                                               transportation, particularly for freight and goods. Commercial
                                               shipping activities in the Delta are important industries for the
                             Transportation    regional economy.

 2 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                             Introduction 3
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    December 2013

        The Problem                                                                                                                                                              Climate Change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Millions of Californians who depend on water supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                 Over the last 100 years, sea level has risen
        Once a vast marsh and floodplain with meandering channels and sloughs, the Delta provided a vital                                                                                                                                          pumped through the Delta have seen those supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                 approximately 0.6 feet at the Golden Gate
        migratory corridor and dynamic habitat for a rich diversity of fish, wildlife, and plants. The Delta of today                                                                                                                              increasingly reduced as a result of efforts to better
                                                                                                                                                                                 Bridge, and as levels continue to rise—an
        is altered by a system of manmade levees and dredged waterways constructed to support farming and                                                                                                                                          meet the biological needs of protected fish and
                                                                                                                                                                                 additional increase of 4 feet or more by 2100
        urban development, and to provide flood protection for local towns and cities. The natural flows in the
                                                                                                                                                                                 is predicted—pressure will increase against                       wildlife species.
        Delta also are altered by operation of the State Water Project (SWP) and Central Valley Project (CVP),
                                                                                                                                                                                 Delta levees, potentially causing instability
        which deliver water to millions of Californians. Many other factors affect species health in the Delta,
                                                                                                                                                                                 and seepage.                                                   Threatened Water Supplies
        including water quality issues (e.g., dissolved oxygen and toxic substances), nonnative species, hatchery
        management, illegal fishing, food availability, predation, and smaller local water diversions.                                                                           As warmer average temperatures push                            Despite the careful negotiation of water-sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                 snow levels to higher elevations in the                        plans and agreements to improve statewide
        In this highly altered environment, several native fish                                                      Delta Smelt Population Decline*                                                                                            water management, regulatory requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                 Sierra Nevada mountain range, more winter
        species have declined to the lowest population numbers                                                       2,000                                                                                                                      have reduced the flexibility of California’s
                                                                                                                                                                                 precipitation will fall as rain. More intense

                                                                                              Estimated Population
        in their recorded histories. In response to this decline and                                                                                                                                                                            water system. The California Department of
                                                                                                                     1,500                                                       storm runoff and peak flood events will
        other factors, federal and state regulators placed limits on                                                                                                                                                                            Water Resources (DWR) and the United States
                                                                                                                     1,000                                                       further stress levees. Multiple levee failures
        Delta water deliveries over the last two decades—making                                                                                                                                                                                 Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) need to
                                                                                                                                                                                 from a single flood are possible, depending
        it increasingly challenging to deliver water to meet the                                                      500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                respond to natural differences in the amount of
                                                                                                                                                                                 on water levels, tides, wind, and other
        needs of 25 million Californians and 3 million acres of                                                                                                                                                                                 precipitation the state receives from one year









        farmland. The Delta also is threatened by continuing land                                                                                                                                                                               to the next. Lack of ability to divert water in wet









        subsidence, seismic risk, and effects of climate change.                                   *Data obtained from CDFW, January 2013.                                       Risk of Catastrophic Failure                                   years due to regulatory requirements prevents
                                                                                                                                                                                 The Delta has been carved into levee-                          water agencies from storing water so that it can
                                                                                                           The heart of California’s water system rests in                       ringed islands separated by waterways.                         be used during dry years.
                                                                                                           the Delta, and its current configuration puts                         Subsidence of the Delta’s peat soils
                                                                                                           it—and the state’s broader economy—                                   due to farming operations has put
                                                                                                                                                                                 some of these islands more than        The U.S. Geological Survey
                                                                                                           at serious risk. The status quo of the Delta—
                                                                                                                                                                                 20 feet below sea level.               estimates a 63 percent
                                                                                                           both the ecosystem and the water system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           chance of a 6.7 magnitude
                                                                                                           depending on it—is not sustainable.                                   Hundreds of miles of levees in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           earthquake in the
                                                                                                                                                                                 the Delta are vulnerable to winter
                                                                                                                                                                                 storms, seepage, slumping, and            San Francisco Bay before
                                                                                                                                                                                 natural processes that eat away at        2036. The Delta’s current
                                                                                                                                                                                 the Delta’s peat soils.                   levee network has not been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tested against such strong
                                                                                                                                                                                 A major earthquake or storm pose
  The Current State of the Delta                                                                                                                                                 the greatest dangers to the Delta,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           seismic activity and the
                                                                                                                                                                                 potentially causing levee failures        stability of Delta levees
        Lack of Floodplain Habitat                                                    Lost Tidal Marsh
                                                                                                                                                                                 and flooding on as many as 20             is of concern due to the
        Levees act as a barrier, disconnecting many historic floodplains from water   Ninety-eight percent of the lands that historically provided intertidal
        channels. Without the ability to inundate floodplains at critical times,      marsh and shallow subtidal habitat have been lost due to levees and                        islands at once and jeopardizing          proximity of fault lines,
        many fish are left without valuable habitat for spawning and rearing.         dikes built to prevent flooding. These barriers have resulted in less                      water supplies for two-thirds of          uncompacted weak
                                                                                      habitat for fish and lower production of important aquatic food sources                    the state. Saltwater from the San         soils, and potential
        Barren Channel Margins
                                                                                      and organic material.                                                                      Francisco Bay could be drawn deep
        Levees and riprap do not provide fish with ideal habitat features, such                                                                                                                                            for liquefaction.
                                                                                                                                                                                 into the Delta, potentially forcing
        as overhanging shade, instream woody material, and shallow benches.           Altered Flow and Entrainment
                                                                                                                                                                                 federal (CVP) and state (SWP) water
        Contaminants, Nutrients, Predation, and Invasive Species                      Flow and quality of water in the interior Delta can be affected by SWP                                                                      Levee breaches due to flood
                                                                                                                                                                                 project operators to limit exports
        Contaminants, nutrients, predation, and invasive species affect water         and CVP pumps. Fish can be pulled toward and into the pump operations                                                                               at Tyler Island, 1986
                                                                                                                                                                                 from the south Delta.
        quality, fish health, the food chain, and habitat conditions, disrupting      where they can become disoriented and trapped.
        the Delta’s natural balance.                                                                                                                                                                                       Source: 2008 Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF)

 4 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Introduction 5
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  December 2013

        BDCP Solutions
        The BDCP provides a way to improve ecosystem health while also restoring and protecting water
                                                                                                                                                               How the BDCP Plans to Address the Problem
        supplies. The BDCP offers the greatest hope in many years that California may manage risks to its
        central water supply, recover a natural treasure, and deal wisely with future challenges.                Align Water Operations to Better Reflect Natural Seasonal                 Reconnect Floodplains to improve the production of important
                                                                                                                 Flow Patterns by creating new water diversions in the north               aquatic food sources for fish as well as spawning and rearing
        Improving the Delta Ecosystem
                                                                                                                 Delta equipped with state-of-the-art fish screens, thus reducing          habitat.
        The BDCP, through conservation measures, would reverse the trend of habitat loss, habitat                reliance on south Delta exports. Greater seasonal variability in
        degradation, and declining populations of native species, and improve the natural flow patterns                                                                                    Restore and Develop New Tidal Habitat consisting of brackish
                                                                                                                 flows would improve conditions for fish. Minimizing south Delta
        through the Delta. The BDCP includes an accelerated habitat restoration program that would create                                                                                  and fresh-water tidal marsh and shallow subtidal habitat for
                                                                                                                 pumping would provide more natural east-west flow patterns.
        30,000 acres of aquatic habitat over the next 15 years. It would also reconnect floodplains, develop                                                                               native fish.
                                                                                                                 New diversions help protect critical water supplies against the
        new tidal habitat, return riverbanks to a more natural state, and boost food supplies for fish.          threats of sea level rise and earthquakes.                                Return Riverbanks to a More Natural State through the
                                                                                                                                                                                           addition of logs, trees, bushes, and channel margin habitat
        Securing Water Supplies from Levee Failures and Climate Change                                           Reduce Physical Impact of a Southern Diversion Point (risk                suitable for native fish.
        The BDCP would partially isolate water deliveries from increasingly stressed Delta levees, while using   of fish trapping) by adding north Delta diversion points to allow
                                                                                                                 for greater operational flexibility to better protect fish. North Delta   Control Invasive Species and Address Other Stressors
        state-of-the-art fish screens and water project operating rules that accommodate fish spawning and
                                                                                                                 diversion points would reduce trapping of fish at the pumps.              to protect fish from predation and help restore the productivity
        migratory patterns. The new water delivery facilities would allow water to reach the federal and state
                                                                                                                                                                                           of Delta waters.
        water project pumps even in the event of major levee failure in the Delta.

        The BDCP would help California cope with changing weather patterns by enabling the capture of large
        amounts of winter flood flow at times of minimal ecological risk. A more reliable facility for moving
        water through the Delta would also boost operational flexibility to enhance the state’s ability to
        respond to drought.

        Securing More Reliable Water Supplies
        The BDCP would retrofit, modernize, and add greater flexibility to the state’s water
        system. The proposed BDCP puts more tools to work that would restore water
        supply reliability, securing supplies for Californians. The proposed project also
        reduces exposure to possible system interruption caused by the potential
        failure of aging levees and seismic events. Additionally, the BDCP could
        reduce regulation as ecosystem restoration is realized.

 6 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Introduction 7
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Co-Equal Goals:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Water Supplies
        BDCP Approach                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and Ecosystem
        The BDCP is a proposed 50-year Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation
        Plan (HCP/NCCP) that would help secure California’s water supply by building new water                                                                                                                                               The co-equal planning goals
        infrastructure and investing in habitat restoration to improve the ecological health of the Delta, while                                                                                                                             of the BDCP are to:
        minimizing impacts to local communities and farms.
                                                                                                                                       Habitat Conservation Planning                                                                           · Improve and protect the
        The BDCP includes a series of conservation measures to enhance ecosystem processes and function,                                                                                                                                         ecological health of the
                                                                                                                                       What is a Habitat Conservation Plan and a Natural                                                         Delta
        such as increased seasonal floodplain habitat, intertidal and associated subtidal habitat, improved
        hydrologic conditions, and improved salinity within the Delta estuary, as well as reduced direct losses
                                                                                                                                       Community Conservation Plan?
        of fish and other aquatic organisms. Each conservation measure plays a part in an interconnected                               An HCP and NCCP are a comprehensive approach to landscape (or                                           · Protect water supplies
        web of conservation activities designed to improve the health of natural communities and, in so                                waterscape)-level environmental improvement provided for in the
        doing, improve the overall health of the Delta ecosystem.                                                                      federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the California Natural
                                                                                                                                       Community Conservation Planning Act (NCCPA).                                                           LI   ABILITY
        As the Delta ecosystem improves in response to the implementation of BDCP conservation measures,                                                                                                                                   RE

        water operations would become more reliable, offering more secure water supplies for two-thirds of                             An HCP/NCCP describes, among other things:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W AT E R S U P P
        California’s population.                                                                                                        • Activities to be covered by a conservation plan
                                                                                                                                        • Measures that:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     R AT I O N
                                                                                                                                             - Will be implemented to appropriately minimize
           What the BDCP would do:                                                                                                             and mitigate for the environmental effects of
           · Provide the permits necessary under federal and state endangered species laws to complete project-level activities that           the covered activities, and

             will restore and protect water supply, water quality, and ecosystem health                                                      - Will provide for the conservation and management

                                                                                                                                               of covered species and their habitats                                                                             R
           · Provide a comprehensive means to coordinate and standardize mitigation and compensation for impacts associated             • Likely effects of implementing actions described
             with implementing the BDCP                                                                                                   in the plan on species and their habitats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The BDCP is subject to
                                                                                                                                        • Funding sources sufficient to implement a
           · Provide an adaptive management and monitoring program to enable the BDCP to adjust as conditions change and new                                                                                                                 environmental review under
                                                                                                                                          conservation plan
             information emerges                                                                                                                                                                                                             the National Environmental
                                                                                                                                       The goal of an HCP/NCCP is to provide for the conservation of species                                 Policy Act (NEPA) and the
           · Provide clear expectations and regulatory assurances regarding BDCP activities
                                                                                                                                       and habitats covered by a conservation plan. An HCP/NCCP is managed                                   California Environmental
           · Provide funding and new methods of decision-making for ecosystem improvements                                             adaptively to ensure the conservation plan meets its goals.                                           Quality Act (CEQA).
                                                                                                                                       Why is an HCP/NCCP the Best Choice for Achieving                                                      A combined Environmental
                                                                                                                                       the State’s Co-Equal Goals?                                                                           Impact Report/Environmental
           What the BDCP would not do:                                                                                                 The BDCP’s approach of using an HCP/NCCP to meet the co-equal goals                                   Impact Statement (EIR/EIS)
           •	 Solve	all	environmental	challenges	in	the	Delta                                                                          reflects a significant departure from the single-species approach used to                             is being prepared to review
                                                                                                                                       date to address the Delta’s ecological troubles. Instead, the BDCP uses the                           the environmental effects of
           •	 Guarantee	a	specific	water	supply	to	any	water	project	user                                                              HCP/NCCP approach to begin to address the species and habitat needs of                                the proposed BDCP actions
           •	 Address	all	factors	(such	as	ocean	conditions)	that	may	affect	fish	and	wildlife	species                                 the Delta holistically. The HCP/NCCP approach creates a durable regulatory                            and a reasonable range of
                                                                                                                                       framework that will allow for fundamental and systematic improvements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             alternatives, including a “no
           •	 Eliminate	other	permitting	requirements                                                                                  in the Delta. The regulatory nature of the HCP/NCCP also provides a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             action” alternative. For more
                                                                                                                                       mechanism by which project proponents can obtain long-term permits
           •	 Address	California’s	need	for	continued	investment	in	water	conservation,	recycling,	desalination,	treatment	of	                                                                                                               information about the EIR/IES
                                                                                                                                       from regulatory agencies in return for meeting ecological needs.
              contaminated aquifers, and other measures to expand supply and storage                                                                                                                                                         process, see pages 106-109.

 8 Introduction
                                                                                                                                       Learn more about key regulatory guidelines for BDCP development on page 13.                                            Introduction 9
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       December 2013

Application of the Sacramento-                       BDCP in Context of Other Delta Efforts                                                     Federal, State, and Local Program Coordination
San Joaquin Delta Reform Act
                                                     While the BDCP is a cornerstone of balancing water supply                                  In the Delta, a variety of state, local, and federal agencies are responsible for flood, water supply, and
The	Sacramento-San	Joaquin	Delta	Reform	Act	                                                                                                    ecosystem management. Many other agencies, non-governmental organizations, and interest groups
                                                     reliability with ecosystem health under the Delta Reform Act
of 2009 prescribed several criteria that must be                                                                                                also are stakeholders in managing public safety, water supply, and ecosystems in the Delta. These
                                                     of 2009, many additional efforts are underway to address
addressed before the BDCP can be incorporated                                                                                                   agencies and organizations are already working to support a wide variety of programs, planning
                                                     flood protection, economic sustainability, land use planning,
into the Delta Plan by the Delta Stewardship                                                                                                    efforts, and studies in the Delta.
                                                     and other issues essential to a sustainable future for people
Council	(DSC):	
                                                     and the environment.
•	 A	reasonable	range	of	flow criteria, rates                                                                                                   Statewide Water Management Efforts Help Achieve the Co-Equal Goals
   of diversion, and other operational criteria      Delta Stewardship Council
                                                                                                                                                As	California’s	population	continues	to	expand,	and	the	effects	of	climate	change	are	felt,	the	need	will	grow	for	an	integrated	
   required to satisfy the approval of an NCCP.
                                                     The DSC is an independent state agency required to                                         approach	to	water	management.	No	quick	or	singular	fix	will	satisfy	California’s	future	water	demand.		A	multitude	of	diverse	projects,	
•	 Other	operational	requirements	and	flows	         develop a comprehensive management plan for the                                            most of them local or regional, are needed. This effort will require cooperation across boundaries and disciplines so that water supply
   necessary for recovering the Delta ecosystem      Delta (Delta Plan). The Proposed Final Draft Delta Plan
                                                                                                                                                projects provide multiple benefits, such as managing floodwaters, saving on water treatment costs, and enhancing the environment.
   and restoring fisheries under a reasonable        Programmatic EIR was released in September 2012. The
   range of hydrologic conditions, which will        final plan was adopted by the DSC in May 2013. State                                       The California Water Plan is the State’s long-term strategic plan for guiding the management and development of water resources. The
   identify the remaining water available for        and local agencies proposing covered actions within the                                    water plan is advancing an integrated water management approach that combines flood management, environmental stewardship,
   export and other beneficial uses .                Delta will need to certify for the DSC that those efforts are                              and water supply actions. The BDCP and integrated water management support one another. Making smart use of water statewide will
•	 The	potential	effects	on	migratory	fish,	         consistent with the Delta Plan. The planning efforts of the                                boost the likelihood that we achieve the co-equal goals of water supply reliability and a healthy Delta ecosystem.
   aquatic resources, and terrestrial species.       Delta Protection Commission, the Delta Conservancy, and
                                                     the BDCP, along with other conservation planning efforts,                                  Key	integrated	water	management	elements	that	help	support	the	BDCP	include:
•	 The	potential	effects	on	Sacramento	River	
                                                     will inform the DSC as it implements the Delta Plan.                                       ·	 Increases	in	water	use	efficiency,	both	in	homes	and	on	farms
   and San Joaquin River flood management.
                                                     Delta Plan and BDCP                                                                        ·	 Increases	in	water	supply,	such	as	through	the	recycling	of	wastewater
•	 Reasonable	range	of	Delta	conveyance	
                                                                                                                                                ·	 Improved	operational	efficiency	and	transfers	or	exchanges	that	move	water	to	meet	demand
   alternatives, including through-Delta, dual-      To be incorporated into the Delta Plan and for public funds
   conveyance, and isolated water conveyance         to be available for habitat restoration, the BDCP must be                                  The federal and state governments embrace such actions as part of their broader responsibilities for California water planning—
   alternatives and capacity and design              approved by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife                                 separate	but	complementary	to	the	BDCP.		In	fall	2013,	the	California	Natural	Resources	Agency,	California	Environmental	Protection	
   options of a lined canal, an unlined canal,       (CDFW) as an NCCP.                                                                         Agency,	and	the	California	Department	of	Food	and	Agriculture	released	a	draft	Water	Action	Plan	aimed	at	providing	the	foundation	for	
   and pipelines/tunnels.                                                                                                                       sustainable	water	resource	management.	The	Water	Action	Plan	will	be	implemented	over	the	next	5	years	in	close	collaboration	with	
                                                     State Water Resources Control Board
•	 The	potential	effects	of	climate	change,	sea	                                                                                                state, federal, and local governments.
                                                     Delta Flow Criteria
   level rise, and changes in total precipitation
                                                     The Delta Reform Act of 2009 required the California State                                 California	is	using	water	smarter	than	ever	before,	but	great	potential	savings	remain.		A	2009	law	requires	urban	water	suppliers	to	
   and runoff patterns on the conveyance
                                                     Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to develop flow                                      reduce , on a statewide basis, per capita water use 20 percent by 2020, a change that could reduce demand by 2 million acre-feet per
   alternatives and habitat restoration
                                                     criteria for the Delta ecosystem and prohibits construction                                year.		Irrigation	districts	that	supply	farmers	are	now	required	to	charge	farmers	based	at	least	in	part	on	the	volume	of	water	they	use,	
   activities	considered	in	the	EIR.
                                                     of BDCP facilities until the Water Board issues an order                                   a change that could accelerate the trend in California agriculture to reduce water consumption. Using municipal wastewater to irrigate
•	 The	resilience	and	recovery	of	Delta	
                                                     approving a change in the point of diversion, which                                        landscaping, desalination, capture of stormwater, and the elimination of bureaucratic barriers to water transfers will help to stretch local
   conveyance alternatives in the event of
                                                     shall include appropriate Delta flow criteria. The DSC has                                 supplies and reduce dependence on exports of water from the Delta.
   catastrophic loss caused by earthquake,                                                                                                                                                                                           Farmers throughout the Central Valley are using smart
                                                     recommended that the Water Board adopt and implement
   flood, or other natural disaster.                                                                                                                                                                                                 phones, iPads, and other high-tech devices to monitor
                                                     flow objectives for the Delta by June 2014.                                                                                                                                     irrigation and soil moisture levels to reduce water
•	 The	potential	effects	of	each	Delta	                                                                                                                                                                                              consumption while maintaining crop production.
   conveyance alternative on Delta                   BDCP Relationship with other Delta Efforts
   water quality.
                                                                                       DELTA STEWARDSHIP
                                                                                            DELTA PLAN

 Source: California Water Code Section 85320
                                                                        STATE WATER RESOURCES    BAY DELTA CONSERVATION   DELTA PROTECTION
                                                    DELTA CONSERVANCY                                                       COMMISSION
                                                                            CONTROL BOARD                 PLAN
                                                      STRATEGIC PLAN                                                           ECONOMIC
                                                                          DELTA FLOW CRITERIA       CONSERVATION PLAN     SUSTAINABILITY PLAN
  10 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Introduction 11
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

        OVERVIEW OF THE PLAN                                                                                                                                                         Great Blue Heron

                                                                                                                   Key Regulatory Guidelines
        The BDCP is an HCP and NCCP
        (described on page 9) designed                                                                             Federal Endangered Species Act
        to meet the goals of ecosystem                                                                             First	enacted	in	1973,	the	purpose	of	the	federal	ESA	is	to	provide	a	means	
        restoration, water supply
                                                                                   The BDCP is an HCP and NCCP     whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened
        reliability, and water quality
                                                                                   developed to comply with:       species depend may be conserved and to provide a program for the
        within a stable regulatory
                                                                                                                   conservation	of	these	species.	The	U.S.	Fish	and	Wildlife	Service	(USFWS)	
        framework. The BDCP is the                                                   • Federal Endangered
        result of more than 7 years of
                                                                                                                   and	the	National	Marine	Fisheries	Service	(NMFS)	are	responsible	for	
                                                                                       Species Act
        collaboration and scientific and                                                                           implementing	and	enforcing	ESA.
        policy review and input.                                                     • California Natural
                                                                                       Community and               Section	7	of	ESA	requires	that	a	federal	agency	ensure	that	any	federal	
        The BDCP is fundamentally                                                      Conservation Planning Act   action undertaken, funded, and carried out not jeopardize the continued
        rooted in a set of biological goals                                                                        existence of any listed threatened or endangered species or adversely
        and objectives. The biological                                                                             modify or destroy critical habitat.
        goals and objectives (described
        on pages 20-23) are used to
                                                                                                                   Section	10	of	ESA	defines	the	process	and	requirements	for	obtaining	an	
        guide the implementation of 22                                                                             Incidental	Take	Permit.	To	“take”	is	to	harass,	harm,	pursue,	hunt,	shoot,	
        separate but complementary                                                                                 wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect any threatened or endangered species.
        conservation measures, which                                                                               Section	10	was	amended	in	1982	to	require	that	applicants	design,	
        can be grouped by type: water                                                                              implement, and secure funding for an HCP to minimize or mitigate harm
        flow/conveyance actions (pages                                                                             of impacted species due to a project or action as a condition of granting an
        26-33), habitat actions (pages                                                                             Incidental	Take	permit.	Section	10	also	defines	HCP	content	requirements.	
        34-43), and actions to address
        other stressors (pages 44-50).
                                                                                                                   California Natural Community and Conservation Planning Act
        Together, the biological goals
        and objectives, conservation                                                                               Enacted	in	1984,	the	California	Endangered	Species	Act	(CESA)	seeks	to	
        measures, actions to reduce                                                                                protect or preserve native species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds,
        or avoid impacts, and the                                                                                  mammals, invertebrates, and plants, and their habitats, from extinction.
        adaptive management and
                                                                                                                   CESA	is	administered	by	the	CDFW.	
        monitoring program make up
                                              The Plan Area
        the conservation strategy for the                                                                          In	1991,	the	National	Community	Conservation	Planning	Act	(NCCPA)	was	
        BDCP.                                 The BDCP Plan Area includes                                          enacted	to	help	implement	CESA.	The	Act	was	replaced	in	2001	with	a	
                                              the Statutory, or legal, Delta, as                                   revised	and	expanded	NCCPA.	This	created	the	NCCP	program	under	the	
                                              well as parts of Suisun Marsh                                        CDFW. The purpose of the NCCP program is to conserve natural communities
                                              and the Yolo Bypass.                                                 at the ecosystem level while accommodating compatible land use.

 12 Overview of the Plan                                                                                                                                                         Overview of the Plan 13
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                        December 2013

                 Description of Chapters
                 The following provides a brief description of each BDCP chapter.

                  Chapter 1                                             Chapter 5                                            Chapter 8                                          Chapter 12
                  Introduction provides background, planning            Effects Analysis describes the effects of BDCP       Implementation Costs and Funding Sources           Glossary
                  goals, regulatory context, a description of the       implementation on ecosystem processes,               outlines implementation cost estimates             Appendices
                  scope of the BDCP including the Plan Area             natural communities, and covered species. It         over the proposed 50-year term of the
                                                                        is important to note that other environmental        BDCP, including the costs related to each of       Appendices included in the BDCP provide
                  and covered species, overview of the planning                                                                                                                 additional technical detail on various topics
                  process, and details of how the BDCP is               impacts (such as impacts on the human                its primary components. This chapter also
                                                                        environment) are evaluated in the EIR/EIS.           identifies likely funding sources.                 supporting BDCP chapter content.

                  Chapter 2                                             Chapter 6                                            Chapter 9
                  Existing Ecological Conditions provides a             Plan Implementation describes the timing             Alternatives to Take describes alternatives
                  description of historical ecological conditions       and phases of conservation measure                   BDCP considered that would either reduce
                  in the Delta, as well as a description of existing    implementation, plan reporting procedures,           the amount of take or increase the level of
                  conditions in both the physical environment           regulatory assurances, changed circumstances         conservation of listed species. The chapter also
                  and in natural communities.                           and remedial measures, approach to                   describes in detail whether each alternative
                                                                        addressing unforeseen circumstances, and             was found to meet BDCP goals and be
                  Chapter 3                                             permit amendment procedures.                         practicable.                                                               This Highlights of the BDCP document
                  Conservation Strategy describes biological                                                                                                                                            provides an overview of some, but not all,
                                                                        Chapter 7                                            Chapter 10
                  goals and objectives and the conservation                                                                                                                                             chapters	included	in	the	2013	public	Draft	
                  measures in detail, including the methods             Implementation Structure describes the               Integration of Independent Science in
                                                                                                                                                                                                        BDCP. Key aspects of the following chapters
                  and approach. This chapter also describes             institutional structure and organizational           BDCP Development describes the role of
                                                                                                                                                                                                        are	discussed	in	this	document:		Chapter	3,	
                  the adaptive management and monitoring                arrangements that will be established to             independent scientific advice used to guide
                                                                        govern and implement the BDCP. This chapter          the development of the BDCP.                                               Conservation	Strategy;	Chapter	5,	Effects	
                                                                        identifies the roles, functions, authorities, and                                                                               Analysis;	Chapter	6,	Plan	Implementation;	
                  Chapter 4                                             responsibilities of the various entities that will   Chapter 11                                                                 Chapter	7,	Implementation	Structure;	
                                                                        participate in BDCP implementation.                  List of Preparers identifies the entities or                               Chapter	8,	Implementation	Costs	and	Funding	
                  Covered Activities describes activities
                  “covered” by the Plan—activities for which                                                                 individuals who participated in preparing                                  Sources;	and	Chapter	9,	Alternatives	to	Take.	
                  regulatory agencies will make decisions on                                                                 the BDCP or provided technical assistance on                               Refer	to	the	2013	public	Draft	BDCP	online	
                  issuance of permits.                                                                                       BDCP development.                                                          at for
                                                                                                                                                                                                        detailed information.

 14 Overview of the Plan                                                                                                                                                                                                       Overview of the Plan 15
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                               December 2013

California Clapper Rail

     Covered Species                                                          Plant and Wildlife Species:
     Covered species are a special group of species, all native to the        Plants                        Mammals                          Birds
     Delta, that have been imperiled by past human activities. The BDCP
                                                                               • Alkali milk-vetch           • San Joaquin kit fox            • Tricolored blackbird
     Conservation Strategy includes biological goals and objectives for
     56 species, 11 of them fish, and identifies conservation measures         • San Joaquin spearscale      • Riparian woodrat               • Suisun song sparrow
     designed to contribute to their protection and recovery. The BDCP         • Boggs Lake hedge-hyssop     • Salt marsh harvest mouse       • Yellow-breasted chat
     Conservation Strategy covers the species listed on these two pages.                                                                                                                                           (CDFW)
                                                                               • Heckard’s peppergrass       • Riparian brush rabbit          • Least Bell’s vireo        Delta tule pea
                                                                               • Legenere                    • Suisun shrew                   • Western burrowing owl
                                             Fish Species:                     • Heartscale                                                   • Western yellow-billed
                                               • Delta smelt                                                                                    cuckoo
                                                                               • Brittlescale                • Giant garter snake
                                               • Longfin smelt                                                                                • Greater sandhill crane
                                                                               • Slough thistle              • Western pond turtle
                                                                                                                                              • California black rail
                                               • Winter-run Chinook salmon     • Suisun thistle
                                                                                                                                              • California clapper rail
                                               • Spring-run Chinook salmon     • Soft bird’s-beak            • California red-legged frog
                                                                                                                                              • Swainson’s hawk                                                   (USFWS)
                                               • Fall-run and late fall-run    • Delta button-celery         • California tiger salamander                                San Joaquin kit fox family
    Delta smelt
                                                 Chinook salmon                                                                               • White-tailed kite
                                                                               • Dwarf downingia
                                               • Central Valley steelhead      • Carquinez goldenbush        • Vernal pool tadpole shrimp
                                               • Green sturgeon                • Delta tule pea              • Conservancy fairy shrimp
                                               • White sturgeon                • Suisun Marsh aster          • Longhorn fairy shrimp
                                               • Sacramento splittail          • Mason’s lilaeopsis          • Vernal pool fairy shrimp
                                               • River lamprey                 • Delta mudwort               • Midvalley fairy shrimp

                                  (CDFW)       • Pacific lamprey               • Side-flowering skullcap     • California linderiella                                     (USFWS)

    Chinook salmon                                                                                                                                                        California red-legged frog
                                                                                                             • Valley elderberry
                                                                                                               longhorn beetle
 16 Overview of the Plan                                                                                                                                                                               Overview of the Plan 17
                                                                                                                         Science Review and Input to the BDCP
                                                                                                                                     Conservation Principles Review

                                                                                                                        2007     è Options Evaluation Report

                                                                                                                             2008    è Draft Conservation Strategy
                                                                                                                                              Non-aquatic Resources Science Panel Input

                                                                                                                                                  Adaptive Management Science Panel Input

      SCIENCE OVERVIEW                                                                                                                             DRERIP Science Panel Input –
                                                                                                                                                   Action Feasibility and Prioritization
      Science Review and Input                          BDCP Science Program: Continuing                                                          Goals, Objectives, and                   Delta Regional Ecosystem
                                                        Independent Science Reviews                                            2010               Metrics Science Panel Input              Restoration Implementation
      Conservation plans require an extensive
      body of scientific investigation, study,
                                                        Science would play a key role in BDCP
                                                        implementation, providing information about the
                                                                                                                                        è Working Draft BDCP Chapters                      Plan (DRERIP) Evaluation

      and analysis. NCCPA requires a process for                                                                                           Aquatic Resources Biological Goals              In	2009,	the	BDCP	convened	a	team	of	
      independent science to guide conservation
                                                        benefits of habitat restoration and improved flows                   2011                                                          52 experts	to	review	each	of	the	draft	
                                                        for sensitive fish species, among other issues.                                    and Objectives Science Panel Input
      plans as they are developed. BDCP uses and                                                                                                                                           conservation measures to identify their
      builds upon extensive scientific investigation,   As part of the BDCP implementation, a science                                    National Research Council Review –
                                                                                                                                                                                           effectiveness	using	a	modified	DRERIP	
      study, and analysis of the Delta compiled                                                                                          Science and Adaptive Management
                                                        manager would be selected to manage the                                                                                            evaluation	process	developed	by	the	CALFED	
      over several decades, as well as new and          BDCP science program. The science program                                                                                          Bay-Delta		Ecosystem	Restoration	Program.	
                                                                                                                                      Effects Analysis Science Panel Input
      ongoing independent research and study.           would be open, transparent, and collaborative.                                                                                     In	the	DRERIP	process,	teams	of	experts	
      BDCP Chapter 10 details the integration
      of independent science in the BDCP
                                                        It would provide decision-makers and the public
                                                        with the best science possible on the Delta, and
                                                                                                                      2012   è      Preliminary Draft BDCP Chapters                        worked through a rigorous examination of
                                                                                                                                                                                           proposed actions by analyzing the magnitude
      development.                                      should increase confidence in the results of                            Phased Effects Analysis Methodology                        and certainty of the benefits and impacts of
                                                        BDCP implementation.                                                    Science Panel Input
      To meet NCCPA obligations, the BDCP engaged                                                                                                                                          implementing each of the BDCP’s conservation
      independent scientific advice throughout the      The information generated by the BDCP                                  National Research Council Review –                          measures.	Subsequent	to	the	DRERIP	analysis,	a	
      planning process and enlisted well-recognized     science program and BDCP’s extensive adaptive                          Sustainable Water and Environmental Management              Synthesis Team convened to consider synergies
      experts in ecological and biological sciences.    management program would be put to practical                                                                                       and conflicts between various measures and to
      Six BDCP Independent Science Advisory
      Panels provided reports on a number of key
                                                        use, as BDCP is implemented. (For more
                                                        information, see Draft BDCP Chapter 6, Plan
                                                                                                                        è      Administrative Draft BDCP Chapters                          recommend possible modifications.

      topics that were used to inform development       Implementation, and Chapter 7, Implementation                          Agency Review and Input                                     Information	generated	from	this	process	
      of the BDCP. See the timeline on the right        Structure, of the public Draft BDCP.)                                                                                              provided new insights about the effects of
      for more information about the numerous                                                                                   National Research Council Adaptive                         stressors and conservation measures on Delta
      scientific reviews that have guided the BDCP      Areas of uncertainty or disagreement would be                           Management Review                                          species and processes. Results were used to
                                                        identified, such as the ecological role of freshwater

      development.                                                                                                                                                                         revise the draft conservation measures, and
                                                        flows during certain seasons. Through the BDCP                2013            Revised Administrative Draft BDCP
                                                                                                                                                                                           inform parts of the BDCP effects analysis and
                                                        process, it would be determined whether the area                              Released March – May 2013
                                                        of uncertainty or disagreement can be tested with                                                                                  the development of the adaptive management
                                                        timely, valid scientific research that is also logistically
                                                        and economically feasible. Over time, such research
                                                        should provide data that better informs future
                                                                                                                              è            Public Draft BDCP
                                                                                                                                            December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                           and monitoring program.

                                                        management and regulatory decisions.                                                     Ongoing Science Review
18 Science Overview                                                                                                                              throughout BDCP Implementation                                          Science Overview 19
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

                                                                                                                          Biological	objectives	for	the	BDCP	will	be	“SMART”—specific,	measurable,	achievable,	relevant,	and	time-bound—to	the	
                                                                                                                          maximum extent possible. This strategy includes specific targets such as larger fish populations, healthier individual fish, and
                                                                                                                          larger habitat areas. Where a high level of uncertainty is associated with the measurability, achievability, or relevance of an
                                                                                                                          objective, that uncertainty is explicitly acknowledged in the objective and associated rationale. Uncertainties in objectives
                                                                                                                          will be addressed through planned research, monitoring, and the adaptive management program. Success in achieving the
                                                                                                                          biological goals and objectives will be measured during implementation of the BDCP and through monitoring and targeted
                                                                                                                          research as part of the adaptive management program.
Riparian Brush Rabbit                                                                                            (CDFW)

       Biological Goals and Objectives                                                                                    BDCP Conservation Pyramid
                                                                                                                          The BDCP conservation pyramid reflects relationships between biological outcomes that the
       The BDCP includes 22 conservation measures based on the best scientific data available and built                   BDCP is intended to achieve and actions that would be implemented to meet these objectives.
       on a set of core hypotheses about how to improve ecological processes and functions in the Delta.
       Biological goals and objectives are the benchmarks by which plan success will be measured.

       Biological goals articulate the broad, intended outcomes of the Plan.

       Biological objectives are specific, measurable outcomes expected as a result of the Plan.

       Conservation measures are designed to achieve the biological objectives and will directly or
                                                                                                                          Global recovery goals and objectives for some of the covered species
       indirectly contribute to achieving one or more biological goals.                                                   were developed by sh and wildlife agencies, independent of BDCP,                               Global
                                                                                                                          and have helped guide the development of the conservation strategy.
       The BDCP includes 67 goals and 165 objectives for 56 fish and terrestrial species, their habitats, and                                                                                                            Goals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      & Objectives
       the Delta ecosystem. The biological goals and objectives are the basis of the conservation strategy and
       are designed to serve four important functions:                                                                    A total of 67 goals and 165 associated objectives articulate improvements for
                                                                                                                          species. The biological goals and objectives were informed by global recovery
          1. Describe the desired biological outcomes of the conservation strategy and how those outcomes                 goals but have been framed to re ect what is achievable by the BDCP. The level             BDCP Goals                      Monitoring
                                                                                                                          of conservation of each covered species was determined by a variety of factors
             will contribute to the long-term conservation of covered species and their habitats.                         including the level of impact, the proportion of the range of the species in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     & Objectives                   BDCP will monitor the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e ectiveness of the
                                                                                                                          Plan Area, and the ability of the Plan participants to in uence conservation.
          2. When possible, provide quantitative targets and timeframes for achieving desired outcomes.                                                                                                                                            conservation measures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    toward achieving the
          3. Serve as benchmarks to measure progress in achieving outcomes.                                               The BDCP’s conservation measures are designed and expected to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     biological goals and
                                                                                                                          produce ecosystem changes su cient to achieve the biological
          4. Provide metrics for the monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation                     goals and objectives. The goals and objectives, in turn,                              Conservation Measures
             measures and as a basis for adaptively managing the conservation measures to achieve the                     were formulated in a way that conservation measure
                                                                                                                          e ectiveness can be monitored.
             desired biological outcomes.
       The biological goals and objectives were developed over several years, through a process informed by               Models were used to test whether conservation
                                                                                                                          measures, collectively, would likely achieve the
       input from a group of independent science advisors, DWR staff, representatives of each of the fish and             biological goals and objectives. Where results were
       wildlife agencies, and stakeholders from interested nongovernmental organizations and agencies. The                uncertain, testable hypotheses were developed to                                        Expected Outcomes
                                                                                                                          link the action to the outcome. These hypotheses
       process included two independent science review panels and a public working group.                                 will be tested during Plan implementation.

                                                                                                                          As conservation measures are being implemented
                                                                                                                          and monitoring data becomes available, the
                                                                                                                          adaptive management process will be used
                                                                                                                          to inform whether adjustments to the                                               Analyze, Synthesize, Evaluate
                                                                                                                          conservation measures are necessary to
                                                                                                                          improve their e ectiveness.

 20 Science Overview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Science Overview 21
      Understanding Biological Goals and Objectives                                                                                      Natural Community Goals and Objectives focus on maintaining or enhancing ecological functions and values of
                                                                                                                                         specific	natural	communities.	Achieving	natural	community	goals	and	objectives	serves	to	expand	and	conserve	habitat	while	
      The BDCP biological goals and objectives are organized hierarchically based on ecological scale:                                   sustaining and increasing the abundance and distribution of desirable species, including covered species and other native
      Landscape-scale biological goals and objectives focus on the extent, distribution, and connectivity                                species. There are 18 natural community goals and 47 objectives.
      among natural communities and improvements within the overall Plan Area to achieve natural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural Community Example
      community and species-specific goals and objectives.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Goal: Create large expanses and interconnected patches of tidal
      Natural community biological goals and objectives focus on specific natural communities (e.g.,                                                                                                                    freshwater emergent wetland habitat.
      recurring assemblages of plants and animals) within the Plan Area.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Objectives Include:
      Species-specific biological goals and objectives address specific needs for species within                                                                                                                    •	 Restore	or	create	at	least	13,900	acres	of	tidal	freshwater	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       emergent	wetland	in	Conservation	Zones	1,	2,	4-7,	and	11	
      natural communities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       by	year	40	of	BDCP	implementation
      The BDCP will address ecological functions and processes at a broad landscape scale, as well as discrete                                                                                                      •	 Restore	tidal	freshwater	emergent	wetlands	in	areas	that	
      components at the natural community and species-specific scale. The ecosystem-wide actions are                                                                                                                   increase connectivity among conservation lands
      intended to enhance ecological functions and advance the conservation of species and the natural                                                                                                            Applicable Conservation Measures (CM):
      communities that depend on them. The needs of many covered species are addressed, in large part, at                                                                                                           •	 CM3	–	Natural	Communities	Protection	and	Restoration
      the landscape and natural community levels. Species-specific goals and objectives were developed only                                                                                                         •	 CM4	–	Tidal	Natural	Communities	Restoration
      when additional factors, such as specific habitat requirements or population factors, were needed to                                                                                                          •	 CM6	–	Channel	Margin	Enhancement
      conserve the species.

      Landscape-Scale Goals and Objectives focus on improvements to the hydrodynamic, chemical, and biological
      processes of the Delta, including more natural flow patterns, increased food production, reductions in the effects of nonnative
      species, reduction in the adverse effects of contaminants, and increases in the extent and spatial distribution, function, and
      connectivity of natural communities. There are 4 landscape-scale goals and 27 related objectives. For the covered
      wildlife and plant species, goals and objectives address the desired extent, distribution, connectivity, and ecological function   Species-Specific Goals and Objectives focus
      of ecosystems supporting their habitats and life requirements within the BDCP landscape.                                           on stressors and habitat needs not addressed in the
                                                                                                                                         landscape scale and natural community goals and
      Landscape Scale Example
                                                                                                                                         objectives. There are 45 goals and 91 objectives
      Goal: Reduced harm to covered species in the	Plan	Area.                                                                            that are species-specific.
      Objectives Include:                                                   The Plan Area                                                Species-Specific Example for winter-run Chinook salmon
      •	 Avoid	and	minimize	adverse	effects	on	covered	species	
         resulting from covered activities                                                                                               Goal: Improve	survival	of	immigrating	and	emigrating	winter-run	
                                                                                                                                         Chinook salmon to support increased abundance and long-term
      •	 Manage	the	distribution	and	abundance	of	nonnative	                                                                             population viability.
         predators in the Delta to reduce predation on covered fishes
      •	 Reduce	entrainment,	impingement,	and	salvage	losses	of	                                                                         Objectives Include:
         covered fish species                                                                                                              •	 Improve	survival	for	Sacramento	River	winter-run	Chinook	between	
                                                                                                                                              Knights	Landing	and	Chipps	Island	to	52	percent	by	year	19	of	BDCP	
      Applicable Conservation Measures (CM):                                                                                                  implementation                                                                                                               (CDFW)
      •	 CM1	–	Water	Facilities	and	Operation                                                                                              •	 Create	a	viable	alternate	migratory	path	through	the	Yolo	Bypass       Chinook salmon
      •	 CM6	–	Channel	Margin	Enhancement                                                                                                  •	 Reduce	illegal	harvest	of	adult	winter-run	Chinook	salmon
      •	 CM12	–	Methylmercury	Management                                                                                                   Applicable Conservation Measures (CM):
      •	 CM13	–	Invasive	Aquatic	Vegetation	Control                                                                                        •	 CM1	–	Water	Facilities	and	Operation                       •	 CM15	–	Localized	Reduction	of	Predatory	Fishes
      •	 CM15	–	Localized	Reduction	of	Predatory	Fishes                                                                                    •	 CM2	–	Yolo	Bypass	Fisheries	Enhancement                    •	 CM16	–	Nonphysical	Fish	Barriers
      •	 CM21	–	Nonproject	Diversions                                                                                                      •	 CM4	–	Tidal	Natural	Communities	Restoration                •	 CM17	–	Illegal	Harvest	Reduction
      •	 CM22	–	Avoidance	and	Minimization	Measures                                                                                        •	 CM5	–	Seasonally	Inundated	Floodplain	Restoration	         •	 CM19	–	Urban	Stormwater	Treatment
                                                                                                                                           •	 CM6	–	Channel	Margin	Enhancement                           •	 CM21	–	Nonproject	Diversions
22 Science Overview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Science Overview 23
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013

                                                                                                                                                     Conservation Measures
         The BDCP includes 22 conservation measures. While they                                                                                      Measure Title                                              Conservation Zone (CZ) Level                         Notes*
         are organized in the BDCP by landscape level, natural                                                                                        WATER FLOW
         community level, and species level, as described on                                                                                            CM1 Water	Facilities	and	Operation                      Plan	Area-wide                 Landscape             Construct and operate a dual-conveyance water delivery system.
         pages 22-23, they are organized in this document                                                                                             HABITAT
         by type: water flow/conveyance, habitat, and
                                                                                                                                                         CM2 Yolo	Bypass	Fisheries	Enhancement                  CZ 2                           Landscape             Seasonal	modifications	of	the	Yolo	Bypass	to	improve	the	timing,	
         other stressors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            frequency, and duration of inundation to improve fish habitat
                                                                                                                                                         CM3 Natural Communities Protection and                 CZs	1-11                       Landscape             Protection of a variety of natural communities with specific
         Conservation Zones                                                                                                                                  Restoration                                                                                             requirements	by	5-year	increments
                                                                                                                                                         CM4 Tidal Natural Communities                          CZs	1,	2,	4-7,	11              Natural Community     Restore	65,000	acres
         Conservations zones are geographic                                                                                                                  Restoration
         areas defined by the biological needs                                                                                                           CM5 Seasonally	Inundated	Floodplain	                   Plan	Area-wide                 Natural Community     Restore	10,000	acres
         of the species covered under the                                                                                                                    Restoration
         BDCP. They were identified based                                                                                                                CM6 Channel	Margin	Enhancement                         CZs	1,	2,	4-6,	and/or	7        Natural Community     Restore 20 linear miles
         on landscape characteristics,                                                                                                                   CM7 Riparian Natural Community                         CZs	4	and	7                    Natural Community     Restore	5,000	acres,	primarily	in	association	with	CMs	4,	5,	and	6
         land elevations, particular land                                                                                                                    Restoration
         features likely to be present                                                                                                                   CM8 Grassland Natural Community                        CZs	1,	8,	and/or	11,	and	 Natural Community          Restore 2,000 acres
         at specific elevations, and                                                                                                                         Restoration                                        other zones as needed
         land uses.                                                                                                                                     CM9 Vernal	Pool	and	Alkali	Seasonal	                    CZs	1,	8,	or	11                Natural Community     Restore vernal pool complex and alkali seasonal wetland
                                                                                                                                                            Wetland Complex Restoration                                                                              complex to achieve no net loss
         This map shows each                                                                                                                           CM10 Nontidal Marsh Restoration                          CZs	2	,	3,	4,	5,	and/or	6      Natural Community     Restore	1,200	acres	and	create	500	acres	of	managed	wetlands	
         conservation zone.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          consisting of greater sandhill crane roosting habitat
         The general location                                                                                                                          CM11 Natural	Communities	Enhancement	                    Plan	Area-wide                 Natural Community     Applies	to	all	BDCP-protected	and	-restored	habitats
         of each conservation                                                                                                                                 and Management
         measure may be                                                                                                                               OTHER STRESSORS
         determined by looking                                                                                                                         CM12 Methylmercury Management                            CZs	1,	2,	4-7,	11              Species               Minimize the risk for methylation of mercury in restored habitats
         in the “Conservation                                                                                                                          CM13 Invasive	Aquatic	Vegetation	Control                 CZs	1,	2,	4-7,	11              Species               Control nonnative aquatic vegetation
         Zone” column in the                                                                                                                           CM14 Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel                    CZ 6                           Species               Maintain dissolved oxygen concentrations above levels that
         chart at right, which lists the                                                                                                                    Dissolved	Oxygen	Levels                                                                                  impair covered fish species between Turner Cut and Stockton
         zone associated with each                                                                                                                     CM15 Localized Reduction of Predatory                    CZs	1,	2,	4-7,	11              Species               Reduce the abundance of predatory fish in high predator density
         conservation measure.                                  BDCP Plan Area                                                                              Fishes                                                                                                   locations
                                                                Conservation Zone                                                                      CM16 Nonphysical Fish Barriers                           CZs	5-8                        Species               Placement of nonphysical fish barriers at strategic locations
         For more information about the                                                                                                                                                                                                                              throughout the Delta
         conservation measures identified for                                                                                                          CM17 Illegal	Harvest	Reduction                           Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Reduce illegal harvest of Chinook salmon, Central Valley
         each zone, see Chapter 3,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   steelhead and sturgeon
         Section 4, of the public Draft BDCP.                                                                                                          CM18 Conservation Hatcheries                             Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Expand	and	establish	conservation	hatcheries	for	Delta	smelt	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and longfin smelt
                                                                                                                                                       CM19 Urban Stormwater Treatment                          Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Implement	stormwater	treatment	measures	to	decrease	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     contaminant discharges to the Delta
                                                                                                                                                       CM20 Recreational	Users	Invasive	Species	                Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Minimize risk of introducing invasive nonnative species
    What is a Conservation Measure?                                          What is a Covered Activity?                                                    Program
                                                                                                                                                       CM21 Nonproject Diversions                               Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Remediate agricultural and other diversions not associated with
    A conservation measure is a prescribed action designed to achieve        Covered activities are those that support water supply, such as water                                                                                                                   SWP or CVP through voluntary program
    the biological goals and objectives of the BDCP and to satisfy state     conveyance and facilities maintenance and improvements, as well          AVOIDANCE AND MINIMIZATION
    and federal regulatory requirements.                                     as any restoration efforts that affect threatened and endangered          CM22 Avoidance	and	Minimization	                         Plan	Area-wide                 Species               Avoid	and	minimize	effects	of	BDCP	activities	on	natural	
                                                                                                                                                             Measures                                                                                                communities and provide habitat for covered species
                                                                             species. Covered activities include the conservation measures.
                                                                                                                                                        *These acreage targets estimate implementation of habitat conservation measures over the life of the plan.

 24 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Conservation Strategy 25
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                 December 2013

        Water Facilities
        and Operation

        A cornerstone of the BDCP strategy is to construct and operate a dual-conveyance water delivery              The existing operation of the SWP/CVP pumps in             Considering the goals of water supply and
        system that would modernize the heart of California’s aging water supply network in a way that better        the southern Delta can cause or increase a reversal        ecosystem health, the BDCP would implement flow
        balances the needs of the Delta ecosystem and the large part of California’s population that relies on it.   in river flows, potentially altering salmon migratory      management changes to address the following
                                                                                                                     patterns and can contribute to the decline of              flow-related issues for fish:
                                            Conservation Measure 1 (CM1) in the proposed project would               sensitive fish species such as the delta smelt. By           • Reverse flows in Old River and Middle River
 The new north Delta                        make substantial changes to water operations in the Delta by             relocating the main point of water diversion to              • Entrainment, salvage, and predation
 diversions will be subject                 implementing a dual-conveyance system to serve the existing              the north and establishing new operating criteria              effects on native fish species due to
                                            SWP/CVP pumping plants (that will not be enlarged) that focuses          to improve water volume, timing, turbidity, and
 to strict operating criteria                                                                                                                                                       south Delta intakes
                                            on two major components:                                                 salinity, along with other conservation measures,
 to generate river and Delta                                                                                                                                                      • Delta Cross Channel effects on fish migration
                                                                                                                     the BDCP would improve native fish migratory                 • Salinity, flow, and habitat in Suisun Marsh
 conditions needed for                      1. Construction of new water facilities, including:
                                                                                                                     patterns and habitat conditions and allow for                • Flow modification effects in the
 improving fish populations                   • Three proposed north Delta intakes                                   greater operational flexibility.                               Sacramento River
 and to protect water                           with state-of-the-art fish screens
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Effects on Delta outflows
 quality and water rights of                  • Two 30-mile long main tunnels
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Effects of climate change
 those in the Delta.                          • New 40-acre intermediate forebay
                                              • New Head of Old River operable gate                                                                                             The BDCP would be managed adaptively based
                                              • Improvements and expansion of Clifton Court Forebay                                                                             on the ability to meet BDCP biological goals and
                                                                                                                                                                                objectives. Operation of the water system would
                                            2. Operation of both new and existing water
                                                                                                                                                                                be governed with input from scientists, regulatory
                                               conveyance facilities, including:
                                                                                                                                                                                agencies, water users, and the public.
                                              •   North Delta intakes
                                              •   South Delta export facilities
                                              •   Delta Cross Channel gates
                                              •   Suisun Marsh salinity control gates
                                              •   North Bay Aqueduct intake                                              Since first proposed, CM1 water facilities and conveyance operations have been refined, largely in
                                                                                                                         response to the potential impact to Delta communities. Changes include:
                                              •   Clifton Court Forebay
                                                                                                                         • The number of new Sacramento River intakes        • Shrinking of the intermediate forebay from
                                                                                                                           has been reduced from five to three and             750 acres to 40 acres
                                                                                                                           capacity reduced from 15,000 cfs to 9,000 cfs     • Height of the pumping plants at the intake
                                                                                                                         • Underground tunnels, instead of a surface           facilities reduced from 60 feet to approximately
                                                                                                                           canal, proposed for water transport                 30 feet.
                                                                                                                         • Alignment shift away from Delta communities

 26 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                             Conservation Strategy 27
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                      CM1 Features:
                                                                                                                                                                      •	 	Three	intakes,	together	capable	of	
                                                                                                                                                                          diverting up to 9,000 cfs.
        CM1|conveyance (cont.)
                                                                                                                                                                      •	 	State-of-the-art	fish	screens	that	
        Water Facilities                                                                                                                                                  would protect passing fish.
        and Operation                                                                                                                                                 •	 	A	forebay	for	collection	of	the	water	
                                                                                                                                                                          diverted from the river.
                                                                                                                                                                      •	 	Two	tunnels	to	carry	water	30	miles	
        The BDCP proposes to secure and protect California’s                               The gravity-driven system would eliminate the need                             to the existing pumping plants in the
        water supply by:                                                                   for an intermediate pumping plant in the Delta.
                                                                                                                                                                          south Delta. From there, water would
          • Constructing a water conveyance system                                         Using gravity to transport water would save
                                                                                                                                                                          be moved into existing aqueducts
            underground to reduce exposure to possible water                               tremendous amounts of energy and reduce
                                                                                                                                                                          that supply much of the state.
            supply interruptions caused by aging levees that                               greenhouse gas emissions.
            may be affected by seismic and flood events and
            ongoing subsidence                                                             Tunnel and Intake Design and Construction
          • Building intakes in the north Delta to avoid
                                                                                           The proposed tunnel and intake facilities would:
            increased salinity from tidal effects and expected
            climate change and to provide increased                                           • Protect the state’s most critical water delivery
            operational flexibility to improve fish populations                                 system by ensuring that the new facilities have                                   Intermediate Forebay: A new 40-acre
          • Improving regulatory predictability of water                                                                                                                          forebay would be constructed to collect                                       Dual-Bore Tunnels: Two 40-foot inside-
                                                                                                200-year flood protection                                                                                                                                       diameter tunnels would be constructed, side
                                                                                                                                                                                  water from the river intakes before it
            diversions by better protecting threatened and                                    • Protect against the impacts of sea level rise and                                 enters the tunnel system.                                                     by side, more than 150 feet below ground
            endangered fish                                                                     flooding due to climate change by building                                                                                                                      to deliver water supplies to the redesigned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clifton Court Forebay.
                                                                                                intakes upstream in the north Delta
        Using Gravity to Move Water
                                                                                              • Protect against earthquake damage by using the
        The proposed BDCP project includes three new intakes                                    latest seismic criteria and design methodologies in
        along the Sacramento River in the north Delta and                                       the tunneling industry
        twin underground main tunnels through the Delta,
        approximately 30 miles long, to carry water under the                              The new water delivery system would be built using
        Delta to the CVP and SWP pumping plants. A forebay                                 proven tunnel-boring machine technology. Tunnels
        would be needed near the intakes to collect water                                  would be excavated using a machine with a circular                                                                                                                       Clifton Court Forebay: Redesigned to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    improve overall operations, the existing
        diverted from the river, then gravity flow would move                              cutter head that mines through the soil. As the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    forebay would be dredged, divided,
        water supplies through the tunnels.                                                machine advances, a pre-cast concrete, segmented                                                                                                                         refurbished, and expanded to the south.
                                                                                           tunnel-lining system is installed behind the cutter                                                                                                                      Proposed north Delta conveyance facilities
        The twin tunnels would be lined with concrete                                                                                                                                                                                                               would supply water to the northern portion
                                                                                           head, bolted together, and grouted in place. This                                                                                                                        of the forebay, while the southern portion
        segments and capable of moving a maximum of                                        proven technique allows the machine to mine in soft,                                                                                                                     will continue to provide flows to the SWP
        9,000 cubic feet per second (cfs). The gravity-flow                                saturated ground while maintaining the stability                              Designed for 9,000 cfs capacity:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and operate as it does today.
        system requires two 40-foot-diameter tunnels to                                                   and integrity of the surrounding soil.                         As designed, the tunnels could not
                                                                                                                                                                         carry more than 9,000 cfs unless
        convey the needed flows and overcome friction losses
                                                                                                    Surge                                                                new intakes and pumping plants                     South Bay
        to keep water moving through the system.          Sedimentation                             Tower                                                                were added to the system. Such a                    Pumping
                                                                                       Pumping                                                                                                                                Plant
                                                                              Basin     Plant                                                                            retrofit would be extremely expensive
                                                                                                                                                                         and would require an entirely new                                                                                                  To
                                                       On-Bank                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Delta-
                                                                                                                                                                         permitting process.
                                                         Intake                                                                               Intermediate                                                                                                                                              Mendota
                                                                                                                                                 Forebay                                                                                                                      Canal                       Canal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Clifton Court Forebay                                               or
                                Sacramento River                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        California
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          South Delta   Aqueduct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (dredged, expanded, and divided)                          Pumping
                                                                                                          Single-Bore Tunnel                                        Vent/Access                       Vent/Access                                                                           Plants
                                                                                                                                                                    Shaft                                   Shaft
      Proposed Tunnel System                                                                                                                                                  Dual-BoreTunnels
                                                                                                                                                                               (Approx. 30 Miles)                                                                     California Aqueduct (SWP)
                                          No final decisions on the proposed conveyance facility have been made. Completion of environmental review and public                                                                                                        Delta-Mendota Canal (CVP)
                                          input is now underway. The elements described here are for the purpose of assisting the public review as a guide to the                                                                                                     South Bay Aqueduct
                                          BDCP and proposed project identified in the Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement.
 28 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Conservation Strategy 29
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  December 2013

        CM1|conveyance (cont.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SCREEN

        Water Facilities
        and Operation

        BDCP Flow Patterns to Meet Biological Goals and Objectives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Intakes: Three new intake facilities are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                proposed along the Sacramento River. Each
        The purpose of CM1 is to construct                                                                                                                                                                                      intake would be able to divert up to 3,000 cfs capacity,
        and operate a facility that improves          Yolo Bypass Fishery Enhancement (CM2)                                                             New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                for a total of 9,000 cfs capacity. Intakes would include
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                state-of-the-art fish screens held to performance
                                                                                                                                                    North Bay
        conditions for covered species and            Flows from the Sacramento River into the Yolo Bypass have been                                 Aqueduct                                                                   standards to protect passing covered fish.
        natural communities in the Delta while        significantly reduced over the last two centuries. CM2 will manage flows
                                                      and seasonal habitat to increase fish abundance, passage, and survival
        improving water supply reliability.
                                                      rates, and operate a new Fremont Weir gate to more frequently inundate
        Water operations criteria to benefit fish     the Yolo Bypass when Sacramento River flows are at their peak. For more
        include the key components listed on          information on CM2, see pages 34-35.                                                            Intakes                                                                                                          North Delta
        these two pages. For more information                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BDCP Biological Goals:
        on BDCP flow criteria, see Chapter 3: Conservation Strategy, Section 3.4 of the public Draft BDCP.                                                                                                                                                             • Maintain or increase the diversity of spawning, rearing, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         migration conditions for covered fish species
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Proposed                                             • Provide flows that support the movement of adult covered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Forebay                                                fish species to spawning habitats
         Delta Outflow
                                                                                                                                                                                               Delta Cross
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       • Minimize movement of covered fish species into areas of
                                                                                                                                                                             R                                                                                           high predation
         Because of the potential importance         BDCP Actions:                                                                                                                             Channel Gates

         of fall and spring outflows in meeting      For delta smelt:                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Reduce or avoid impingement, and salvage losses of covered

         the biological goals and objectives         • Potential increase in Delta fall                                                                                                                                                                                  fish species
                                                                                                                                                                                          Georgiana Slough

         for delta and longfin smelt, these two        outflow from September to                                                                                                          Nonphysical Barrier                                                          BDCP Actions:

         factors are managed by two separate           November in wet and above normal                                                                                                                                                                                • Establish new intakes with 9,000 cfs diversion capacity,
         decision trees. The BDCP decision             years as determined to be necessary                                                                                                                                                                               operated according to strict operating criteria
         trees for fall and spring outflow are         through the Decision Tree process
         described in more detail on page 32.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Manage diversions in real-time similar to south Delta
                                                     • Improve low-salinity zone rearing                                        Suisun Marsh                                                                                                                             diversions, with Sacramento River bypass flows managed
         BDCP Biological Goals:                        habitat in fall                                                      Salinity Control Gate                                                                                                                        to allow migrating juvenile salmon to avoid entering
         • Increase delta smelt rearing habitat      For longfin smelt:                                                                                                                                                                                                  the interior Delta, maintain survival past the north Delta
         • Increase longfin smelt abundance          • Potential increase in spring outflows                                                                                                   Sa                                                                        diversions, and improve upstream adult migration in the fall

                                                       as determined to be necessary                                                                                                                    Jo                                                             • Establish bypass flows up to 15,000 cfs in December
                                                       through the Decision Tree process                                                                                                                    uin                                                        • Establish bypass flows up to 17,000 cfs during the January
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ri v
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      er                                                 through June fish migration period
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       • Provide flows to help fish migrate

                                                                                                                                                           r Conveyance
        South Delta Diversions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Implement up to seven nonphysical barriers, including a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         barrier at Georgiana Slough to guide fish with a combination
        BDCP Biological Goals:                                       BDCP Actions:                                                                                                            ive

                                                                                                                                                                                                  r                                                                      of sounds, lights, and bubbles away from routes leading to
        • In summer and winter months, manage real-time              • Reduce the straying of covered salmon, particularly fall and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the south Delta pumps and to areas of suitable habitat

          south Delta operations to substantially reduce               late-run Chinook salmon, into the south Delta channels

          entrainment for all covered fish species, particularly     • Provide operational flexibility to maintain water levels
          San Joaquin River covered fish populations                   for south Delta farmers and to improve water quality
        • Implement additional potential flow improvements             conditions (salinity control and dissolved oxygen levels) in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ver                                          Delta Cross Channel Gates
          in the spring to reduce entrainment and provide              the San Joaquin River                                                                                                    d Ri                         Head of Old River
          better Delta spring flow patterns                                                                                                                                                   Ol                             Operable Barrier    Manage the Delta Cross Channel gates to improve covered fish migration. The
                                                                     • Test the use of a gate at Head of Old River to protect out-
        • Reduce reverse flows in the Old and Middle rivers            migrating covered fish in the spring                                                                                                                                      gates will close from December through June and open from July through
          by opening and closing the operable gate at the                                                                                                                                                                                        September. The gates will be managed under real-time operations in October and
                                                                     • Restore floodplain habitat to enhance San Joaquin River                                                                                                                   November based on monitoring for the presence or absence of fish, water quality
          head of Old River to protect covered fish from               covered fish survival rates in wet years
          entrainment at the existing SWP/CVP pumps and                                                                                                                                                                                          criteria, and perceived risk to covered species.
          improve covered fish survival                              • Reduce south Delta diversions, particularly in the spring and
                                                                       in wet years, to contribute to Delta outflows and minimize
                                                                       entrainment in the south Delta

 30 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Conservation Strategy 31
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  December 2013

        CM1|conveyance (cont.)
                                                                                                                                       BDCP Operational Criteria
        Water Facilities
        and Operation
                                                                                                                                       Operation of the new and existing water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Applying BDCP Water Diversion
                                                                                                                                       conveyance facilities will be managed to specific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Operations Criteria
        Decision Tree                                                                                                                  criteria related to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The most sensitive time of year for Delta fisheries is
                                                                                                                                          •   Old River and Middle River flows                                         December	through	June.	Operations	would	vary	depending	
        Two key areas of uncertainty for the BDCP are:                          to meet the biological goals and objectives               •   Head of Old River gate operations                                        on	the	hydrologic	conditions	(e.g.,	water	year	type,	actual	
                                                                                                                                          •   Delta outflow                                                            Sacramento	River	flows,	fish	presence),	but	would	always	
          • The importance and magnitude of fall outflow                     2. Develop and implement a science plan
                                                                                                                                          •   North Delta bypass flows                                                 include a minimum Sacramento River flow passing the
            in achieving abundance and habitat objectives                       and data collection program to test the
                                                                                hypotheses                                                                                                                             intakes before water could be diverted. Under all conditions,
            for delta smelt                                                                                                            To benefit fish, flow criteria will be applied month
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       operational criteria require gradual ramping up of diversions
                                                                             3. Identify spring and fall outflow criteria needed       by month and according to the five water-year                                   and do not interfere with major river flows.
          • The importance of and magnitude of spring
                                                                                to meet biological goals and objectives (to be         types: wet, above-normal, below-normal, dry,                                    As	an	example	of	how	BDCP	operational	criteria	
            outflow for achieving the longfin smelt
                                                                                performed by the permitting agencies once              and critical.                                                                   would be implemented, the graphic below
            abundance objective
                                                                                dual-conveyance operations begin)                                                                                                      illustrates hypothetical operations in
        Because of debate over the importance of these
                                                                         The decision-tree process would begin immediately                                                                                             December	through	April.	
        two factors in the Plan’s ability to meet biological                                                                         Analysis	of	the	water	supply	reliability	benefits	and	estimated	
                                                                         after the Plan is approved and function as an early         annual water deliveries of BDCP are included in Chapter 9. For
        objectives for these species and their effect on                                                                             more	information,	see	the	Alternative	BDCP	Approaches	section	
        water operations, and the level of uncertainty                   part of the adaptive management and monitoring              beginning on page 96.
                                                                         program. Once the fall and spring outflow criteria                                                                                                                                             64,000
        surrounding them, these two factors are
        addressed in a collaborative decision-tree adaptive              are determined based on the results of the                                                                                                                              Diversions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 up to 9,000
        management process that will be used to evaluate                 hypotheses-testing process described above, the           Example Sacramento Flows
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wet Year Example:
        and refine spring and fall outflow criteria prior to             decision-tree process will end. At that point, the        and North Delta Diversions                               64,000 cfs (Jan. 21, 2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                         BDCP Maximum Diversion: 9,000 cfs
        initiating CM1 operations.                                       adaptive management and monitoring program
                                                                         will continue as the primary process for adjusting
        The decision tree process will involve the following             all aspects of the conservation strategy, including
        steps:                                                           spring and fall outflow operating criteria for dual-
           1. Clearly articulate scientific hypotheses to test           conveyance operations.                                                              Maximum Possible Diversion
                                                                                                                                                               of 9000 cfs is reached at
              the efficacy of fall and spring outflow options                                                                                                  river flows of 30,571 cfs
                                                                                                                                                              under proposed operations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           up to 9,000
               2014                            2024 through 2049                                                  2064

                                                                                                                                                       Dry Year Example:
                                                                                                                        P                         6,400 cfs (Jan. 21, 2009)                                                                                    20,000
                                                                                                                                               BDCP Maximum Diversion: 384 cfs
  BDCP Biological    Outflow Scenarios,                            Dual                 Ecosystem and              Permits                                                                              1,600–7,000
    Goals and     Habitat Improvement, and                      Conveyance              Fish Population             Expire                                                            900–3,000                                                             15,000
    Objectives    Other Stressors Measures                      Operations               Improvement                                                                                  Diversions

                                             FISH POPULATIONS                                                                                                  0–540
                                                                 Ecosystem and                                                                                                                                                                            5,000
                                                                 Species Response                                                      Diversion                                                                                                                    Sacramento
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                River Flows (cfs)

 32 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Conservation Strategy 33
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               December 2013
                                                                                                                                                             Fish Passage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Proposed locations for each
                                                                                                                                                              3-1   Permanent Fish Passage Improvements – To provide adult                      3-1 3-2 3-3                         action. Some locations are
        CM2|habitat                                                                                                                                          fish passage, smaller gated structures would be built, with at least one             1-1 2-1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    general or approximate.
                                                                                                                                                             on the west side of Fremont Weir. These structures would be operated
        Yolo Bypass Fishery                                                                                                                                  for fish passage for a wider period of time than the inundation notch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2-2         3-5
        Enhancement                                                                                                                                          would be operated. Because these structures would be smaller than the
                                                                                                                                                             inundation notch, their impacts to other land uses within the Bypass
                                                                                                                                                             would be minimal to nonexistent.

        Through CM2, the BDCP proposes actions to enhance habitat for covered fish
                                                                                                                                                              3-2  Early Action Fish Passage Improvements – Modifications
        species by modifying Yolo Bypass hydrology and habitat to:                                             CM2 also addresses other issues               to the Fremont Weir may help improve fish passage while larger

          • Increase and improve spawning           • Increase food web production
                                                                                                               such as flood, agriculture, terrestrial       modifications are planned and designed. The existing Denil fish ladder
                                                                                                               habitat, vector control, recreation, and      in Fremont Weir could be modified by removing wooden baffles to
            and rearing habitat for                   and availability                                                                                       test whether the modification would allow passage for sturgeon and
                                                                                                               educational activities. Local landowners                                                                                                            3-5
            some covered fish species               • Reduce stranding and illegal                                                                           salmon. Wedge-shaped sturgeon ramps also could be built into the
                                                                                                               and stakeholders have provided input
          • Improve upstream and                      harvest of covered fish species                          on operational considerations related to      edges of the Fremont Weir, potentially enabling sturgeon to ascend it.
            downstream fish passage                 • Reduce exposure of covered                               fishery, agricultural, and waterfowl needs.                                                                                                                                  3-4
                                                                                                                                                              3-3   Stilling Basin Modification – As an early action or as part of
                                                      salmonids to predators                                                                                 overall design, modify the existing Fremont Weir stilling basin to ensure
        Key Elements of the Measure*:                                                                                                                        that the basin drains sufficiently toward the new passage facilities.
        Early Fish Protective Actions                                                                                                                        Effective drainage of the stilling basin would prevent stranding of
                                                                                                                                                             juvenile and adult fish as the floodplain empties.
         1-1   Accelerate Fish Rescue – Provide funding to                       1-3  Expanded Fish Rearing Project – Support fish
        detect and rescue stranded fish at Fremont Weir until fish              rearing studies at Knaggs Ranch, to explore cooperative land                  3-4 Sacramento Weir Improvements – Make physical
        passage measures are determined to be successful.                       use opportunities Initial studies indicate fish rearing in the               modifications to reduce juvenile fish stranding and, if necessary,                                     2-1
                                                                                bypass is compatible with farming.                                           construct fish passage facilities at Sacramento Weir. These                                            2-3
         1-2   Monitor and Research – Conduct monitoring                                                                                                     improvements could be built in conjunction with modifications of the                                   2-4
        and research activities to support the adaptive                                                                                                                                                                                               3-6
                                                                                                                                                             Sacramento Weir and Yolo Bypass to reduce flood risk, as considered in
        management program.                                                                                                                                  other major planning processes.

        Moving Fish and Water into and around the Bypass                                                                                                      3-5    Tule Canal/Toe Drain and Lisbon Weir
                                                                                                                                                                    Improvements – Improve the hydrologic connectivity of the
         2-1   Manage Extended Inflows to Bypass Through                         2-3   Potential Yolo Bypass Modifications – Make additional
                                                                                                                                                             Tule Canal/Toe Drain by modifying road crossings and agricultural
               New Gated Channels at Fremont Weir –                             localized modifications to optimize benefits to covered fish species
                                                                                                                                                             impoundments, to reduce the delay, stranding, and loss of migrating
        Construct gated channels through the Fremont Weir to                    in the Bypass and to limit impacts to land use. Add, remove, or
                                                                                                                                                             salmon, steelhead, and sturgeon. Modify Lisbon Weir to improve
        increase the frequency, extent, and duration of seasonal                modify berms, levees, and water control structures. Construct
                                                                                                                                                             fish passage while maintaining or improving water management for
        inundation of floodplain habitat in the Yolo Bypass for                 terraces or modify agricultural channels and control structures to                                                                                                                3-6
                                                                                improve distribution and hydrodynamic characteristics of water               irrigation.
        the benefit of covered fish species. The channels would
        connect to the existing low-flow channel of the Bypass.                 moving through the Yolo Bypass. Modifications may also reduce                 3-6 Lower Putah Creek Improvements – In concert with planning sponsored by the Ecosystem Restoration Program,
        The gates would control flows into the Bypass when the                  fish stranding, improve land access, help maintain agricultural
                                                                                                                                                             realign Lower Putah Creek within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area to improve upstream and downstream passage of salmon
        weir is not overtopping. The gates would be designed                    productivity, or provide additional operating flexibility.
                                                                                                                                                             and steelhead and to provide enhanced floodplain habitat.
        and operated to provide for upstream and downstream                       2-4 Operational Criteria – Develop operational criteria to
        passage of salmon, steelhead, sturgeon, and lamprey
        between the Yolo Bypass and the Sacramento River                        optimize benefits for covered fish while minimizing negative                    Historic floodplain in the Central Valley has been              the functions of floodplain habitat, giving adult
        without interfering with flood control functions and                    effects to existing uses. Criteria would govern how water and
                                                                                fish passage facilities would be operated to manage the timing,
                                                                                                                                                                significantly reduced over the last two centuries.              fish an improved migratory corridor, increasing
        operations. Localized levee and drainage improvements
                                                                                frequency, extent, and duration of inundation in the Yolo Bypass                The resulting loss of fish spawning and rearing                 and improving spawning, and giving young fish
        will be made if necessary.
                                                                                to minimize negative effects to other uses such as agriculture,                 habitat, fish migration corridors, and food web                 an opportunity to grow larger, healthier, and
         2-2 Local Irrigation Improvements – Identify                           hunting, waterfowl habitat, environmental education, and wildlife               production have significantly affected the ability              stronger before they return to the Sacramento
        appropriate improvements, such as to the Yolo Bypass                    viewing. Working with water levels upstream in the Sacramento                   of threatened and endangered fish species to                    River, the Delta, and the ocean.
        Wildlife Area water supply or provide fish screens for                  River, inundation events could be extended, and new, smaller
                                                                                inundation events could be created. Once implemented,
                                                                                                                                                                survive and thrive.
        small Yolo Bypass diversions. The desirability of using                                                                                                                                                                 Ultimately, improving flows, passage, food
        supplemental flows through Knights Landing Ridge Cut                    monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of operations
                                                                                                                                                                The fundamental purpose of CM2 is to boost                      production, and access to habitat in the Yolo
        also will be evaluated.                                                 would guide any recommended changes through adaptive
                                                                                management.                                                                     survival rates of migratory fish by moving                      Bypass will support the recovery and resiliency
                                                                                                                                                                enough water into the Yolo Bypass to restore                    of migratory fish species.

                            * Further evaluation is required to select the final set of actions to be implemented. Together, the selected actions will
 34 Conservation Strategy     meet or exceed the fish benefits attributed to this conservation measure. Further environmental review will be needed.                                                                                                                                 Conservation Strategy 35
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      December 2013

        CM3|habitat                                                                                                                  CM4|habitat
        Natural Communities Protection                                                                                               Tidal Natural
        and Restoration                                                                                                              Communities Restoration

        CM3 would involve acquiring 69,275 acres for             Lands for the reserve system would be secured                       CM4 would restore 65,000 acres of freshwater and       The tidal habitat restoration targets would be
        protection to establish a habitat reserve system. This   through a variety of mechanisms, including, but not                 brackish tidal habitat, including at least 55,000      phased on the following schedule:
        reserve system would:                                    limited to:                                                         acres of tidal perennial aquatic, tidal mudflat,
                                                                                                                                                                                               • 19,150 acres restored within the first 10 years
                                                                                                                                     tidal freshwater emergent wetland, and tidal
          • Protect and enhance areas of existing natural          • Purchasing in fee title                                                                                                     of BDCP implementation
                                                                                                                                     brackish emergent wetland natural communities.
            communities and covered species habitat                • Purchasing or applying permanent conservation                                                                             • 29,800 acres (cumulative) restored by year 15
                                                                                                                                     The remaining 10,000 acres would consist of
          • Protect and maintain existing covered plant              easements                                                                                                                 • 65,000 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40
                                                                                                                                     transitional uplands to accommodate sea level rise.
            species                                                • Changing federally or state-owned lands to more
                                                                                                                                     The tidal natural communities’ restoration would       Of the total 55,000-acre target for tidally influenced
          • Provide habitat among the lands in the reserve           protective land use designation
                                                                                                                                     be focused within Restoration Opportunity Areas        natural communities, 20,600 acres must occur in
            system, and connectivity to existing conservation      • Enacting permanent agreements with state,
                                                                                                                                     (ROAs) 1 through 5 (shown below).                      particular ROAs, as shown in the map on the left.
            lands inside and outside the Plan Area                   federal, and local agencies to restore, enhance,
                                                                                                                                                                                            The remaining 44,400 acres would be distributed
                                                                     and manage public lands in the reserve system
                                                                                                                                                                                            among the ROAs, or outside the ROAs to meet
                                                                   • Purchasing mitigation credits from mitigation
                                                                                                                                                                                            biological goals and objectives. Restoration
                                                                                                                                                                                            actions would be implemented by the BDCP
                                                                 CM3 also provides general guidelines for natural                                                                           Implementation Office based on land availability,
                                                                 community restoration that applies to all restoration
                                                                                                                                 Restoration                                                biological value, opportunities for meeting
                                                                 conservation measures (CM4-CM11). Additional
                                                                                                                                 Opportunity                                                biological goals and objectives, and practicability.
                                                                 land would need to be acquired to enable some
                                                                 restoration, as described for each restoration
                                                                 conservation measure.                                                                                                                                 Tidal Restoration Targets by ROA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total        Restoration
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ROA                            Acreage
                                                                 Coordination with                                                                                       2                                                                       (percentage
                                                                                                                                 3                                                                                                               of total area)
                                                                 Regional Conservation Plans
                                                                                                                                                                                              1     Yolo Bypass/Cache Slough        49,167           10%
                                                                 Where regional conservation plans overlap with or adjoin                                                                     2     Cosumnes/Mokelumne               7,805           19%
                                                                 the	Plan	Area,	the	BDCP	would	collaborate	and	coordinate	                                    4                               3     Suisun Marsh                    82,970            8%
                                                                 with the sponsors of those regional conservation plans on the                                                                4     West Delta                       6,178           34%
                                                                 acquisition, restoration, and management of habitat lands
                                                                                                                                                                                              5     South Delta                     39,969           13%
                                                                 within areas common to both plans. Where mutually beneficial,
                                                                 the BDCP would encourage joint acquisitions of land with                                                                  The	remaining	acreage	would	be	distributed	among	the	ROAs,	or	
                                                                 local government plan sponsors to leverage opportunities                                                                  outside	the	ROAs,	as	needed	to	meet	biological	goals	and	objectives.
                                                                 and to secure large, contiguous blocks of habitat. The BDCP                                                 5
                                                                 would explore opportunities to fund habitat acquisition and/
              BDCP Plan Area                                                                                                             BDCP Plan Area
                                                                 or restoration actions that may benefit the BDCP and other
                                                                 regional conservation plans.

 36 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Conservation Strategy 37
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                        December 2013

                            CM5|habitat                                                                                       CM6|habitat
                            Seasonally Inundated                                                                              Channel Margin
                            Floodplain Restoration                                                                            Enhancement

                                                            CM5 would restore 10,000 acres of seasonally         CM6 would restore 20 linear miles of channel                 The channel margin habitat enhancement activities
    Although seasonally inundated floodplains may be        inundated floodplain, on the following schedule:     margin habitat to improve habitat conditions along           would be accomplished on the following schedule to
    restored along channels in the north, east, and south     • At least 1,000 acres restored by year 15         important juvenile salmon migration routes.                  reach a total of 20 enhanced miles:
    Delta, the most promising opportunities for large-          of BDCP implementation
    scale floodplain restoration are in the south Delta.                                                         Actions to enhance channel margin habitats may                 • At least 10 miles by year 10 of BDCP
                                                              • 10,000 acres (cumulative) by year 40
                                                                                                                 include the following, depending on site conditions:             implementation
                                                            The most promising opportunities would be                                                                           • 5 additional miles by year 20
                                                                                                                   • Modify levees or construct setback levees to
                                                            chosen based on benefits to covered species,                                                                        • 5 additional miles by year 30
                                                                                                                     create low benches
                                                            feasibility, and compatibility with ongoing
                                                                                                                   • Plant riparian and emergent vegetation on
                                                            agricultural uses and potential flood control
                                                                                                                     constructed benches
                                                            projects. Actions to restore seasonally inundated
                                                                                                                   • Install large woody debris (LWD)
                                                            floodplain habitats may include, but are not
                                                                                                                     (e.g., tree trunks
                                                            limited to:
                                                                                                                     and stumps)
                                                               • Acquiring lands, in fee title or through
                                                                                                                     into benches or                                                          Enhancement
                                                                 conservation easements
                                                                                                                     existing riprapped                                           Flood Plain Bench
                                                               • Creating and expanding floodway bypasses
                                                                 to expand river floodplain habitat and                                                                   Native Emergent      Native Riparian   Grass-Levee         Top of
                                                                 redirect flood flows                                                                                    Wetland Vegetation     Vegetation          Slope            Levee
                                                               • Setting back levees and removing or
                                                                 breaching levees
                                                               • Removing existing riprap or other bank
                                                               • Modifying channels in unconfined reaches
                                                                 or where levees are set back to create                                                                           Existing                                      Levee
                                                                 habitat for salmon and splittail                                                                                (example)
                                                                                                                                              Winter/Spring Water Line
                                                               • Grading restored floodplain surfaces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Soil and Revetment
                                                               • Lowering restored floodplain elevation         Channel margin restoration    Summer/Fall Water Line
                                                               • Allowing riparian vegetation to naturally          improves habitat while
                                                                                                                maintaining levee integrity
                                                                 establish on the floodplain where farming is                                                                                   LWD Countersunk into Stream Bank (example)
                                                                 no longer feasible or compatible                                                                                  Revetment                                      Not to Scale
                                                               • Continuing farming practices and crop types
                                                                 that provide high benefits for covered fish     Channel margin enhancement actions would be located only along channels that provide
                                                                 species                                         rearing and outmigration habitat for juvenile salmon. Channels targeted for action include the
                                                                                                                 Sacramento River between Freeport and Walnut Grove, the San Joaquin River between Vernalis
                                                                                                                 and Mossdale, and Steamboat and Sutter sloughs.

 38 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                      Conservation Strategy 39
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

        CM7|habitat                                                                                                 CM8|habitat
        Riparian Natural                                                                                            Grassland Natural
        Community Restoration                                                                                       Community Restoration

        CM7 would restore 5,000 acres of native riparian    Actions to restore riparian forest and scrub, as        CM8 would restore 2,000 acres of grassland and        The most strategically important areas for
        forest and scrub, mostly in association with the    appropriate to site-specific conditions, include, but   protect 8,000 acres to achieve biological goals and   restoration are:
        restoration of seasonally inundated floodplain,     are not limited to:                                     objectives for covered species. Actions to design
                                                                                                                                                                           • Grasslands in CZs 1 and 11 that may be
        tidal, and channel margin habitat, on the                                                                   and locate restored grassland habitat would:
                                                              • Planting native riparian vegetation                                                                          connected with larger expanses in the Jepson
        following schedule:
                                                              • Connecting existing habitat along riparian           • Support habitat for associated covered species        Prairie area
          • 1,100 acres by year 15 of BDCP implementation       corridors                                            • Improve connectivity among existing patches         • Grasslands in CZ8 that may be connected to
          • 5,000 acres (cumulative) by year 40               • Maintaining plantings                                  of grassland and other natural habitats               the west and southwest of the Plan Area
                                                              • Controlling invasive nonnative plants                • Improve native wildlife habitat functions of        • Uplands adjacent to restored tidal brackish
        Riparian forest and scrub would be restored
                                                                                                                       transitional uplands adjacent to BDCP-restored        emergent wetlands in Suisun Marsh
        to include the range of necessary conditions
                                                                                                                       tidal habitats                                      • Areas adjacent to restored freshwater
        to support habitat for the riparian-associated
                                                                                                                                                                             emergent wetland
        covered species. Riparian restoration sites would                                                           Restoration would be phased on the following
        be prioritized to improve linkages to allow                                                                 schedule:
        terrestrial covered and other native species to
                                                                                                                     • 1,140 acres restored by year 10 of BDCP
        move between protected habitats within and
        adjacent to the Plan Area.
                                                                                                                     • 2,000 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40

 40 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                       Conservation Strategy 41
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013

       CM9|habitat                                                  CM10|habitat                                                                                                      CM11|habitat
       Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal                              Nontidal                                                                                                          Natural Communities Enhancement
       Wetland Complex Restoration                                  Marsh Restoration                                                                                                 and Management

        Under CM9, vernal pool complexes and alkali              CM10 would restore 1,200 acres of nontidal               Actions to restore nontidal freshwater marsh,               CM11 consists of the preparation and implementation
        seasonal wetland complexes in CZs 1, 8, or 11            freshwater wetland within CZs 2, 4, and/or 5 on the      as appropriate to site-specific conditions would            of management plans for protected natural
        would be restored to achieve no net loss of              following schedule:                                      include:                                                    communities and covered species habitats throughout
        vernal pool and alkali seasonal wetland acreage                                                                                                                               the reserve system. CM11 provides for the monitoring
                                                                  • 400 acres restored by year 10 of BDCP                  • Securing sufficient annual water to sustain
        from covered activities. The restored vernal pool                                                                                                                             and maintenance of restoration sites in perpetuity. The
                                                                    Implementation                                           habitat function
        complex would consist of vernal pools and swales                                                                                                                              management plans developed under CM11 provide
                                                                  • 600 acres restored by year 20                          • Establishing connectivity with existing
        within a larger matrix of grasslands. Similarly, the                                                                                                                          assurance that the BDCP reserve system will continue
                                                                  • 1,200 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40             irrigation and drainage conveyance system
        alkali seasonal wetland complex would consist                                                                                                                                 to function as intended. The content of these plans will
                                                                                                                             and giant garter snake habitat
        of alkali seasonal wetlands within a larger matrix       CM10 would also create 500 acres of managed                                                                          include:
                                                                                                                           • Preparing site for planting native marsh
        of grasslands. Specific restoration sites would be       wetlands consisting of greater sandhill crane roosting      vegetation, and maintaining plantings                      • Biological goals and objectives to be achieved
        selected based on the suitability of available lands     habitat in the Greater Sandhill Crane Winter Use Area     • Controlling invasive nonnative plants                        with the enhancement and management of
        for restoration, biological value, and practicability.   in CZs 3, 4, 5, or 6 on the following schedule:
                                                                                                                                                                                          the reserves
        In conjunction with protection of 600 acres
                                                                  • 250 acres restored during years 1 through 5                                                                         • Vegetation management actions that benefit
        of vernal pool complex and 150 acres of alkali
                                                                                                                            Expanding Sandhill Crane Habitat                              covered communities, habitats, and species
        seasonal wetland complex, restoration actions               of BDCP implementation
                                                                  • 250 acres restored during years 6 through 10            The greater sandhill crane, one of the oldest                 and reduce fuel loads as appropriate
        would contribute to the establishment of a large,
                                                                                                                            living bird species, winters in California’s Central        • Infrastructure, hazards, and easements
        interconnected vernal pool complex and alkali
                                                                 Restored nontidal marsh would consist of two blocks:                                                                   • Existing land uses and management practices
        seasonal wetland complex reserve in the Plan Area.                                                                  Valley with one of the greatest concentrations in
                                                                 600 acres in CZ 2 outside the Yolo Bypass, and 600         the central east Delta. The cranes roost in habitat         • Terms and conditions of conservation
        The amount of vernal pool complex restoration            acres in CZs 4 or 5 or both, contiguous with 1,500         consisting of wetlands or flooded agricultural fields.        easements when applicable
        would be determined during implementation                acres of rice land or equivalent protected or restored                                                                 • Management actions and schedules
                                                                 giant garter snake habitat. While restored nontidal        In addition to the restoration identified in CM10,
        based on the following criteria:                                                                                                                                                • Monitoring requirements and schedules
                                                                 marsh would be designed and managed primarily to           the BDCP includes a comprehensive strategy for
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Established data and report preservation,
             • If restoration is completed prior to impacts,                                                                contributing to the species’ recovery. Construction
                                                                 support giant garter snake, CM10 would also support                                                                      indexing, and repository protocols
               then 1.0 wetted acre of vernal pools would                                                                   and operation of conveyance facilities would
                                                                 other native wildlife functions, including waterfowl                                                                   • Adaptive management approach
               be restored for each wetted acre directly                                                                    be designed to avoid and minimize impacts to
                                                                 foraging, resting, and brood habitat and shorebird
                                                                                                                            the crane. To ensure that the important crane
               affected (1:1 ratio).                             foraging and roosting habitat.                                                                                       CM11 provides extensive details as guidance for
                                                                                                                            population on Staten Island is unharmed by
                                                                                                                                                                                      the preparation and implementation of these
             • If restoration takes place concurrent with                                                                   construction, the plan commits to a performance
                                                                                                                                                                                      management and enhancement actions.
               impacts, then 1.5 wetted acres of vernal pools                                                               standard of no net loss of crane use days on Staten
               would be restored for each wetted                                                                            Island. This standard would be achieved through a
               acre directly affected (1.5:1 ratio).                                                                        number of avoidance and minimization measures.

                                                                                                                                                                    Sandhill Cranes

 42 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                                   Conservation Strategy 43
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                December 2013

        CM12|other stressors                                 CM13|other stressors                                      CM14|other stressors
        Methylmercury                                        Invasive Aquatic                                          Stockton DWSC
        Management                                           Vegetation Control                                        Dissolved Oxygen Levels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Chinook Salmon

        CM12 is focused on minimizing conditions that        CM13 would control the growth of invasive                 The 7.5-mile low dissolved oxygen area of the              above levels that impair covered fish species
        promote production of methylmercury in restored      aquatic vegetation, such as Brazilian waterweed           Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC) creates            between Turner Cut and Stockton. As needed,
        tidal natural community areas. Mercury is present    (Egeria densa), water hyacinth, and other                 a barrier for upstream migration of adult fall-run         the existing aeration facility would be modified
        in sediments and soils throughout the Delta.         nonnative submerged and floating aquatic                  Chinook salmon and Central Valley steelhead.               with the addition of aerators and associated
        Mercury can be converted to methylmercury            vegetation. CM13 would rely on existing control           Low dissolved oxygen levels can also cause                 infrastructure. The BDCP would share in funding
        under conditions often found in wetland soils.       methods used by the California Division of                physiological stress on and mortality of fish.             the long-term operation and maintenance costs
        High concentrations of methylmercury in the Delta    Boating and Waterways Egeria Densa and Water                                                                         associated with the aeration system within 1 year
                                                                                                                       CM14 provides funding to ensure that the Stockton
        cause adverse effects to covered fish and wildlife   Hyacinth Control Programs. The primary control                                                                       of BDCP implementation.
                                                                                                                       DWSC Aeration Facility continues to operate
        species.                                             method would be the application of herbicides as
                                                                                                                       to maintain dissolved oxygen concentrations
                                                             specific as possible to species and site conditions.
        Tidal marsh restoration may elevate the
                                                             Limited mechanical removal of invasive
        production of methylmercury in the Delta.
                                                             vegetation also would be used. Other removal
        Restoration projects under CM4 would include
                                                             methods could be implemented depending on
        project-specific methylmercury management
                                                             site-specific conditions, current research, and
        plans that would include the following
                                                             intended outcomes. An early detection and rapid
                                                             response program would be implemented, and
          • A review of available information on mercury     restoration sites would be designed to minimize
            levels expected in site sediments                the risk of invasive vegetation establishment and
          • A determination if sampling mercury
            concentrations and/or post-restoration
            monitoring is warranted

          • A plan for conducting sampling if
            characterization sampling is recommended

          • Actions such as capping mercury-laden
            sediments and/or minimizing microbial
            methylation by using livestock grazing to
            reduce loads of organic matter prior to
            flooding                                                                                                Conservation Measures Promoting Species Recovery by Focusing on Other Stressors
        The recommendations of each project-specific                                                                An important component of the BDCP Conservation Strategy consists of measures that seek to reduce the direct
        methylmercury management plan would be                                                                      and indirect adverse effects of other stressors on the ecological functions of the Delta, covered species, and natural
        incorporated into each restoration plan (CM4) and                                                           communities. A number of factors have been identified that adversely affect covered fish species through their impact
        its implementation.                                                                                         on the species themselves, prey resources, or habitat conditions. Implementation of conservation measures addressing
                                                                                                                    these other stressors is expected to reduce adverse effects on, or improve productivity for, covered species. CMs 12
                                                                                                                    through 21 focus on actions to reduce other stressors.
 44 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                              Conservation Strategy 45
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                               December 2013

        CM15|other stressors
                                                               CM16|other stressors                                                                  CM17|other stressors
        Localized Reduction of
        Predatory Fishes                                       Nonphysical Fish Barriers                                                             Illegal Harvest Reduction

        The primary purpose of CM15 is to improve              CM16 would use nonphysical                                                            CM17 would reduce illegal harvest of Chinook
        abundance and passage of covered fish species          barriers to redirect juvenile fish                  Delta Cross                       salmon, Central Valley steelhead, and sturgeon by
        by locally reducing nonnative predatory fishes.        away from channels and river                        Channel                           providing funding to increase the enforcement
        CM15 would temporarily reduce populations              reaches in which survival is lower                                                    of fishing regulations in the Delta and bays.
        of nonnative predatory fish species at specific        than in alternate routes. This                                                        With this funding, CDFW would hire and equip
        locations and eliminate or reduce the suitability      measure is expected to benefit                                                        17 additional game wardens and 7 supervisory
        of habitat at predation “hotspots.” CM15 would         only salmon. The barriers would                                                       and administrative staff to support existing
        seek to reduce mortality rates of the life stages      use a combination of sound,                                                           field wardens, with full increase in enforcement
        of covered fish that are particularly vulnerable to    light, and bubbles. Funding is                      Georgiana Slough                  beginning by year 3 of BDCP implementation.
                                                                                                                   Nonphysical Barrier
        predatory fish, such as migrating juvenile salmon.     provided for an estimated seven
        Because predators are a natural part of the Delta      barriers to be constructed and
        ecosystem, CM15 is not intended to entirely            operated. Likely sites include Head
        remove predators at any location, or substantially     of Old River, Delta Cross Channel,
        alter the abundance of predators at the scale of the   Georgiana Slough, and possibly
        Delta ecosystem. This conservation measure will        Turner Cut and Columbia Cut.
        not remove fish-eating birds or mammals, which
        are native predators.

        Implementation of CM15 would include                                                           Columbia Cut
        experimental treatments at priority hotspots,                                                  Nonphysical Barrier
        monitoring effectiveness, assessing outcomes, and                                                     Turner Cut
        revising operations with guidance from the BDCP                                                       Nonphysical Barrier
        Adaptive Management Team. Potential methods
        of reducing predatory fish populations include
        electrofishing, passive trapping, active capture,
        and predatory lottery fishing tournaments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Delta Smelt
                                                                                                                                 Head of Old River
                                                                                                                                 Operable Barrier     Nonphysical fish barriers would be used October through June,
                                                                                                                                                      when fish are present, to direct fish away from rivers and channels
                                                                                                                                                      where mortality is high. While more research is needed to confirm
                                                                                                                                                      results, DWR’s pilot study on Georgiana Slough saw a two-thirds
                                                                              Nonphysical barrier at                                                  reduction in entrtainment using a combination of sound, lights,
                                                                                 Georgiana Slough                                                     and bubbles to deter fish from entering the channel.

 46 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                            Conservation Strategy 47
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                        December 2013

        CM18|other stressors                                                                                        CM19|other stressors                                  CM20|other stressors
        Conservation                                                                                                Urban Stormwater                                      Recreational Users Invasive
        Hatcheries                                                                                                  Treatment                                             Species Program

        CM18 would establish new and expand existing           • Expanding the refugial population of delta         To implement stormwater management action,            CM20 would provide funding to introduce and
        conservation propagation programs for delta and          smelt and establish similar population of          CM19 would provide grant funding to public            implement the Delta Recreational Users Invasive
        longfin smelt, including:                                longfin smelt at the University of California,     agencies, cities, and counties where stormwater       Species Program to help prevent the introduction
                                                                 Davis Fish Conservation and Culture                drains into Delta waterways. Features to be funded    of new aquatic invasive species and reduce the
          • Continuing development of a USFWS delta
                                                                 Laboratory in Byron                                may include:                                          spread of existing aquatic invasive species within
            and longfin smelt conservation hatchery to
                                                                                                                                                                          the Plan Area. The program would consist of
            house a delta smelt refugial population and       CM18 does not propose reintroduction of either         • Retention or irrigation holding ponds for the
                                                                                                                                                                          education, outreach, and watercraft inspection at
            provide a source of Delta and longfin smelt for   species into the wild. But the hatchery stock would      capture and irrigation use of stormwater
                                                                                                                                                                          selected recreational facilities.
            experimentation                                   be available for this purpose if it was deemed
                                                                                                                     • Vegetated buffer strips to slow runoff and
                                                              necessary in the future.
                                                                                                                       capture sediments and pollutants from

                                                                                                                     • Bioretention systems (e.g., grass buffer strips,
                                                                                                                       sand beds, ponding areas, mulch layers)
                                                                                                                       to slow runoff and remove pollutants from

                                                                                                                     • Stormwater curb extensions adjacent to
                                                                                                                       commercial businesses that are likely to
                                                                                                                       contribute oil and grease runoff

                                                                                                                     • Stormwater media filters to remove
                                                                                                                       particulates and pollutants

                                                                                                                     • Moisture monitors on commercial sprinkler
                                                                                                                       systems to eliminate unnecessary watering

                                                                                                                     • In lieu of new storm drain connections for new
                                                                                                                       construction, use on-site infiltration systems,
                                                                                                                       such as pervious pavement in place of asphalt
                                                                                                                       and concrete, and downspout disconnections
                                                                                                                       to redirect roof water to vegetation or cisterns
                                                                                                                       on existing developments

 48 Conservation Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                      Conservation Strategy 49
December 2013                                                                                                                                   December 2013

        CM21|other stressors                                   CM22|avoidance and
        Nonproject Diversions                                  minimization
        CM21 would fund actions to reduce potential            Avoidance and Minimization
        entrainment of covered fish that may result from       Measures
        the operation of diversions in the Plan Area not       CM22 would implement measures to avoid
        associated with the SWP or CVP. Funding would          and minimize effects on covered species and
        support the following actions:                         natural communities that could result from BDCP
          • Creating a technical support team to               activities. CM22 helps satisfy ESA and NCCPA
            inventory and prioritize candidate projects        regulatory requirements, and would minimize
                                                               adverse effects on natural communities, covered
          • Developing a remediation program for               species and their critical habitat, and jurisdictional
            willing landowners to fund and permit the          wetlands and waters throughout the Plan Area.
            construction of remediation projects of            Specific measures would be developed for each
            unscreened diversions                              BDCP project. General avoidance and minimization
                                                               measures during construction include:
          • Prioritizing projects consistent with the
            Anadromous Fish Screen Program and Fish              • Training workers
            Screen and Passage Program, including:
                                                                 • Having qualified biologists monitor
                  - Funding and technical assistance               construction
                  - Assessment of fish entrainment
                    monitoring at unscreened diversions          • Implementing best management practices
                  - Construction of fish screens at selected       to avoid adverse effects such as erosion,
                    diversions to reduce impacts to covered        sedimentation, contaminant spills, and
                    fish                                           encroachment of equipment into adjacent

                                                                 • Restoring temporarily degraded or removed
                                                                   natural communities

                                                                 • Restricting activity in certain seasons in
                                                                   sensitive areas

                                                                 • Avoiding or minimizing fish stranding during

                                                                 • During the planning phase, conducting
                                                                   surveys in the project footprint to assess plant
                                                                   and wildlife habitat and implement protective
                                                                   measures as necessary

                                                                                                                        Western Burrowing Owl
 50 Conservation Strategy
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

                         EXPECTED OUTCOMES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  American White Pelican

                                                                                                                      Tools Used to Develop the Effects Analysis
  Covered species are    The BDCP conservation measures are            The effects analysis presents a systematic,    The BDCP EA uses literature reviews and a total of 68 environmental and biological models to
  a special group of     expected to benefit 56 species, 11 of         scientific evaluation of the potential         determine net effects. Chapter 5 of the public Draft BDCP provides the full list of models used. The
  species, all native    them fish, and 14 natural communities,        beneficial, adverse, and net effects of the    following is a brief description of the types of models used in the EA.
  to the Delta, that     and reduce the effects of a broad range of    BDCP on biological resources. The effects
                                                                                                                      Conceptual Models                                       Environmental Models
  have been imperiled    ecological stressors in the Delta. Based on   analysis also provides state and federal
  by past human          the effects analysis the BDCP will conserve   fish and wildlife agencies with information    Conceptual models organize information                  Environmental models set the stage for the
  activities. The BDCP   all 56 species covered by the Plan. State     needed to consider issuance of permits         within a logical structure that provides a              analysis of biological effects by describing
  includes goals and     and federal fish and wildlife agencies will   and authorizations for the BDCP.               plausible explanation for a phenomenon. A               key physical conditions, including flow,
  objectives designed    further review this information before                                                       conceptual model describes key attributes,              temperature, salinity, and turbidity.
                                                                       A broad range of analytical tools, including   linkages, and structure associated with an
  to contribute to       making permit determinations under
                                                                       hydrologic and hydrodynamic models,            issue. Conceptual models explicitly lay out             Biological Models
  the protection,        NCCPA and ESA.
                                                                       temperature models, water quality models,      assumptions and logic underlying arguments              Biological models link environmental change,
  conservation, and
                         The expected outcomes of BDCP                 biological lifecycle models, habitat models,   and assessments and are commonly used                   often characterized by the environmental
  recovery of these
                         implementation are analyzed and               conceptual models, and literature reviews      as a first step in developing qualitative or            models, to change in biological performance.
                         described in Chapter 5, Effects Analysis,     were used to assess the effects of BDCP        quantitative models.                                    Biological performance is typically measured
                         of the public Draft BDCP, which reflects      activities on covered species and natural                                                              as a change in abundance, survival, or physical
  Chapter 9 of the       extensive scientific study throughout         communities over the 50-year BDCP              Qualitative models                                      impact, such as the percentage of a species life
  public Draft BDCP      the Delta region. The effects analysis        implementation period.                                                                                 stage entrained in pumps.
  includes an analysis                                                                                                Qualitative models likewise describe a logical
                         describes how implementation of all
  of the water                                                                                                        relationship between variables. These models            Habitat Suitability Models
                         22 conservation measures and covered
  supply reliability                                                                                                  are often used to develop working hypotheses
                         activities would affect ecosystems, natural   The effects analysis is long and very                                                                  Habitat suitability models evaluate multiple
  benefits and                                                                                                        of how a particular system works.
                         communities, and covered species in the       complex due to:                                                                                        attributes of the environment as habitat for the
  estimated annual       Plan Area. Proposed actions will result                                                      Quantitative models                                     various life stages of species.
  water deliveries       in fundamental, systemic, and long-term         • Size of the Plan Area
                                                                         • Large number of natural                    Quantitative models are used to understand              Population and Life History Models
  of BDCP. For more      physical changes to the Delta. These
                                                                           communities and covered species            environmental and biological functions. These
  information, see       changes include substantial alterations to                                                                                                           Life history models integrate the effects of
                                                                           addressed by the Plan                      models reflect a conceptual understanding of
  the Alternative        water conveyance and management and                                                                                                                  multiple stressors across multiple life stages
                                                                         • Scale of covered activities                the relationship between attributes, processes,
  BDCP Approaches        extensive restoration of tidal, floodplain,                                                                                                          to evaluate impacts of actions at population
                                                                         • Duration of BDCP implementation            and outcomes. Quantitative models are
  section beginning      and terrestrial communities.                                                                                                                         scales. Currently, the application of life history
                                                                           (50 years)                                 often data-intensive, requiring a great deal
  on page 96.                                                                                                                                                                 models is limited because of the difficulty in
                                                                         • High variability within the Delta          of quantitative information to develop the
                                                                                                                                                                              capturing all of the expected changes from the
                                                                           in terms of hydrology, salinity,           model, and more such information to test its
                                                                                                                                                                              BDCP in one model.
                                                                           potential impacts of climate               predictions.
                                                                           change, and more

 52 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                              Expected Outcomes 53
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                           December 2013

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chinook Salmon

        Effects Analysis on BDCP Proposed Conservation Measures
        to Improve the Delta Ecosystem

  Analytical	comparisons	in	the	effects	analysis	use	the	following	      Development of the Effects Analysis              Net Effects                                                   Environmental Baseline
  intervals	over	the	Plan’s	50-year	lifespan:                            To evaluate the effects of BDCP actions,         The BDCP EA evaluates the combined                            The biological response to BDCP conservation
                                                                         comparisons are made between an                  effects of all covered activities, including the              measures are evaluated against an environ-
  Current Conditions – Current conditions are those
                                                                         environmental baseline condition and             conservation measures, to determine the net                   mental baseline of existing biological
     that exist prior to implementation of the BDCP. Chapter 2 of the
     public Draft BDCP describes the existing ecological conditions      conditions expected to occur under BDCP.         effect of implementing the Plan for:                          conditions, such as:
     in	the	Study	Area.	                                                 The environmental baseline reflects the            •   Ecosystems and landscapes                                • Current regulatory requirements such as
                                                                         existing or pre-implementation condition in        •   Natural communities                                        Biological Opinions
  Near-Term (NT) Conditions – NT conditions are expected under           the Plan Area. The effects analysis compares       •   Covered plants and wildlife                              • Extent of species habitats
     the	BDCP	in	the	first	10	years	of	implementation.	During	this	      all conservation measures at various               •   Covered fish                                             • Water quality and pollutant inputs
     period, the BDCP is expected to address a substantial portion of    times during BDCP implementation. As
     the planned aquatic and terrestrial restoration with associated                                                                                                                     • Water temperatures
                                                                         required by the ESA, the effects analysis also   To calculate the net effects, different methods
     improvements	in	water	quality	and	food	production.	Also	                                                                                                                            • Flow
                                                                         describes the level of take (loss, harm, or      were developed for each of the categories
     during this period, the new water facilities will be constructed
                                                                         harassment of species) and the effect of that    listed above. For each category, the positive
     but no new operations will occur. Climate conditions in the NT
                                                                         take from BDCP actions.                          and negative effects were combined to                           Temporary and Construction Effects
     reflect physical analysis of the 2020 conditions.
                                                                                                                          determine the overall net effect.                               The following section focuses on net effects of BDCP
  Early Long-Term (ELT) Conditions – ELT	conditions	reflect	             The BDCP conservation measures will be
                                                                                                                                                                                          actions, which include temporary and construction
      BDCP	actions	from	years	10	through	15.	During	this	period,	        implemented at different times over the          The following sections focus on the net effects
                                                                                                                                                                                          effects. For more specific information about temporary
      significant changes in the Delta environment will result from      50-year period, and according to conditions      of BDCP. For details regarding the positive
                                                                                                                                                                                          and construction-related impacts considered, see
      the	BDCP.	Operation	of	the	new	water	facility	is	expected	to	      expected at the following intervals:             and negative effects for each category, see                     Chapter	5,	Effects	Analysis,	of	the	public	Draft	BDCP.	
      begin during this period while changes to tidal, floodplain, and                                                    Chapter 5, Effects Analysis, of the public Draft                The	EIR/EIS	includes	additional	information	regarding	
      terrestrial	environments	made	during	the	first	10	years	of	BDCP	     - Current (immediately preceding               BDCP.                                                           temporary and construction impacts of BDCP actions.
      implementation	would	begin	to	mature.	ELT	climate	conditions	          BDCP implementation)
      reflect	physical	analysis	of	the	2025	conditions.                    - Within 10 years (Near Term)                           BENEFICIAL BDCP EFFECTS
                                                                           - Within 15 years (Early Long-Term)                                                                            Scientific Uncertainty
  Late Long-Term (LLT) Conditions – LLT conditions reflect full                                                                               +                                               Scientific Uncertainty
                                                                           - Within 50 years (Late Long-Term)
     implementation	of	BDCP	actions	from	years	15	through	50.	                                                                      ADVERSE BDCP EFFECTS                                  Because the Delta is an ecologically complex
                                                                                                                                                                                              Because the Delta is an ecologically
     All	planned	habitat	restoration	will	have	occurred	by	year 40,	     The effects analysis also considers climate                                                                      estuary, there is a degree of scientific uncertainty.
                                                                                                                                                                                              complex estuary, there is a degree of
     along with full application of the new water facility and           change impacts over the entire 50-year                         NET BDCP EFFECTS                                  Where a high level of uncertainty is associated with
                                                                                                                                                                                              scientific uncertainty. Where a high level
     full implementation of most other conservation measures.            implementation period.                                                                                           the potential for a conservation measure to achieve
                                                                                                                                                                                              of uncertainty is associated with the ability
     LLT climate conditions reflect physical analysis of the 2060                                                                                                                         plan objectives, that uncertainty will be addressed
                                                                                                                            To calculate the net benefit of BDCP actions, the EA              of a conservation measure to achieve plan
     conditions.                                                                                                            summarizes the positive and negative effects of the           through research, monitoring, and the adaptive
                                                                                                                                                                                              objectives, that uncertainty will be addressed
                                                                                                                            plan to determine the net effect to each covered species.     management program.
                                                                                                                                                                                              through research, monitoring, and the
                                                                                                                                                                                              adaptive management program.

 54 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                              Expected Outcomes 55
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                       December 2013

       Details about how            Climate Change                                                                     Expected Climate                                                                                  Climate Change
       climate change factors                                                                                          Change Adaptation      Description
                                    Change is natural and inevitable in the Delta. The change in the global            Benefits
       into the effects analysis
                                    climate system is one of the factors affecting the Delta in several ways.                                                                                                            Conservation
       are available in the                                                                                            Enhanced               Restoration of wetlands, floodplains, and riparian habitats will
       following appendices of      Over the last 100 years, sea level has risen approximately 0.6 feet at             ecosystem              restore ecosystem functions that benefit humans as well as species,        measures will provide
                                    the Golden Gate Bridge, and levels are expected to continue to rise. An            services               including, among others, flood control, water purification, and
       the	public	Draft	BDCP:                                                                                                                 sediment retention.                                                        numerous benefits
                                    additional increase of 1.5 feet or more by 2060 is predicted. This change                                                                                                            to the Bay-Delta
       Appendix	2.C,	Climate	                                                will cause changes in the position,       Protection from        Increased wetland plant biomass, including below-ground
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ecosystem, natural
       Change	Implications	and	                                                                                        sea level rise         production, helps to promote natural growth and the ability of the
                                                                             location and depth of tidal habitat,                             marsh to keep pace with sea level rise. A wider and more extensive         communities, and
       Assumptions,	provides            The BDCP would partially isolate                                                                      marsh plain in tidal wetlands and a wider floodplain in river systems
                                                                             and may also change tidal mixing and                                                                                                        covered species
       an overview of the               water deliveries from increasingly                                                                    increases protection of upland habitat and human structures from
                                                                             salinity patterns in the Delta. It will                          flooding and storm surges, which are predicted to worsen with              that are expected
       scientific understanding         stressed Delta levees, while using                                                                    climate change.
                                        state-of-the-art fish screens and    also increase water pressure against                                                                                                        to reduce species
       of climate change and
                                        water project operating rules that   Delta levees, potentially causing                                Marsh grasses, microalgae, phytoplankton and woody biomass                 vulnerability to the
       observed and projected                                                                                          Carbon
                                                                             instability and seepage. As warmer                               included in riparian restoration remove carbon dioxide from the
       changes anticipated in           minimize potential impacts to fish                                             sequestration and
                                                                                                                                              atmosphere. Marsh soils store carbon from marsh organisms, helping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         adverse physical and
                                                                             average temperatures push snow levels     climate change
       California and the Plan          spawning and migratory patterns.                                               mitigation             to control carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to climate             biological effects of
                                        The proposed project also would      higher in the Sierra Nevada mountain                             change.
       Area.                                                                                                                                                                                                             climate change.
                                        help California cope with changing   range, more winter precipitation will                            The brackish marshes in the North Bay and Suisun Marsh provide an
       Appendix	5.A.1,	Climate	                                                                                        Protection of
                                        weather patterns by enabling the     fall as rain. More intense storm runoff   migrating birds        important resting place for birds along the Pacific Flyway. Due to sea
       Change	Implications	for	         capture of large amounts of winter   and peak flood events will further
                                                                                                                                              level rise, these birds will experience increasing loss of mudflats used
                                                                                                                                              for forage and resting during long-distance migration. Tidal wetland
       Natural Communities              flood flow that coincide with times  stress levees. Multiple levee failures                           restoration will help to offset this habitat loss.
       and Terrestrial Species,         of more minimal ecological risk.     from a single flood are possible,
       summarizes the                   A	more	reliable	facility	would	also	                                           Increased upland       The tidal wetland restoration will have a wide upland transition area,
                                                                             depending upon water levels, tides,       transition zones
       projected effects of             boost the state’s ability to respond                                                                  providing refuge for wetland animals during extreme high tides
       climate change in                                                     wind, and other factors. The Effects                             (predicted to increase with climate change) and opportunities for
                                        to the natural differences in the                                                                     wetland migration upslope in response to sea level rise.
       California and the Plan                                               Analysis explicitly considers the
                                        amount of precipitation the state
       Area	that	are	relevant	                                               effects of climate change over the
                                        receives from one year to the next.                                                                   When wetlands behind levees dry out, the organic matter in the soil
       to the BDCP natural                                                   50-year implementation period by          Reduction in risks
                                                                                                                       of levee failure       oxidizes, which can increase subsidence. This increase can reduce
       communities and                                                       incorporating calculated assumptions                             the stability of levees and increase the risk of levee failure during
                                                                                                                                              flooding, resulting in saltwater intrusion into aquifers and farmlands.
       terrestrial	(non-fish)	      of sea level rise, temperature increase, and changes in seasonal                                          Restoration will increase wetland persistence and reduce subsidence.
       covered species.             precipitation and runoff patterns upstream of the Delta into relevant
                                                                                                                       Natural water          Improved floodplain connections to rivers will restore the ability of
                                    analyses during years 10 through 15 and years 15 through 50 of BDCP
       Appendix	5.A.2,	Climate	                                                                                        management             floodplains to absorb flood flows and provide a reservoir of water to
                                    implementation. These future conditions provide points of comparison to                                   help aquatic species withstand droughts.
       Change	Approach	and	
       Implications	for	Aquatic	    starting operations, which also include the same assumptions of climate
                                    change. Sea level is assumed to increase by 0.49 feet by the end of year 15        Increased resilience   Seasonally inundated floodplains provide more resilience to invasive
       Species, characterizes                                                                                          to threats from        species by increasing numbers and health of native species.
       the projected effects        of BDCP implementation and by 1.54 feet above present level by year 50 of          invasive species
       of climate change on         BDCP implementation.
       aquatic covered species                                                                                         Increased habitat      A mosaic of habitats that can be used by different species that have
                                    In some cases, the effects of climate change will overshadow                       variability            evolved to use specific habitats helps to support species diversity.
       (fish)	and	identifies	the	
                                    the ecological benefits of the BDCP. For example, temperature-
       approach and methods
                                    related effects modeled in the BDCP and predicted to occur                         Increased habitat      Wetland restoration will include networks of channels within
       used to incorporate                                                                                                                    marshes that are used by fish for foraging, refuge, and movement in
                                    by the end of the permit term (2064), are caused solely or                         complexity
                                                                                                                                              and out of the marsh. Currently, such channel networks are rare.
       climate change into the
                                    substantially by climate change.
       BDCP models.                                                                                                                           Protection and restoration of a variety of natural communities
                                                                                                                       Increased habitat
                                                                                                                       patch size and         will increase the patch size and connectivity of these habitats.
                                                                                                                       connectivity           Increasing patch size will tend to increase population sizes of
                                                                                                                                              native species, which provides more resiliency against a changing
                                                                                                                                              climate. Increasing connectivity allows more genetic exchange
                                                                                                                                              among populations and movement to more suitable habitats as
                                                                                                                                              environmental conditions change.

 56 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                           Expected Outcomes 57
December 2013                                                                                                December 2013

                Assessing Ecosystem and                           Ecosystem and Landscape Effects
                Landscape Effects                                 The BDCP ecosystem and landscape effects
                A variety of models were used to evaluate         analysis describes the indirect and ecosystem-
                the effects that the BDCP would have at the       level effects on covered species during
                ecosystem and landscape level in the Plan         construction and operation of the water facilities
                Area. Ecosystem and landscape effects are         and following habitat restoration.
                those that affect general ecological processes.
                                                                  Overall, the BDCP will result in substantial
                Models, including conceptual models,
                                                                  ecosystem and landscape level effects through:
                analyzing ecosystem and landscape effects of
                BDCP implementation evaluated foodwebs,             • Restoring, enhancing, and protecting more
                flows, water quality, water temperature,              than 110,000 acres of terrestrial and aquatic
                dissolved oxygen, sediment, salinity, and             habitat
                contaminants. All of these factors are known
                to be important in achieving high-quality           • Shifting the location, amount, and timing of
                habitats for fish, plants, and wildlife.              diversion of SWP/CVP water from the Delta

                                                                  The BDCP results in the following landscape and
                                                                  ecosystem-level effects:

                                                                    • Substantially improved south Delta flows in
                                                                      the Plan Area

                                                                    • Increased frequency and duration of flooding
                                                                      of the Yolo Bypass, especially in drier years

                                                                    • Increased access to habitat for covered
                                                                      species, including channel margin
                                                                      and riparian habitat and other natural

                                                                    • Potential for increased aquatic food
                                                                      production and availability

                                                                    • Changes in lower Sacramento River flows and
                                                                      outflows, depending on the specific outcome
                                                                      of the decision trees

                                                                                                        Expected Outcomes 59
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               December 2013

       Ecosystem and Landscape Effects                                                                                                                                                                                    Sediment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sediment is critical to tidal habitat. Sediment eroded from upstream areas is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          deposited in various parts of the Delta, depending on factors such as flow rate, tidal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          forcing, and local conditions. Additionally, sediments already in the Plan Area can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          be raised and transported by wind or water with the potential to redistribute as
       Flow                                                                                                                                                                                                               tidal wetland restoration (CM4) occurs. Implementation of dual-conveyance under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CM1 (Water Facilities and Operation) was estimated to result in approximately 8 to
       The BDCP would fundamentally change how water flows through the Delta. While the existing south Delta                                                                                                              9 percent less sediment entering the Plan Area from the Sacramento River, the main
       facilities will continue to operate at times, BDCP actions would shift about half of exports to the north                                                                                                          source of sediment for the Delta and downstream subregions.
       Delta intakes which would improve natural east-to-west flows (outflow to Bay). The timing of Delta
       exports and outflows will be adjusted to specifically benefit the aquatic ecosystem and covered fish
       species. Appendix 5.C, Attachment 5C.A, of the public Draft BDCP provides additional detail on BDCP                                                                                                                   Water Temperature
       changes to Delta flows.                                                                                                                                                                                               Water temperature in the Plan Area will not change due to the BDCP. The BDCP is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             committed to avoiding temperature changes in the Plan Area, as well as upstream,
       Water Quality                                                                                                                                                                                                         including the upper San Joaquin River and tributaries, the Sacramento River, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             American River, and the Trinity River.

                                                                                                                                                                           tfow to ocean
       Water quality is defined by both the physical (temperature, turbidity) and chemical
       properties of water (salinity, pollutant concentrations) that cause biological responses in
       covered fish species. The map on the right shows how the effects analysis addresses                                                                                                                                             Contaminants

                                                                                                                                                                          ral ou
       water quality.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The BDCP will not introduce new contaminants or increase the

       Aquatic Habitat and Foodweb                                                             Water Quality                                                                                                                           concentrations of contaminants in the Plan Area directly, with the
                                                                                               Water quality issues are a critical                                                                                                     exception of herbicides, which will be applied in limited and safe
       The proposed tidal marsh, channel margin, floodplain, and riparian                      concern and also are being addressed                                                                                                    concentrations to control invasive aquatic weeds. Some conservation
                                                                                                                                                                                      Delta Cross
                                                                                               in the EIR/EIS. BDCP staff will continue                                               Channel Gates                                    measures have the potential to change how contaminants already
       restoration measures are expected to increase suitable habitat for covered                                                                                                                                                      present in the Plan Area are mobilized. Appendix 5.D of the public
                                                                                               to work with local interests to ensure
       fish species and restore important ecological functions of the Delta. Uses of           that water quality impacts have been                                                                                                    Draft BDCP shows that:
                                                                                                                                                                           Georgiana Slough
       this restored habitat by covered fish include:                                          accurately identified.                                                      Nonphysical Barrier                                          • Water operations will have few to no effects on toxins in the Delta.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Restoration will increase bioavailability of certain toxins, especially
         • Adult holding, foraging, and spawning                                                                                                                                                                                          methylmercury, but the overall effects are expected to be localized
         • Egg and larval development                                                                                                                                                                                                     and of low magnitude.

         • Juvenile rearing                                                                                                          Suisun Marsh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Available data suggest that species exposure to contaminants will
                                                                                                                                 Salinity Control Gate                                                                                    be low.
       BDCP aquatic restoration is expected to provide increased                                                                                                                                                                        • The long-term benefits of restoration may reduce exposure to
                                                                                                                           Natural outfow to o
                                                                                                                                              ce a
                                                                                                                                                     n                                                                                    existing toxins in the environment and eliminate sources.
       production of periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton,
       macroinvertebrates, insects, and small fish that contribute                                                                                                                                l ou
                                                                                                                                                                                                      tf o
       to the aquatic foodweb. The BDCP’s extensive habitat                                                                                                                                                      to
       restoration will promote linkages between various habitat

       types, mimicking historical conditions. Overall, the restoration           Salinity
       of tidal natural communities has the potential to provide a
                                                                                  The low-salinity zone is an important area for many
       large net benefit to several covered fish species, although fully          fish. Many fish species have a preferred range of
       achieving this potential will require careful design, and, when            salinity and a range of physiological tolerance to
       appropriate, management of restored areas. If monitoring                   salinity, both of which can influence their distribution.                                                                                            Dissolved Oxygen
                                                                                  The estuarine salinity gradient is controlled by the
       results identify adverse effects that will not support meeting             balance of Delta outflow and tide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Head of Old River         Covered fish species in the Delta require high dissolved oxygen levels
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Operable Barrier
       the expected biological outcomes, the existing and future                                                                                                                                                                       for survival. Low dissolved oxygen levels can create passage barriers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and increase species mortality. The simulations of dissolved oxygen
       restoration actions will be modified and refined as part of                                                                                                                                                                     concentrations in the Delta found only minor differences among the BDCP

       adaptive management.                                                                                                                                                                                                            scenarios. For most of the regions, differences due to climate change were
                                                                                       Water Conveyance:                                                                                                                               larger than those due to the effects of BDCP operations, in models used to

                                                                                               Intake                                                                                                                                  determine net effects. The BDCP also includes CM14, which would ensure

                                                                                               Water Conveyance Tunnel/Pipeline

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that the existing dissolved oxygen machine in the San Joaquin River

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       would remain in operation.

 60 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Expected Outcomes 61
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    December 2013

                                                         Natural Communities

     Natural communities are distinct and recurring      Assessing Effects for Natural Communities                                                           In general, covered activities are expected to result in an increase in the quantity and quality of
     collections of plants and animals associated with   To assess the Plan’s effect on natural communities, the                                             natural community types covered in the BDCP. The BDCP is expected to have a net increase of
     specific physical environmental conditions and      amount of habitat lost was quantified for natural community                                         82,545 acres protected. This substantial increase in restored, protected, and conserved habitat will
     ecological processes.                               types. In addition to the quantitative effects analysis, the                                        support ecosystem connectivity, accommodate sea level rise, and support ecosystem services in the
                                                         effects of BDCP were assessed qualitatively by considering                                          Delta such as nutrient transport, sediment capture, and flood-flow reduction. Restoration of tidal
                                                         such factors as landscape connectivity, natural community                                           natural communities in particular is expected to benefit a large number of covered species including
                                                         patch size, hydrologic connectivity, native biodiversity,                                           delta smelt, longfin smelt, salt marsh harvest mouse, California black rail, and Suisun thistle.
                                                         and presence of rare species. Beneficial effects on natural
                                                         communities were evaluated based on the ecosystem and
                                                         natural community goals and objectives provided in Section
                                                         3.3 and implementation of the conservation measures
                                                         described in Section 3.4 of the public Draft BDCP. The net
                                                         effects on each natural community were then assessed,
                                                         taking into consideration losses, restoration, protection, and
                                                         enhancement, and the anticipated quality of the natural
                                                         communities conserved relative to that of habitat lost.

                                                         BDCP Effects on                                                                             Existing Condition                                           Net Effect of BDCP Implementation
                                                         Natural Communities                                                                                                                 Total Expected Modeled Habitat                 Total Expected Modeled Habitat Protection
                                                         The following table                   Covered Natural Community Types                  Total Extent in   Conservation                       Net Change in                                        Net Change      Percent Change
                                                                                                                                                  Plan Area          Lands       Total Extent in                     Percent Change     Total Protected
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Total Extent                                         in Extent        in Extent of
                                                         provides the anticipated                                                                  (Acres)           (Acres)       Plan Area          in Plan Area    in Total Extent    in Plan Area      Protected      Protected over
                                                                                                                                                                                    (Acres)                            over Existing        (Acres)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Acres)                                            (Acres)           Existing
                                                         net effects for natural
                                                         communities. Overall,                 Tidal perennial aquatic                              86,263           41,260          86,056               -207                0%            41,074            -186              0%
                                                         the BDCP is expected                  Tidal brackish emergent wetland                      8,501            8,380           14,500              5,999                71%           14,380            6,000             72%
                                                         to improve the amount,                Tidal freshwater emergent wetland                    8,856            4,927           32,843              23,987           271%              28,918           23,991            487%
                                                         quality, and condition of             Valley/foothill riparian                             17,644           5,508           21,926              4,282                24%           10,727            5,219             95%
                                                         natural communities within
                                                                                               Nontidal freshwater perennial emergent
                                                         the Plan Area. The average                                                                 1,	385            654            2,058                673                 49%            1,408            754              115%
                                                         increase in protected lands           Nontidal perennial aquatic                           5,489            1,424           5,589                101                 2%             1,754            330               23%
                                                         is 52 percent, not counting
                                                                                               Alkali seasonal wetland complex                      3,723            2,910           3,723                 -                  0%             3,087            177               6%
                                                         cultivated lands.*
                                                                                               Vernal pool complex                                  11,284           6,292           11,284                -                  0%             6,959            667               11%
                                                         *To avoid skewing average             Managed wetland                                      70,698           64,984          57,420             -13,278               -19%          60,028           -4,956             -8%
                                                          protection in the positive
                                                          direction, the total increase
                                                                                               Other natural seasonal wetland                        276              227             276                  -                  0%             227                -               0%
                                                          in cultivated lands natural          Grassland                                            76,315           20,816          75,798               -517                -1%           29,631            8,815             42%
                                                          community protection was
                                                          not included. The increase in        Inland dune scrub                                      19               14              19                  0                  0%              14                -               0%
                                                          cultivated lands protection is
                                                                                               Cultivated lands                                    481,909           61,942         426,338             -55,571               -12%          103,676          41,734             67%
                                                          unusually large due to the low
                                                          number of existing, protected        Total**                                             772,363          219,338         737,832             -34,531               -4%          301,884           82,545             38%
                                                          cultivated land acres and the
                                                          large increase in acres protected.   **Totals may not sum directly due to rounding.
 62 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Expected Outcomes 63
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013

       Assessing Effects for Covered Plants and Wildlife                                                                           BDCP Effects on Covered Plants and Wildlife
                                                                                                     A	protected	area	is	a	
       To determine BDCP effects, it is necessary to        • Using this combination of              location which receives       The following table provides EA results for covered terrestrial species. The BDCP will result
       determine three outcomes for each covered              quantitative and qualitative           safeguards because of         in a net beneficial effect for all terrestrial species in terms of total extent of habitat, extent of
       species: the effects of incidental loss or harm,       information, a determination           its recognized natural,       protected habitat, or both.
       the beneficial effects expected to result from         was made as to whether the             ecological, and/or cultural
       the conservation strategy, and the net effect          net effects on each species will       values. They are areas                                                                Existing Condition                                             Net Effect of BDCP
       on the species during the BDCP term.                   result in conservation of the          set aside to maintain                                                                                                                   Total Expected Modeled Habitat Protection
                                                                                                     functioning natural             Species                                       Total Extent in              Protected                                                               Percent Change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Total Protected            Net Change in
       Developing the EA and determining the net                                                     ecosystems, to act as                                                        Plan Area (Acres)              (Acres)             Acres in the Plan             Extent                 in Extent of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Protected over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Area                  Protected
       effects for covered plants and wildlife involved   The Plan’s contribution to recovery        refuges for species and                                                                                                                                                                Existing

       several steps:                                     was guided by the proportion of a          to maintain ecological          Riparian brush rabbit                                6,012                      531                     1,820                    1,289                     243%
                                                          species’ range and lifecycle within        processes that cannot           Riparian woodrat                                     2,166                      100                      490                      390                      390%
         • A thorough review of the most current                                                     otherwise survive.
                                                          the Plan Area and the level of                                             Salt marsh harvest mouse*                            35,586                   35,332	                  35,966                     634                       2%
           scientific information regarding species
                                                          effect on that species. For example,                                       San Joaquin kit fox                                  5,327                     1,073                    2,089                    1,016                     95%
           range, habitat use, and stressors was
                                                          all else being equal, the Plan’s obligation to
           conducted. Using the information                                                                                          Suisun shrew                                         7,515                     7,317                   13,168                    5,851                     80%
                                                          contribute to recovery for a species with a
           gathered from current literature, plant                                                                                   California black rail                                25,382                   21,394                   34,322                    12,928                    60%
                                                          small portion of its range in the Plan Area is less
           and wildlife species occurrence data,                                                                                     California clapper rail                              6,716                     6,120                   12,088                    5,968                     98%
                                                          than the Plan’s obligation to conserve another
           and expert review and input, geographic                                                                                   Greater sandhill crane                              186,026                   43,006                   47,180                    4,174                     10%
                                                          species with a large portion of its range in the
           information system (GIS) was used to                                                                                                                                           15,528                    5,093                    6,147                    1,054                     21%
                                                          Plan Area. For listed species, conservation of                             Least bell’s vireo
           develop habitat models.
                                                          a species is defined as the use of all methods                             Suisun song sparrow                                  27,708                   26,567                   29,361                    2,794                     11%

         • The GIS habitat models were used to            and procedures that are necessary to bring                                 Swainson’s hawk                                     480,120                  100,007                   148,509                   48,432                    48%
           conduct a quantitative assessment of           any endangered species or threatened species                               Tricolored blackbird                                416,745                  105,273                   174,057                   68,784                    65%
           the anticipated amount of habitat to be        to the point at which the measures provided                                                                                    401,550                   87,345                   113,204                   25,859                    30%
                                                                                                                                     Western burrowing owl
           adversely and beneficially impacted by         under the ESA are no longer necessary. For
                                                                                                                                     Western yellow-billed cuckoo                         12,395                    4,199                    7,692                    3,493                     83%
           BDCP. In some instances, precise impact        non-listed species, contribution to recovery is
                                                                                                                                     White-tailed kite                                   514,434                  130,872                   170,321                   39,359                    30%
           footprint were included, such as for           defined by the BDCP’s contribution to factors
                                                          that prevent the species’ need to become state-                            Yellow-breasted	chat                                 14,547                    5,112                    7,850                    2,738                     54%
           CM1 (Water Facilities and Operations),
                                                          or federally listed in the future.                                         Giant garter snake                                   83,795                   29,475                   336,255                  306,780                   1041%
           while hypothetical estimates were used
           for others, such as CM4 (Tidal Natural                                                                                    Western pond turtle                                 102,046                   48,757                   85,248                    36,490                    75%

           Communities Restoration). Species                                                                                         California red-legged frog                           7,925                     1,788                    3,201                    1,413                     79%
           occurrence information was used to                                                                                        California tiger salamander                          36,018                   15,021                   21,410                    6,389                     43%
           supplement the quantitative analysis.*                                                                                    Valley elderberry longhorn beetle                    34,049                   10,115                   16,569                    6,454                     64%
                                                                                                                                     California linderiella                               11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%
                                                                                                                                     Conservancy fairy shrimp                             11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%
          * Use of species occurrence                                                                                                Longhorn fairy shrimp                                11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%
            information in the affects analysis
                                                                                                                                     Midvalley fairy shrimp                               11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%
            factors in the often incomplete
            nature of data sets.                                                                                                     Vernal pool fairy shrimp                             11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%
                                                                                                                                     Vernal pool tadpole shrimp                           11,472                    6,311                    6,953                     642                      10%

                                                                                                                                     * While there will be a net decrease in managed wetlands that provide habitat for salt marsh harvest mouse, there will be a net increase in tidal brackish marsh
                                                                                                                                       providing habitat with higher long-term conservation value consistent with the recovery plan for this species.

 64 Expected Outcomes                                                   Swainson’s Hawk                                                                                                                                                                                                    Expected Outcomes 65
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                       December 2013

                                    BDCP Effects on Fish Species

                                    Assessing Effects for Covered Fish                                          BDCP Effects on Covered Fish
                                    BDCP implementation will result in incidental take of covered fish          This section describes the net effects on
                                    species. In some cases, the overall take of covered fish as a result        fish based upon modeling focused on
                                    of the conservation measures is not quantifiable. Instead, take was         potential changes in water flow under the
                                    evaluated by determining the magnitude and direction of positive or         various BDCP scenarios. The species-specific                               Upstream Effects
                                    negative effects. These positive and negative effects were considered       effects included an analysis of potential
                                                                                                                                                                                           The BDCP does not change Shasta or Folsom
                                    in light of the importance of that effect to the species, and overall net   changes to aquatic habitat, including water
                                                                                                                                                                                           operations and, therefore, does not affect
                                    effects determinations were made. The predicted effects of the Plan         temperature, water quality, and lifecycle
                                                                                                                                                                                           Sacramento River or Lower American River
                                    will be compared to actual measurements of fish population trends in        patterns.
                                                                                                                                                                                           flows. However, the BDCP may result in
                                    real-time to ensure permit compliance and to adaptively manage the                                                                                     changes in the seasonal releases at Oroville
                                    BDCP.                                                                                                                                                  Reservoir, which will change spring and
                                                                                                                                                                                           summer flows in the Feather River. As such,
                                    For fish, the following types of effects could result from the BDCP:                                                                                   the following changes to the environment and
                                      •   Reduction in entrainment (capture) of fish in water diversions                                                                                   related effects on fish may occur in upstream
                                                                                                                                                                                           habitats as a result of BDCP:
                                      •   Modification of river flow and Delta outflow                                                   SHASTA
                                      •   Increase in suitable habitat                                                         Chinook Salmon
                                                                                                                                Redding                                                    • No effects on spawning and egg incubation
                                      •   Increase in food and foraging                                                                                                                      in the Sacramento River, Trinity River, Clear
                                      •   Permanent indirect and other indirect losses                                                                                                       Creek, Lower American River, or the San
                                                                                                                                                         NORTH, MIDDLE,                      Joaquin River are estimated to result from
                                    Several of these activities are predicted to benefit covered fish species                                            & SOUTH FORKS
                                                                                                                                                     LAKE FEATHER R.                         the BDCP, with the exception of a possible
                                    by increasing habitat and food resources, and more natural flow                                                OROVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                             slight reduction for Sacramento River spring-

                                    patterns. Adverse conditions that could result in take are dependent                                                                                     run Chinook in some years.

                                    on flow conditions and are evaluated in a detailed quantitative                                                           H, MID
                                                                                                                                                         NORT H FORKS

                                                                                                                                                           SOUT AN R.
                                                                                                                                                                 IC                        • Small to moderate reductions in flows during

                                                                                                                                                       Sacramento ES R.
                                                                                                                                   COVERED BY              COS
                                                                                                                                                               UMN                           some summer and fall months are expected
                                    Habitat Restoration                                                                             THE BDCP
                                                                                                                                                                      NE R                   in the Feather River.
                                    The BDCP habitat restoration actions have two principal objectives:                                                 Stockton
                                                                                                                                                                         US R
                                                                                                                                                                                           • Small to moderate increases in flows during
                                                                                                                         San Francisco                         STAN         E R.
                                                                                                                                                                                             the spring in the Feather River.
                                      • Increase the amount and quality of available habitat for covered                            FRANCISCO

                   Chinook Salmon

                                        fish species to address their unique life history stage needs

                                      • Enhance the ecological function of the Delta


                                                                                                                     Ocean                                                          The Delta is a critical migratory corridor
                                                                                                                                                                                    for adult fish returning to their spawning
                                                                                                                                                                                    grounds and is habitat for several native
                                                                                                                                                                                    estuarine species, including imperiled delta
                                                                                                                                                                                    smelt and longfin smelt.

                                                         Delta Smelt

 66 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                           Expected Outcomes 67
December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Salmon and Steelhead Lifecycle

           BDCP Effects on Chinook Salmon and Steelhead                                                                                                                                SHASTA
                                                                                                                                                                                        LAKE                                   Before dams were built on
           Chinook salmon and steelhead are environmentally, commercially, and culturally important                          The Delta is a critical migratory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sierra rivers, many young
           species whose habitat will be affected by BDCP activities. Four races (runs) of Chinook salmon and                corridor for salmon and steelhead,                           Redding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               salmon and steelhead
           steelhead are seasonally present in the Plan Area and were considered in the effects analysis. All                returning adults and outmigrating                                                                 would hatch and grow in
           five species have seen dramatic declines in population numbers over the last 150 years. Today, it                 juveniles. The Delta habitat relied                                                               high Sierra streams before
                                                                                                                             on by salmon and steelhead has                                                                    beginning their journey to the
           is estimated that 95 percent of juvenile San Joaquin River salmon and 60 percent of Sacramento
                                                                                                                             been degraded by invasive species,                                                                Pacific Ocean through the Delta.
           River salmon do not survive as they migrate through as a consequence of numerous direct and                       changes to natural flows, entrainment
           indirect stressors. The diagram on the right illustrates how salmon and steelhead use the Delta                   by unscreened diversions, high
           during a portion of their lifecycle and the challenges they face under current conditions.                        levels of predation, and substantially
                                                                                                                             limited suitable habitat.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        After the construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of dams, hatcheries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LAKE                              were built at lower
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OROVILLE                            elevations where most
       Chinook Salmon and Steelhead included in the Effects Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chinook salmon and
          Species            Description                                                          Federal      California                                                                                                                               steelhead begin their
                                                                                                 ESA Status    ESA Status                                                                                                                               life journey.
                             Spawning habitat is limited to the upper Sacramento River and
                             possibly Battle Creek.

                             March is the peak month for returning adults entering the

                                                                                                                                                                  Adult salmon
        Winter-run Chinook   Sacramento River basin. Peak emigration of young fish into          Endangered    Endangered

                             the Delta is November but can begin in October and continue                                                                        spend about 3 years

                             through early May. Many winter-run Chinook hold and rear in                                                                   in the Pacific Ocean before

                             the Sacramento River for several months before reaching the

                                                                                                                                                           returning to their river
                             Delta where they typically remain for several more months.

                                                                                                                                                           spawning grounds.                        Sacramento

                             Spawning habitat is limited to the Sacramento River and a few

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            im d
                             of its tributaries. The Feather River Hatchery currently produces                                                                                                AREA
                             a large number of spring-run salmon.                                                                                                                          COVERED BY

        Spring-run Chinook                                                                       Threatened    Threatened                                                                   THE BDCP
                             Adults begin migration upstream in March. Young spring-run                                     Pacific Ocean                                                                               nil

                             emigrate downstream between November and April, with
                             some fish in the Delta into the summer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A large portion of
                             Fall-run Chinook are present in the Sacramento River and San                                                                                                                                                   young salmon and
                             Joaquin River systems. Late-fall run Chinook are currently only                                                                                                                                                steelhead do not survive
                             present in the Sacramento River system.                                                                                                                                                                        their journey through the Delta.

                                                                                                                                                                                        San Francisco                                       The BDCP includes a number of

                             Adult fall-run Chinook typically migrate through the Delta
        Fall-run and Late                                                                         Species of                                                                                                                                actions in the Delta to contribute
                             from June through December. Fall-run juveniles typically                             N/A

        Fall-run Chinook                                                                           Concern                                                                                SAN
                             emigrate downstream and enter the Delta in the spring.                                                                                                                                                         to salmon recovery.



                             Late-fall run Chinook migrate into the Sacramento River from                                                                                                 BAY

                             October through April. There is a good deal of uncertainty                                                                           m

                             about when young late-fall Chinook enter the Delta.                                                                       Adult

                             Steelhead are present in both the Sacramento River and
                             San Joaquin River systems, though the San Joaquin River
                             population is small.
        Steelhead                                                                                Threatened       N/A
                             Steelhead typically emigrate in the fall, winter, and spring.                                                  Juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead are most
                             Young steelhead typically spend 1 to 2 years in their home                                                     sensitive to the Delta environment and the effects of
                             streams before quickly emigrating through the Delta region.
                                                                                                                                            BDCP during the December through June migratory                                                                                        Fresno
                                                                                                                                            period. To protect juveniles, the north Delta
                                                                                                                                            diversion bypass flow criteria would be applied to
                                                                                                                                            operations throughout the year. An example of how
                                                                                                                                            the north Delta diversion bypass flow criteria would
                                                                                                                                            be applied is provided on page 33.

 68 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Expected Outcomes 69
December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                        BDCP Benefits to Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

           Effects on Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

           The net effect of the BDCP on Chinook           rather than snow-dominated), will increase                                                                                                                                         Sacramento

           salmon and steelhead is expected to be          stresses to Central Valley Chinook salmon                     Tidal Habitat
           positive. The magnitude of benefits of the      and steelhead regardless of the BDCP. The                     CM4 will increase tidal habitat suitable for juvenile
           BDCP for Chinook salmon and steelhead at        BDCP will not directly address the main                       Chinook salmon and, to a lesser degree, steelhead in
                                                                                                                         the Cache Slough and Suisun Marsh as well as other
           the population level cannot be quantified       effects of climate change but, by expanding                   regions in the Plan Area.                                                                                                                            Upstream Effects
           with certainty. Nonetheless, expanded and       habitat, increasing habitat diversity, and                                                                                                                                                                         While the BDCP upstream effects are generally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              limited to the Feather River, all upstream habitats
           improved habitat, increased food supplies,      increasing the number of productive habitat                                                                                                                                                                        are predicted to experience substantial adverse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fow to ocean
           and reduced entrainment are just a few          locations in the Delta, the BDCP may lead                                                                                                                                                                          effects from climate change as a result in changes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in runoff and precipitation patterns. The BDCP does
           benefits of BDCP. These positive effects        to a more robust Chinook salmon and                           Riparian and Channel Margin Habitat                                                                                                                  not exacerbate these effects.
           have the potential to increase the resiliency   steelhead population with the resiliency and                  CM6 and CM7 will enhance channel margins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ral out
                                                                                                                         and improve habitat along river corridors,                                                                                                           The BDCP does not result in adverse effects to
           and abundance of Chinook salmon and             diversity necessary to better cope with a                     expanding the high-quality nearshore                                                                                                                 habitat for Chinook salmon in the Sacramento River,

                                                                                                                         habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon                                                                                                         Trinity River, Clear Creek, Lower American River,
           steelhead compared to existing conditions.      changing environment. The map on the right                    and steelhead in the Plan Area.                                                                                                                      Stanislaus River, Mokelumne River or San Joaquin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              River, but could result in small positive increase
           The BDCP should contribute to recovery          highlights key benefits of BDCP for Chinook                                                                                                                                                                        in flows in the Feather River during the adult
           of the species and may help them cope           salmon. Chapter 5, Sections 5.5.3 through                                                                                                                                                                          migration period.

           with expected climate change and other          5.5.6., of the public Draft BDCP provides                                                                                                                                                                          CM14 will directly improve dissolved oxygen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              conditions in the Stockton Deep Water Ship
           ongoing threats to recovery. Increasing air     specific information on BDCP effects for each                                                                                                                                                                      Channel, improving passage conditions for San
                                                                                                                         Reduced Predation
           and water temperatures, as well as a general    species.                                                      CM1, CM2, CM5, CM6, CM13, CM15, CM16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Joaquin River fall-run adults.

           shift in hydrologic regime (rain-dominated

                                                                                                                         and CM21 could all contribute to reducing

                                                                                                                         losses of juvenile Chinook salmon and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               D WA
                                                                                                                         steelhead at existing localized areas where
                                                                                                                         predation is intense and at future potential
                                                                                                                         high predation area.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Floodplain Habitat

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CM2 will increase floodplain available in the Yolo


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bypass to improve conditions for migrating juvenile

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.


                                                                                                                                                                                 lo                                                                                           CM5 will expand floodplain habitat in the
                                                                                                                           Natural outfow to o
                                                                                                                                              ce a                      Nat                                                                                                   San Joaquin River system to benefit juvenile spring-
                                                                                                                                                     n                                                                                                                        run and San Joaquin River fall-run Chinook salmon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          n                                   Nat
                                                                                                                                                                                           cea                                                    ura
                                                                                                                                                                        Natural outfow to o                                                          l ou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         tf o
                                                                                                                                 Spring-run                                                                                                                              o

                                                                                                                                 Fall-run and Late Fall-run                                                                                                                                         Food Benefits

                                                                                                                                 Winter-run                                                                                                                                                         CM2, CM4, CM5, CM6, and CM7 have
                                                                                                                                 Steelhead                                                                                                                                                          considerable potential to increase the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    quantity of food available for juvenile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chinook salmon and steelhead.

                                                                                                                         Reduced Entrainment
                                                                                                                         CM1 will reduce entrainment of juvenile                                                                                                                                    Reduced Illegal Harvest
                                                                                                                         Chinook salmon and steelhead due to reduced
                                                                                                                         reliance on the south Delta export facilities.                          State                                                                                              CM17 will help reduce illegal harvest of
                                                                                                                         It is estimated that entrainment would be                             Pumping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Federal                                                                         adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant                                                                      Na
                                                                                                                         reduced by 40 to 70 percent (depending on                                                  Pumping                                                    tu
                                                                                                                         race and water-year type) compared to existing


                                                                                                                         CM1 and CM16 operations under BDCP have

                                                                                                                         potential to reduce juvenile Chinook salmon


                                                                                                                         and steelhead entry into the interior Delta
                                                                                                                         where they can become trapped or subject to
                                                                                                                         Reduced south Delta pumping will also                                                                                                                                                 JO
                                                                                                                         improve migration cues for San Joaquin River                                                                                                                                            AQ
                                                                                                                                                                                           BDCP has the potential to complement San Joaquin River                                                                   UI
                                                                                                                         fall-run adult Chinook salmon and reduce                          Restoration Program activities by improving Plan Area                                                                      N
                                                                                                                         straying into the Sacramento River region.                        habitat for San Joaquin River Chinook salmon and steelhead.
 70 Expected Outcomes                                                                                  Chinook Salmon                                                                                                                                                                                                          Expected Outcomes 71
December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                      BDCP Benefits to Green and White Sturgeon

            BDCP Effects on Green and White Sturgeon

            Green and white sturgeon are long-lived species that use                                Reduced Illegal Harvest                                                                                                Sacramento
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Flows Conditions
            the Plan Area as a migration corridor, feeding area, and                                CM17 is expected to decrease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Under the BDCP CM1, Feather River operations are
                                                                                                    poaching of white and green sturgeon
            juvenile rearing area. Both species have been observed                                  and other covered fish. This expected                                                                                                                 expected to result in higher flows during the spring
                                                                                                    decrease is especially important                                                                                                                      months, which will improve conditions for white and
            throughout the region, including Suisun Bay and the Yolo                                for white and green sturgeon                                                                                                                          green sturgeon. These flows are expected to have
                                                                                                    because harvest is thought to have                                                                                                                    the following benefits:
                                                                                                    a substantial adverse effect on the                                                                                                                       • Provide increased freshwater rearing habitat
                                                                                                    population, particularly through the                                              Yolo
            Green and white sturgeon are two of the largest fresh        Green Sturgeon
                                                                                                    illegal harvest of spawning females.                                             Bypass                                                                   • Increase spawning activity cued by higher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                upstream flows
            water fish in North America and are often sought by

                                                                                                                                                                                                            fow to ocean
                                                                                                    Because of their longevity, late
                                                                                                    maturation and low populations, white                                                                                                                     • Increase nutrient loading into nursing areas, or
            anglers for their impressive size. Green sturgeon can grow                              and green sturgeon are particularly                                                                                                                         increase downstream migration rate and survival
                                                                                                    susceptible to threats from overfishing.                                                                                                                    through reduced exposure time to predators
            up to 7 feet and weigh more than 300 pounds. White                                                                                                                                                                                                • Benefit incubating eggs

                                                                                                                                                                                                     ral out
            sturgeon can grow up to 19 feet and weigh more than                                                                                                                                                                                               • Improve upstream passage conditions
            1,000 pounds. Green sturgeon typically spawn in the

            Sacramento and Feather rivers from January through May.
            White sturgeon typically spawn in the Sacramento, Feather,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Improved Passage
            and San Joaquin rivers during late winter and spring. Both                                                                                                                                                                                     CM2 and CM14 are expected to improve passage
            species spawn multiple times during their lives. Most        White Sturgeon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           for white and green sturgeon. Improving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           fish passage at Fremont Weir is expected to
            sturgeon spend the majority of their lives in the brackish                                                                                                                                                                                     substantially reduce stranding and poaching of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sturgeon in the stilling basin below the weir after
            and deep waters of the estuary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           water recedes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D WA
            The positive effects of the BDCP on the sturgeon                                                                                                                                                                                               The BDCP is expected to improve dissolved oxygen

            populations include increased suitable habitat, greater                                                                                                                                                                                        levels near Stockton with implementation of CM14,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           which may improve conditions for migrating
            food production, improved passage, reduced entrainment

            in the south Delta, and reduced illegal harvest.


                                                                                                                                                                      o   w
                                                                                                                                                                lo                                                                                                               Improved Habitat Conditions
                                                                                                         Natural outfow to o
                                                                                                                            ce a                       Nat
                                                                                                                                   n                                                                                                                                             Overall, restoration is expected
                                                                                                                                                                                        n                                  Nat                                                   to have a high positive effect on
                                                                                                                                                                                    cea                                        ura
                                                                                                                                                       Natural outfow           to o                                              l ou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tf o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 white and green sturgeon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      o                          CM4 will increase the amount of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 freshwater and brackish marsh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 habitat that supports production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and movement of food sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for juvenile and adult sturgeon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 that use this habitat as migration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pathways through the estuary and
                                                                                                                       Green Sturgeon
                                                                                                                       White Sturgeon                                                                                                                                            CM5 may provide a small benefit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to sturgeon in the form of habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and food benefits.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CM6 may increase the availability
                                                                                                                                                                              Pumping                                                                                            and quality of resting habitat for
                                                                                                                                                                                                Federal                                                   Na
                                                                                                                                                                                                Pumping                                                     tu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 migrating adults.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Plant                                                         r

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CM2 is predicted to provide food

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 downstream in the Delta because

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of increased flooding frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and duration.

                                                                                                       Reduced Entrainment                                                                                                                                                   n

                                                                                                       Reduced juvenile sturgeon entrainment risk
                                                                                                       is expected under the BDCP as a result of the                                                                                                                             SA
                                                                                                       north Delta intakes and reduced reliance on                                                                                                                                 N
                                                                                                       the south Delta pumps.                                                                                                                                                            AQ

 72 Expected Outcomes                                                                     (USFWS)                                                                                                                                                                                                      Expected Outcomes 73
December 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                          BDCP Benefits to Delta and Longfin Smelt

       Delta Smelt                                         Longfin Smelt

       The delta smelt is a small, translucent fish        Longfin smelt is an anadromous fish endemic

       endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin               to the west coast of North America. The Delta
       Bay Delta estuary. The delta smelt life history     is an important migratory corridor for adult
       includes spawning during spring in freshwater       longfin smelt moving upstream to spawn and a            Tidal Habitat                                                                                                                                      Reduced Entrainment
       areas followed by juvenile migration to the         rearing habitat for young longfin smelt on their        CM4 would substantially increase the amount of                                                                                                     Decommissioning of agricultural diversions
                                                                                                                   suitable habitat for delta and longfin smelt with                                                                                                  under CM21 in the ROAs may also reduce
       low-salinity zone and other turbid, open-water,     way back to the San Francisco Bay. Adult longfin        the potential to increase accessible food supplies                         Bypass                                                                  entrainment for delta and longfin smelt.
                                                                                                                   in the Plan Area.
       low-salinity areas of the Plan Area to feed and     smelt are typically present in the Delta portions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     fow to ocean
       mature in the summer and fall.                      of the Plan Area from November through March.
                                                           Young longfin smelt can be found in the Delta

                                                                                                                                                                                                              ral out
                                                           between late winter months and June.

       BDCP Effects on Delta Smelt                         BDCP Effects on Longfin Smelt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Flow Conditions
       The BDCP’s main beneficial effect for delta         Overall, the BDCP is expected to have a positive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The new north Delta facilities would be outside
       smelt is potentially greater food production        effect on longfin smelt, including reduced                                                                                                                                                                 of the delta and longfin smelt’s primary habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      range; therefore, minimal impingement or
       from habitat restoration, with some minor           entrainment and increased food.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entrainment is expected.

       benefits related to reduced entrainment, and

                                                           Adaptive Management                                                                                                                                                                                        Fall outflow operations necessary for delta smelt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D WA
       an adaptively managed level of fall outflow                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rearing habitat will be determined through the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      decision tree process

       as determined prior to tunnel operation. The        Habitat restoration design and adaptive

       BDCP is expected to have at least a minor           management will increase the magnitude of                                                                                                                                                                  Spring outflow operations necessary for longfin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      smelt will be determined through the decision
       beneficial effect on the species, but a potential   benefits for delta and longfin smelt through

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tree process


       for larger benefits depending on actual food        efforts such as careful siting and sizing of

                                                                                                                                                                               o   w
       production and use of restored habitats by the      restoration areas and flow management. The                                                                    lo
       delta smelt population.                             monitoring and adaptive management program              Natural outfow to o
                                                                                                                                      ce a                      Nat
                                                           will provide the opportunity to address existing                                                                                       n                                 Nat
                                                                                                                                                                                   cea                                                  ura
                                                           uncertainties and alter the BDCP to maximize its                                                     Natural outfow to o                                                        l ou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tf o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to                                                Delta smelt
    Delta and longfin smelt are the two species to         long-term benefits. The Adaptive Management                                                                                                                                                         o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Longfin Smelt

    which to decision trees will be applied in the         Team will provide the ability to respond in the

    BDCP prior to the implementation of CM1 (See           event that the conservation measures do not
    Chapter 3, Section 3.3, of the public Draft BDCP       achieve plan biological objectives, or if potential
    for additional information.) For delta smelt, a        threats to the species occur as a result of project
    decision tree will develop fall outflow operations     operations, changes in species distributions or
    by including the evaluation of fall outflow            abundance, or other factors.
    conditions per the USFWS Biological Opinion
    Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (2008). For                                                                                                                                       State
    longfin smelt, a decision tree will develop spring                                                                                                                                    Plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Plant                                                        r
    outflow operations by evaluating a range of

                                                                                                                   Reduced Entrainment
    effects of spring outflow operations within the

                                                                                                                   Under CM1, the north Delta intakes would
    capabilities of the CVP/SWP.

                                                                                                                   reduce reliance on south Delta pumping,

                                                                                                                   which is expected to maintain delta and                                                                                                                            n

                                                                                                                   longfin smelt entrainment at current low
                                                                                                                   levels (due to regulatory requirements) or
                                                                                                                   reduce entrainment even further.                                                                                                                                       SA
                                                                                                     Delta Smelt                                                                                                                                                                                JO

 74 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Expected Outcomes 75
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                              December 2013

       Pacific and River Lamprey                        BDCP Effects on Pacific and River Lamprey            Sacramento Splittail                                  BDCP Effects on Sacramento Splittail
       Knowledge of the relative effects of different   Overall, despite high uncertainty based on a         Sacramento splittail is a freshwater fish native      Sacramento splittail abundance has been
       stressors on Pacific lamprey is very limited,    deficiency of available scientific knowledge of      to the San Francisco estuary and its associated       highly variable, which has produced
       and even less is known about river lamprey.      lamprey, the EA concluded that the BDCP will         watershed.                                            inconsistent findings concerning its regulatory
       Pacific lamprey spend the majority of their      provide a small net benefit to both Pacific and                                                            status. The BDCP is expected to have a positive
                                                        river lamprey. There will be small net positive      Splittail abundance is strongly related               effect on the abundance, productivity, and
       9- to 12-year lifespan upstream. Except
                                                        effects on Pacific and river lamprey juveniles       to hydrologic conditions, with wet years              diversity of splittail populations and reduce
       during the periods when they migrate
                                                        and adults and negligible effects on their eggs      producing much stronger year classes than dry         risk to its survival. The BDCP would greatly
       upstream to spawn and downstream
                                                        and larva.                                           years. Consequently, splittail abundance varies       increase available spawning habitat through
       toward the ocean after rearing upstream,
                                                                                                             greatly from year to year.                            CMs 2, 4, 5, and 6. In particular, increases in
       river lamprey spend 3 to 5 years of their
                                                        Benefits of the BDCP will be similar in
       6- to 7-year lifespan upstream, with the                                                              Splittail can live 5 to 7 years and tolerate a wide   dry-year floodplain habitat in the Yolo Bypass
                                                        magnitude between Pacific and river lamprey,
       remainder of their lifespan spent in the                                                              range of water quality conditions, including          are expected to substantially benefit splittail.
                                                        although benefits to Pacific lamprey would
       ocean. A number of stressors affect upstream                                                          salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen           These increased spawning habitats will result
                                                        be somewhat greater than those to river
       life stages of both species. Passage barriers                                                         levels. In spring, when California’s Central          in an enlarged spawning stock, especially
                                                        lamprey because of improved flows during the
       include dams, culverts, water diversions, and                                                         Valley experiences large amounts of snowmelt          if restoration actions increase availability of
                                                        migration period. If monitoring during BDCP
       tidal gates.                                                                                          and/or rain runoff, adult splittail will move         rearing and foraging habitat for juveniles and
                                                        implementation indicates additional methods
                                                                                                             to inundated floodplains or margins of the            adults.
                                                        to improve conservation, conservation
                                                        measures will be adaptively managed to               rivers in the valley to spawn. The Yolo Bypass
                                                        improve conditions for both species of               provides the largest spawning area. Lack of
                                                        lamprey to the extent practicable. However,          spawning habitat, especially in dry
                                                        the effects of climate change on upstream            years and during prolonged
                                                        flows and water temperatures are expected to         droughts, is a
                                                        be mostly adverse and likely will offset some of     primary stressor
                                                        the predicted benefits of the BDCP.                  of splittail and their
                                                                                                             floodplain habitat has
                                                                                                             been diminished over the last                              Sacramento Splitail
            Pacific Lamprey                                                                                  several decades.

            River Lamprey


 76 Expected Outcomes                                                                                                                                                                                  Expected Outcomes 77
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                       December 2013

       Implementation                                                         Adaptive Management                                      The adaptive management program would:                    The following elements are included in
                                                                                                                                                                                                 the adaptive management program:
       Implementation of a large-scale HCP/NCCP,                              and Monitoring                                            • Identify questions that need to be
       such as the BDCP, is no small effort. The BDCP                                                                                     answered to improve our knowledge base                 Process Framework
       includes specific plans, processes, and policies                       The BDCP biological goals and objectives                    and inform ongoing BDCP implementation                 The process by which the adaptive
       aimed at effective implementation of the Plan.                         would be advanced through an adaptive                                                                              management program will be
                                                                                                                                        • Apply improved knowledge to identify
       The following section provides an overview of                          management program. The program would                                                                              implemented, including gathering
                                                                                                                                          alternative approaches to BDCP
       the BDCP implementation components:                                    provide mechanisms to make adjustments to                                                                          data through monitoring and research,
                                                                                                                                          implementation and determine which
                                                                              BDCP conservation measures based on new                                                                            analyzing data, assimilating new
         •    Adaptive Management, Monitoring                                                                                             approaches to implement
                                                                              scientific information and insight gained from                                                                     knowledge, and making adjustments to
         •    Governance                                                      monitoring and targeted research. The program             • Adjust the monitoring and research                     the strategy.
         •    Schedule                                                        also would demonstrate progress towards                     program so that it evaluates the efficacy
         •    Cost and Funding                                                                                                                                                                   Research
                                                                              attaining program goals. The dynamic nature of              of new and existing approaches and
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Experiments and pilot studies specifically
                                                                              the Delta ecosystems, expected changes over                 addresses questions that arise from
                                                                                                                                                                                                 designed to test uncertainties and the
                                                                              time, and uncertainties associated with these               changing environmental conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                 hypotheses underlying conservation
                                                                              changes make adaptive management critical to
        Adaptive                                                                                                                                                                                 measures, and to rapidly gain knowledge
                                                                              the success of the BDCP.
        Management                                                                                                                                                                               that could improve conservation measure
        Process                                                                   The adaptive management program would                                                                          performance.
                                                                         Pl           address gaps in knowledge regarding
                                                  the problem                                                                                                                                    Status Reviews
                                                                                          Delta ecological processes and species

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Required periodic reviews of the

                                                                                            biology. It would provide flexibility

                                                                       Identify                                                                                                                  monitoring program, overall BDCP

                               Adapt                               biological goals           in BDCP implementation and
                                                                   and objectives                                                                                                                performance, achievement of goals and
                                                                                               ensure that the BDCP becomes
             Evaluate and

                                                                                                                                                                                                 objectives, and status of covered species.
                                                                                                increasingly more effective
                                                                      Model linkages between
                       Communicate                                    objectives and proposed    and responsive to changing
                                                                       implementation actions
                          current                                                                ecological conditions in the Delta.
                       understanding                                                                                                     Integration with the Delta Science Plan

                                                                        Plan and design                                                  Multiple points of coordination and integration would exist between the BDCP adaptive
                          Analyze,                                      implementation          The BDCP adaptive management             management and monitoring program and the Delta Stewardship Council’s Delta Science Plan.
                         synthesize,                                        actions
                        and evaluate                                                            framework is based on the recom-
                                                                                                                                         Integration of BDCP with the Delta Science Plan would include extensive reliance on the Delta
                                                                                               mendations of the independent
                                                                                                                                         Science Program for independent science advice and review, collaboration on a shared tracking
                                                                                              science advisors. For more
                                                                                                                                         system for adaptive management programs throughout the Delta, and close collaboration
                               Design and implement
                               performance measures
                                                              Perform                       information on the independent
                                and monitoring and
                                                                                          science review process, see pages 18-19.       on establishment of research priorities, implementation of monitoring and research, model
                                   research plans                                                                                        development, and other areas.
 78 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                                Implementation 79
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

                                                                                                                       BDCP Implementation Office                      Authorized Entity
       Governance                                                                                                                                                      Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                           The assignment of responsibility
                                                                                                                                                                                                           to the program manager and
                                                                                                                       The BDCP proposes to house primary
       The proposed governance and implementation structure of the BDCP is envisioned as a collaborative                                                               The Authorized Entity               the	Implementation	Office	will	
                                                                                                                       responsibility for implementation with the
       effort with defined roles and responsibilities, and a clear process for addressing issues and conflicts as                                                      Group would be                      not alter or modify existing
                                                                                                                       BDCP Implementation Office, led by a BDCP
       they arise. The implementation structure is designed to ensure that:                                                                                                                                authorities, mandates, and
                                                                                                                       program manager and governed by the             established to provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                           obligations of the authorized
                                                                                                                       Authorized Entity Group. This office would      program oversight and
         • Sufficient institutional expertise, capacity,        The implementation structure includes these                                                                                                entities or any other
                                                                                                                       manage day-to-day implementation, including     general guidance to
           resources, and focus are brought to bear to          components:                                                                                                                                participating state and federal
                                                                                                                       planning, budgeting, sequencing, scheduling,    the program manager                 agency participating in BDCP
           accomplish the BDCP goals and objectives
                                                                   •   Implementation Office                           coordination, and public outreach. Specific     regarding BDCP                      implementation.
         • The entities receiving regulatory
                                                                   •   Authorized Entity Group                         responsibilities would include:                 implementation. The
           authorizations are accountable to
                                                                   •   Permit Oversight Group                                                                          Authorized Entity Group
           those agencies granting the regulatory                                                                       • Preparing annual work plans and budgets,
                                                                   •   Adaptive Management Team                                                                        would also:
           authorizations                                                                                                 and managing expenditures
                                                                   •   Stakeholder Council
         • The decision-making process regarding                                                                        • Contracting for implementation services        • Provide input and guidance on general
           BDCP implementation is transparent and                                                                       • Securing, holding, and managing funds to         policy and program-related matters
           understandable to the public                                                                                   support implementation actions                 • Monitor and assess the effectiveness of the
                                                                                                                        • Coordinating with the authorized entities,       Implementation Office in implementing
                                                                                                                          the Authorized Entity Group, supporting          the Plan
                                                                                                                          entities*, and adaptive management team        • Foster and maintain collaborative and
                                                                                                                        • Coordinating with regulatory agencies,           constructive relationships with fish and
                                                                                                                          Delta Stewardship Council, Delta Science         wildlife agencies, other public agencies,
                                                                                                                          Program, Delta Conservancy, local                stakeholders, local governments, and
                                                                                                                          governments, Delta Protection Commission,        interested parties
                                                     Authorized Entity Group                Permit Oversight Group
                                                                                                                          flood control agencies, and other public
                                                                                                                                                                       The Authorized Entity Group would consist
                                                                                                                                                                       of the Director of DWR, the Regional Director
                                                                                                                        • Identifying legal matters
                                                                                                                                                                       for Reclamation, and representatives of the
                                                     IMPLEMENTATION OFFICE                                              • Overseeing Plan amendments
                                                                                                                                                                       participating state and federal contractors.
                                                                                                                        • Implementing NEPA and CEQA mitigation
                                                                                              Stakeholder Council
                                                       Program Manager
                 Supporting Entities                                                                                    • Overseeing, acquiring and/or leasing
                                                                                          Adaptive Management Team        property
                                                           Science Manager                                                                                             * Supporting entities are other entities that would ensure
                                                                                                                        • Managing land
                     General Public                                                                                                                                      specific tasks are carried out properly. These entities
                                                                                                                        • Planning, design, permitting, and
                                                                                                                                                                         may include the Delta Conservancy, sponsors of regional
                                                   Implementation Office Staff             Delta Stewardship Council      construction of all conservation measures      conservation planning programs, and other public
                                                                                                                        • Annual planning and reporting for              agencies and private entities.
                                                                                                                          water operations
                                                                                                                        • Maintaining permits and authorizations and
                                                                                                                          obtaining amendments
                                                   Contractors and Consultants
                                                                                                                        • Maintenance of facilities and improvements      DWR and Reclamation would continue to be responsible
                                                                                                                        • Public outreach                                 for day-to-day water facility operations.

 80 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                    Implementation 81
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                               December 2013

                                                Permit Oversight Group                                           Adaptive Management Team                           Stakeholder Council
   Dispute Resolution                           The Permit Oversight Group, composed of state and federal        The Adaptive Management Team will have             The Stakeholder Council will be a forum
   If	the	Authorized	Entity	Group	and	Permit	   fish and wildlife agencies (USFWS, NMFS, and CDFW), will         primary responsibility for administration of the   for interested parties to assess BDCP
   Oversight	Group	are	unable	to	reach	         ensure that the BDCP is being properly implemented by            adaptive management program.                       implementation and to propose ways in which
   agreement on matters, the dispute would      coordinating agency review of BDCP actions and necessary                                                            it may be improved. The Council will include
   be	resolved	by	taking	the	following	steps:                                                                    The Adaptive Management Team will be
                                                compliance, the BDCP Implementing Agreement, and                                                                    broad representation by local governments
                                                                                                                 chaired by a science manager, and will consist
                                                associated regulatory authorizations. The Permit Oversight                                                          and agencies; reclamation districts; fishing,
   1.	Enlist	the	assistance	of	the	program	                                                                      of representatives of DWR, Reclamation, a
                                                Group will have the following responsibilities, among others:                                                       hunting, and recreation interests; agricultural
      manager, science manager, or others as                                                                     CVP contractor-Permittee, a SWP contractor-
                                                                                                                                                                    interests; conservation groups; natural
                                                 • Jointly consider minor modifications and revisions to         Permittee, CDFW, USFWS, and NMFS as voting
      appropriate.                                                                                                                                                  resource scientists; water purveyors; labor; and
                                                   conservation measures or biological objectives with the       members; and the Interagency Ecological
   2.	If	the	matter	remains	unresolved,	the	                                                                                                                        others.
                                                   Authorized Entity Group                                       Program lead scientist, and the Director
      entity with decision-making authority
                                                 • Jointly decide adaptive management matters elevated           of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric            The Stakeholder Council will develop its own
      will make a decision.                        by the Adaptive Management Team with the Authorized           Administration Southwest Fisheries Science         internal organization and process to consider
   3.	Any	member	entity	of	the	Authorized	         Entity Group                                                  Center, as non-voting members.                     and provide input on:
      Entity	Group	or	the	Permit	Oversight	      • Participate in decision-making about real-time operations
      Group may initiate a nonbinding                                                                            The team will decide when and on what                • BDCP implementation, including matters
                                                 • Have final decision-making authority for adaptive
      review process concerning the matter                                                                       terms to seek independent science review               related to work plans, budgets, and water
                                                   management and real-time operations decisions within
      in dispute by a three-member panel of                                                                      to evaluate technical issues. The Adaptive             operations plans
                                                   the scope of the BDCP
                                                                                                                 Management Team will have primary                    • Implementation of conservation measures
      experts.                                   • Provide input into the selection of the program manager
                                                                                                                 responsibility for:                                  • Adaptive management, monitoring, and
                                                   and science manager
   The Stakeholder Council, being an                                                                                                                                    reporting activities
                                                 • Provide input to ensure that certain sections of the annual     • Overseeing the functional steps of
   advisory body, would make reasonable                                                                                                                               • Scientific research and review processes
                                                   work plan and budget are consistent with the BDCP and             adaptive management, from problem
   efforts to provide input that reflects the                                                                                                                         • Annual reports
                                                   with agency decisions                                             formulation to proposals to alter
   general agreement of the members.             • Provide input to ensure the Annual Delta Water                    conservation measures
   However, all members would have the
                                                   Operations Plan is consistent with the BDCP                     • Proposed changes to conservation
   right to lodge a dissenting opinion.
                                                 • Provide input on and accept annual reports                        measures or biological objectives
                                                 • Provide input on and approve plan amendments                    • Integration of adaptive management and
                                                                                                                     monitoring activities into one cohesive

 82 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                         Implementation 83
December 2013
                                                                                      5 years                10 years          15 years         20 years   25 years   30 years   35 years             40 years              45 years            50 years

                                                Water Flow and                                                   Year 11:
     Implementation                           Conveyance (CM1)
     The BDCP seeks to restore and                                                                                             Year 13:
     protect more than 150,000 acres              Habitat (CM2)                                                                CM2 Modifications
                                                                                                                               Complete and Operational
     of habitat over its 50-year permit
     duration. This graph demonstrates
                                             Habitat (CM3-CM10)
     the proposed sequencing of
     the implementation of habitat
                                                           160,000     Habitat (CM3-CM10)                                                                                                                                                       160,000
     protection and restoration in the
     BDCP. As required in NCCPs, the                                      CM3 : Natural Communities Protection
                                                                                and Restoration
     schedule has been developed                                          CM4: Tidal Natural Communities Restoration
     to ensure that conservation                                          CM5: Seasonally Inundated Floodplain Restoration
     measures are implemented                              140,000                                                                                                                                                                              140,000
                                                                          CM6: Channel Margin Enhancement (miles)
     roughly proportional in time and
                                                                          CM7: Riparian Natural Community Restoration
     extent to covered species impacts.
     The graph shows restoration and                                      CM8: Grassland Natural Community Restoration

     protection occurring gradually.                       120,000        CM9: Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal Wetland
     Actual restoration and protection                                         Complex Restoration
                                                                          CM10: Nontidal Marsh Restoration
     will occur more stepwise as
     large restoration projects are
     implemented or large blocks of                        100,000                                                                                                                                                                              100,000
     land acquired.                                                    Cumulative Restored
     Conservation measures that                                        and Protected Acreage*
     address water operations
                                                            80,000                                                                                                                                                                              80,000
     and other stressors will be
     implemented beginning soon after
     permit issuance. Construction of
     the proposed conveyance facilities
                                                            60,000                                                                                                                                                                              60,000
     would begin approximately 2
     years after permit issuance and
     continue for an estimated 9 to
     10 years. Operations could begin
     as early as year 11.                                   40,000                                                                                                                                                                              40,000

     In many cases, habitat restoration                     20,000                                                                                                                                                                              20,000
     will be implemented on existing
     public land and will not require                       10,000                                                                                                                                                                              10,000
     the acquisition of property. Where
     this is not practicable, land will be                         0                                                                                                                                                                            0
     acquired in fee or by conservation                                           Year 4:
     easement through voluntary
                                                 Other Stressors                  CM12-CM21 Implementation will begin                                                             * These acreage targets estimate implementation of
                                                                                  between years 2 and 4. Some activities
     acquisition efforts first.                   (CM12-CM21)                     will be ongoing, while others will be                                                             habitat conservation measures over the life of the plan.
                                                                                  performed on an as-needed basis.
                                                                                      5 years                10 years          15 years         20 years   25 years   30 years   35 years             40 years              45 years            50 years
 84 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Implementation 85
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           December 2013

       Swainson’s Hawk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cost and Funding estimates
       Cost and Funding                                    Cost and Funding Summary                                                                                                                                                              detailed here are reported in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 undiscounted 2012 dollars
       Costs and potential funding sources for             The total estimated cost of implementing the BDCP                          with Plan administration, monitoring and research, and implementation of                                   after adjusting for inflation.
       implementing the BDCP are outlined in               over the 50-year permit term is $24.75 billion (in                                                                                                                                    Chapter 8 of the public Draft
                                                                                                                                      conservation measures other than water conveyance.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 BDCP also presents costs in
       Chapter 8, Implementation Costs and Funding         undiscounted 2012 dollars). Capital costs over the                                                                                                                                    discounted, or present value,
       Sources of the public Draft BDCP. The purpose                                                                                  The total estimated funding available to implement the BDCP is
                                                           50-year permit term total $19.85 billion. The majority of                                                                                                                             dollars. For comparison
       of Chapter 8 is to:                                                                                                            $24.75 billion over 50 years. This amount would cover the full cost of the                                 purposes, the cost of the
                                                           these costs (73 percent of capital costs) are associated
                                                           with construction of water intake and conveyance
                                                                                                                                      Plan. Participating state and federal water contractors would contribute                                   BDCP in discounted dollars is
         • Quantify the cost of the Plan overall and                                                                                  approximately 68 percent of the total funding, while state and federal funds*                              estimated at $18.9 billion.
                                                           facilities and will be incurred by year 10 of BDCP
           its specific components                                                                                                    would make up approximately 31 percent of the funding. A small portion of
                                                           implementation. Operations and maintenance (O&M)
         • Establish funding needs for BDCP                                                                                           funding is expected to be generated from interest earnings.                                                 * Subject to future federal
                                                           costs are estimated to be $110 million per year near the
           implementation over the 50-year permit                                                                                                                                                                                                   appropriations.
                                                           end of the 50-year permit term ($4.9 billion over 50 years).               Totals in the pie charts below may not sum directly due to rounding.
           term and beyond
                                                           Approximately 70 percent of O&M costs are associated
         • Help guide decisions regarding allocation
           of funding responsibilities among Plan               Estimated Capital Costs                                        Estimated Operations and                                                    Estimated Funding
           participants                                         Total = $19.85 billion                                         Maintenance Costs                                                           Total = $ 24.75 billion
         • Demonstrate to permitting agencies that                                                                             Total = $ 4.9 billion
           the Plan ensures that adequate funding                                                                                                                              Water
           will be provided based on reasonable                                   Natural                                                                                     Operation
                                                                                Community                                                            Monitoring,               $1.5 billion
           assumptions                                                          Protection                                                          Research, Plan               (30%)                                           Federal
                                                                                    and                                                            Administration,                                                               Funding
                                                                                Restoration              Water                                     and Other Costs                                                               $3.55 billion
                                                                                 $4.17 billion          Facilities                                     $1.5 billion                                                                 (14%)                       Water
       Cost Analysis Assumptions                                                    (21%)             Construction
                                                                                                       $14.57 billion
                                                                                                           (73%)                                                                                                                                              $16.93 billion
       Several common assumptions were made                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (68%)
       in developing the cost analysis, which are                                                                                                                                                                                 State
                                                         Other Stressors                                                                                                                                                         Funding
       described in detail in the chapter. These                                                                                                                             Other                                               $4.12 billion
                                                          Conservation                                                                                                     Stressors                                                (17%)
       assumptions involve:                               $927 million (5%)                                                                                                Operation
                                                             Monitoring,                                                  Natural Community                                 $1.74 billion
                                                           Research, Plan                                                       Management                                     (35%)
          •   Cost time periods                           Administration,                                                      $237 million (5%)
                                                          and Other Costs                                                                                                                                           Interest
          •   Cost contingencies                            $184 million (1%)                                                                                                                                        Income
                                                                                                                                                                                                             $165 million (1%)
          •   Financial assumptions
          •   Delta real estate values for acquisition
          •   Transaction costs for land acquisition
          •   Staff salaries and benefits                                                                                               The	costs	analyzed	in	Chapter	8	of	the	public	Draft	BDCP	represent	planning	estimates	that	are	intended	to	
                                                                                                                                        demonstrate	that	the	BDCP	meets	the	standard	of	assured	funding.	The	chapter	does	not	present	a	project	“budget.”		
                                                                                                                                        The	BDCP	Implementation	Office	would	develop	annual	budgets	and	work	plans	based	on	these	cost	estimates.

 86 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Implementation 87
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

       Different approaches were used to estimate the costs of different conservation measures. The table to the         Estimated Capital and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Costs by Plan Element (Millions)*
                                                                                                                         The totals in tables may not sum directly from their components due to rounding.
       right is a summary of overall costs. Chapter 8 details related to these estimates. The totals in this table and
       the following tables may not sum directly from their components due to rounding.                                                                                                       Capital     O&M         Total
                                                                                                                          Water Facilities and Operation (65%)

       Estimated Costs for                                       EIR/EIS Mitigation Costs                                 CM1	Water	Facilities	and	Operation                                 $14,570.9   $1,456.0   $16,026.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figures are shown
                                                                                                                          Natural Community Protection and Restoration (18%)
       Conservation Measures                                     Mitigation measures necessary to avoid,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in undiscounted
                                                                                                                          CM2	Yolo	Bypass	Fisheries	Enhancement                               $715.0        -        $715.0     2012 dollars.
       The capital and O&M costs for each                        reduce, minimize, or compensate for adverse              CM3 Natural Communities Protection and Restoration                  $460.1        -        $460.1
       conservation measure are shown. The cost                  environmental effects of BDCP implementation             CM4	Tidal	Natural	Communities	Restoration                          $1,909.7       -       $1,909.7
       of CM1 is approximately 65 percent of the                 are documented in the EIR/EIS. Most of the               CM5	Seasonally	Inundated	Floodplain	Restoration                     $706.5        -        $706.50

                                                                 costs of these mitigation measures are already           CM6	Channel	Margin	Enhancement                                      $120.2        -        $120.2
       total cost (capital and O&M) of implementation.
                                                                                                                          CM7 Riparian Natural Community Restoration                           $47.6        -         $47.6
       The remaining conservation measures                       subsumed within the costs of BDCP conservation
                                                                                                                          CM8	Grassland	Natural	Community	Restoration                          $18.4        -         $18.4
       account for approximately 30 percent of the               measures. However, some EIR/EIS mitigation
                                                                                                                          CM9		Vernal	Pool	and	Alkali	Seasonal	Wetland	Complex	Restoration     $1.7         -         $1.7
       total cost. Other costs associated with BDCP              costs remain. These activities are estimated to          CM10	Nontidal	Marsh	Restoration                                      $52.7        -         $52.7
       implementation, monitoring, research, and                 cost $141.8 million. These costs are not included        CM11	Natural	Communities	Enhancement	and	Management                 $138.1      $236.6     $374.7
       contingencies make up the remaining fraction.             in the total estimated costs for the BDCP, but are       SUBTOTAL                                                           $4,170.0    $236.6     $4,406.6
                                                                 included in Chapter 8 (Appendix 8.A) to provide          Other Stressors Conservation (11%)
       Debt Financing                                            a more complete accounting of all Plan costs.            CM12	Methylmercury	Management                                        $2.2         -         $2.2

                                                                 Mitigation costs will be paid for by state and           CM13	Invasive	Aquatic	Vegetation	Control                               -        $270.3     $270.3
       BDCP cost and funding estimates do not need
                                                                                                                          CM14		Stockton	Deep	Water	Ship	Channel	Dissolved	Oxygen	Levels       $14.1       $9.5       $23.6
       to include the interest costs associated with             federal water contractors.
                                                                                                                          CM15	Localized	Reduction	of	Predatory	Fishes                         $2.8       $102.2     $105.0
       debt financing. Financing the project with debt                                                                    CM16	Nonphysical	Fish	Barriers                                      $763.0      $508.7    $1,271.7
       does not add appreciably to the cost of the                                                                        CM17	Illegal	Harvest	Reduction                                       $5.8       $280.8     $286.6
       project provided the cost of financing is close                                                                    CM18	Conservation	Hatcheries                                         $32.9      $313.7     $346.6
       to the discount rate and debt issuance occurs             Counties, cities, and other local governments            CM19	Urban	Stormwater	Treatment                                      $50.0        -         $50.0

       when the funds are needed, both of which are                                                                       CM20	Recreational	Users	Invasive	Species	Program                     $5.1       $206.3     $211.4
                                                                 depend, in part, on property taxes paid by
                                                                                                                          CM21	Nonproject	Diversions                                           $50.0       $6.7       $56.7
       expected to be the case for BDCP. The primary             private property owners. Typically, when land
                                                                                                                          CM22	Avoidance	and	Minimization	Measures                               -        $36.3       $36.3
       cost of debt financing is associated with the             is acquired by a public agency, those payments           SUBTOTAL                                                            $926.7     $1,734.5   $2,661.2
       transaction costs of selling bonds. These costs           stop. To ensure that these important revenues            Monitoring, Research, Plan Administration, and Other Costs (7%)
       tend to average less than 1% of the face value            remain, BDCP will pay the replacement cost of            Monitoring                                                             -        $506.2     $506.2
       of the debt for large projects.                           those property taxes to local governments.               Plan	Administration                                                    -        $336.4     $336.4
                                                                                                                          Property Tax Revenue Replacement                                       -        $226.0     $226.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                * Does not include estimated
                                                                                                                          Changed Circumstances                                               $183.9        -        $183.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  costs of $141.8 million
                                                                                                                          Potential Research                                                  	$406.6       -        $406.6       for EIR/EIS mitigation
                                                                                                                          SUBTOTAL                                                            $183.9     $1,475.2   $1,659.1      and responsibilities by
                                                                                                                          TOTAL                                                              $19,851.4   $4,902.3   $24,753.7     conservation measure.

 88 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Implementation 89
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013

                                                Costs of Implementing Conservation Measures over the 50-year Permit Term
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cost Estimate for Water Facility Construction
                                                Due to the capital costs associated with the construction of new water intake and conveyance
                                                facilities, implementation costs are estimated to peak during the first 10 years and then level                                                CM1, Water Facilities and                                                                                        50-Year Permit Term
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Total Expenditure
                                                out over the remaining 40-year period.                                                                                                         Operation Costs                                                                                                       (Millions)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Capital Costs
                                                                                                                                                                                               Cost estimates for CM1 are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Land Acquisition
                                                          Implementation Expenditure of the 50-Year Permit Term (Capital and O&M Costs)                                                        presented for the design, project
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Surface footprint, staging, borrow sites                               $85.5
                                                                                                                                                                                               management, and construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Subsurface easements                                                   $4.3
                                                                    5 years   10 years   15 years      20 years        25 years      30 years   35 years   40 years   45 years      50 years   management of the water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mineral rights and gas well relocation                                 $32.3
                                                                                                                                                                                               intake and conveyance facilities;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Due diligence and transaction costs                                    $12.2
                                                                                                                                                                                               the intake and conveyance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Subtotal Land Acquisition                                             $134.3
                                                                                                                                                                                               construction costs; the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Contingency	(20%)                                                      $26.9
                                                                                                                                                                                               construction cost contingency;
                                                                                                      Plan Elements                                                                                                                             Total Land Acquisition                                                $161.2
                                                                                                                                                                                               land acquisition; and annual
                                                                                                       Other Costs                                                                                                                              Construction
                                                 $7,000                                                Other Stressors (CM12-CM22)                                                             operation, maintenance, power,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                River intake #2 with pumping plant                                    $348.8
                                                                                                       Habitat (CM2-CM11)                                                                      and capital replacement.
                                                                                                       Water Conveyance (CM1)                                                                                                                   River intake #3 with pumping plant                                    $270.7
    Estimated Cost in 2012 Dollars (millions)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                River	intake	#5	with	pumping	plant                                    $303.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Intermediate	forebay	and	flow	control	structures                       $70.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Byron Tract Forebay and flow control structures                       $619.4
                                                 $5,000                                                                                                                                                                                         North tunnels and shafts                                              $1,017.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Main tunnels and shafts                                               $6,219.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Access,	power	delivery	and	utility	relocations                        $316.5
                                                 $4,000                                                                                                                                                                                         Communications and control                                             $23.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Subtotal Direct Construction                                          $9,190.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tunneling contingency                                                 $2,641.7
                                                 $3,000                                                                                                                                                                                         All	other	contingency                                                 $657.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Construction w/ Contingency Subtotal                                 $12,489.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Project management, construction management, and final design         $1,919.9
                                                 $2,000                                                                                                                                                                                         Total Construction                                                   $14,409.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Total Capital                                                        $14,570.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Operations &Maintenance (O&M) Costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Conveyance Facility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Power                                                                 $250.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Facility	O&M                                                          $754.0
                                                     0                                                                                                                                         Chapter 8 of the public Draft BDCP provides
                                                                    5 years   10 years   15 years      20 years        25 years      30 years   35 years   40 years   45 years      50 years                                                    Capital replacement                                                   $452.0
                                                                                                                                                                                               detailed cost estimates, including assumptions
                                                                                                                                                                                               for each conservation measure.                   Total O&M                                                            $1,456.0
                                                                                                    Chapter 8 of the public Draft BDCP provides details regarding the assumptions                                                               Total CM1 Capital and O&M                                            $16,026.9
                                                                                                    and methods for estimating the costs for each conservation measure.

 90 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Implementation 91
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                     December 2013

                                                                                                                 While BDCP cannot guarantee public funding from future state and federal actions, Chapter 8
                                                                                                                 describes the history of state and federal government for programs and actions similar to BDCP
         The purpose of this section in Chapter 8 is to     Both the ESA and the NCCPA require the
                                                                                                                 funding to indicate the likelihood and feasibility of public funding for BDCP. This approach is
         estimate the funding sources to pay for the        assurance of adequate funding. The funding
                                                                                                                 consistent with other similar and approved HCPs and NCCPs that rely on public funding.
         costs of BDCP. This chapter is not a financing     amounts identified in the plan are expected
         plan to support the issuance of bonds or           to be sufficient to meet all anticipated costs
         provide a basis for the establishment of new       of the BDCP, which have been estimated
         funding mechanisms, nor does it establish          conservatively. For example, numerous
                                                                                                                 State and Federal Water Contractor Funding
         the final allocation of cost or repayment          cost contingencies have been identified to           The BDCP would be funded through a                     facilities (CM1), as well as for mitigation
         responsibility. Financing plans will be            address uncertainties in actual costs.               “beneficiaries pay” principle, meaning the             necessary to address impacts to terrestrial and
         prepared separately by various funding                                                                  cost will be borne by those who receive the            aquatic species associated with construction
         agencies and through ongoing discussions           To achieve these important goals:                    benefit. The beneficiaries of the BDCP water           and operation. Chapter 8 assumes that the
         between the state and federal governments,                                                              conveyance facilities include certain municipal,       costs of constructing and operating the water
                                                              • The Plan will be funded in part through
         the state and federal water contractors,                                                                industrial, and agricultural water users served        facilities will be shared by the state and federal
                                                                state and federal* agencies and other
         and other interests. The final financial                                                                by the SWP and CVP.                                    water contractors.
                                                                public funding sources.
         arrangements will require appropriate
                                                              • Substantial funding will be provided by          In recognition of that benefit, substantial            The current estimate for state and federal
         approvals, contractual arrangements, and
                                                                participating state and federal water            funding would be provided by participating             water contractor funding of BDCP over
         additional authorities.
                                                                contractors for the construction and             state and federal water contractors for                the 50-year permit term is $16.9 billion, or
         Chapter 8 also:                                        operation of the new water facilities,           construction and operation of the new water            approximately 68% of total BDCP funding.
                                                                as well as for mitigation necessary to
            • Establishes funding needs for BDCP                address impacts to terrestrial and aquatic
              implementation over the 50-year permit            species associated with construction and
              term and beyond                                   operation.                                       State Funding
            • Helps guide decisions regarding
              allocation of funding responsibilities            * Subject to future federal appropriations.      Habitat restoration provides a broad public            ballot. The Legislature is currently considering
              among plan participants                                                                            value. Accordingly, it is expected to be partially     amendments to this bond. Subsequent water
            • Establishes a “beneficiary pays” principle,                                                        funded by a variety of state and federal               bonds that would partially fund the habitat
              whereby the costs of the plan are paid                                                             sources.                                               restoration and other stressors reduction
              by those who benefit from the plan,                                                                                                                       actions are also expected to occur during the
                                                                                                                 Initial state funding is anticipated to come           50-year permit term.
              including the state and general public        The following pages describe the estimated
                                                                                                                 from two future water bonds, including the
                                                            funding from participating state and federal
         Chapter 8 describes the types of sources                                                                water bond approved by the California State            The current estimate for state funding
                                                            water contractors, state and federal agencies,
         that are expected to be available to                                                                    Legislature in 2009 for the statewide ballot.          of BDCP over the 50-year permit term is
                                                            and other sources. For details, see Chapter 8 of
         support the implementation actions                                                                      This bond was postponed until the 2014                 $4.1 billion, or 17% of total BDCP funding.
                                                            the public Draft BDCP. The totals in the following
         identified in the Plan.                            tables may not sum directly due to rounding.

 92 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                              Implementation 93
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

                                                                                                             Ongoing Cost and Funding Analysis

                                                                                                             Analysis of other financial aspects of the BDCP   The socioeconomic analysis satisfies NEPA’s
       Federal Funding                                                                                       continues. The purpose of these analyses, in      requirements regarding socioeconomic
       The BDCP proponents anticipate that federal funding would be expected to come from the same           addition to those included in Chapter 8, are      impacts. It should be noted that CEQA does
       authorities used in the past to support Delta restoration and monitoring as well as new authorities   to provide detailed information and solicit       not require a discussion of socioeconomic
       expected to be needed. Annual appropriations have historically been provided to seven federal         input from stakeholders, permitting agencies,     effects, except where they would result in
       agencies for tasks and staffing that are similar in nature to certain BDCP conservation measures:     and the public. While Chapter 8 evaluates the     reasonably foreseeable adverse physical
                                                                                                             estimated costs and potential funding sources     changes to the environment.
          •   U.S. Bureau of Reclamation                                                                     for the proposed project, the environmental
          •   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                                                                                                                   Statewide Economic Impact Study
                                                                                                             review evaluates socioeconomic impacts of
          •   National Marine Fisheries Service                                                              multiple alternatives.                            A statewide economic impact study is being
          •   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers                                                                                                                     prepared to examine the economic impacts of
          •   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                                                           Evaluation of Socioeconomic Impacts               the BDCP on various interest groups, including
          •   Natural Resource Conservation Service                                                          The BDCP environmental analysis includes an       Delta farmers, commercial fishing interests,
          •   U.S. Geological Survey                                                                         extensive evaluation of the socioeconomic         recreational users of the Delta, and others. The
                                                                                                             impacts anticipated from implementation of        study also examines whether the project is a
       The current estimate for federal funding of BDCP over the 50-year permit term is $3.5 billion,
                                                                                                             the BDCP. Chapter 16 of the EIR/EIS evaluates     worthwhile investment for the participating
       or 14% of total BDCP funding. New federal legislation is needed to provide for continued funding
                                                                                                             the BDCP-proposed project and a variety of        state and federal water contractors and for
       under existing and new authorities that allow additional federal appropriations to support BDCP.
                                                                                                             different alternatives including through-Delta,   state as a whole. This assessment is needed to
       Competitive federal grants are expected to provide additional federal funding.
                                                                                                             isolated conveyance, varying levels of habitat    understand the broader social and economic
       Other Funding Sources                                                                                 restoration, and a no action alternative. This    impacts of the proposed project. The Draft
                                                                                                             analysis discloses the socioeconomic impacts      Statewide Economic Study, released in August
       While future interest rates are uncertain, BDCP is expected to gain limited income from interest on
                                                                                                             of alternative ways to improve water supply       2013, indicated that the BDCP would result in a
       revenue not yet spent under even the most conservative assumptions. Estimated funding from
                                                                                                             reliability of state and federal water projects   significant net economic benefit to the state of
       interest income totals $165 million over the 50-year permit term, or approximately 1% of total
                                                                                                             and restoration of the Delta ecosystem. Every     California and to Delta counties and residents.
       funding. Chapter 8 also discusses potential funding sources such as endowments and leveraging
                                                                                                             alternative is evaluated in an equal level
       state tax credit for donated conservation lands.                                                                                                        The final study is expected to be completed
                                                                                                             of detail, and socioeconomic impacts are
                                                                                                                                                               during the public review period for the Draft
                                                                                                             described quantitatively and qualitatively.
                                                                                                                                                               BDCP and Draft EIR/EIS and will be available
                                                                                                             The analysis focuses on impacts to community
                                                                                                                                                               online at:
                                                                                                             character, social and economic characteristics,
                                                                                                             population, housing, employment, and
                                                                                                             income. Chapter 28, Environmental Justice, of
                                                                                                             the EIR/EIS presents additional information on
                                                                                                             individual racial/ethnic groups, low-income
                                                                                                             populations, and poverty levels.

 94 Implementation                                                                                                                                                                                   Implementation 95
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                 December 2013

                                                                                                                                                                                        How Cost and Economic Benefit are
      What is “Take”?             BDCP Alternatives to Take                                                     How Take Alternatives Compare                                           Determined
      “Take” is defined           The ESA requires analysis of alternatives in a habitat conservation plan      Four primary criteria were applied to BDCP take alternatives in         As	a	part	of	the	practicability	assessment,	
      by the federal ESA          that may avoid or reduce the “take” of various species covered by the         Chapter 9 to assess how take alternatives compare to the BDCP           Chapter 9 describes the economic benefits
      as harass, harm,            BDCP. Chapter 9 of the public Draft BDCP describes these alternatives,        proposed actions:                                                       to	water	agencies	in	three	categories:	
      pursue, hunt, shoot,        called “take alternatives.” These take alternatives were developed based,                                                                             water supply, water quality, and seismic
                                                                                                                1. Incidental take relative to the BDCP proposed actions                risk reduction. The cost practicability test
      wound, kill, trap,          in part, on the alternatives in the Administrative Draft EIR/EIS. However,
                                  the take alternatives are different from the alternatives to the proposed
                                                                                                                   A comparison of the likely effects of take alternatives on covered   compares the incremental benefits of an
      capture, or collect
                                                                                                                   species, including levels of incidental take and conservation        alternative to its incremental costs—from
      any threatened              action in the EIR/EIS because they serve a different purpose. In Chapter 9,
                                                                                                                   benefits during construction, operation, and maintenance.            2015 through	2075*—to	determine	whether	
      or endangered               the take alternatives are used to evaluate the feasibility of reducing
                                                                                                                                                                                        it is	economically	feasible.	
      species. Permits            take of the covered species. An important criterion for assessing take        2. Consistency with BDCP goals
                                  alternatives is known as “practicability.” This test involves, among other       An evaluation of whether alternatives to take are consistent,        The cost of the BDCP and each take alternative
      may be issued for
                                                                                                                   or inconsistent, with the overall goal of the BDCP.                  are also compared to two reasonable scenarios
      the “incidental take”       things, determining whether the project would be economically feasible.
                                                                                                                                                                                        without the BDCP. For example, without the
      of endangered and                                                                                         3. Practicability of Take Alternatives
                                  Chapter 9 describes take alternatives considered during the                                                                                           BDCP,	the	existing	water	conveyance	(i.e.,	
      threatened wildlife                                                                                          An analysis of the cost, logistics, and technology of each take      south	Delta	facilities)	would	remain	in	place	
                                  development of the BDCP that may result in less incidental take or more
      species allowing                                                                                             alternative:                                                         and continue to operate as a part of the SWP
                                  conservation benefit. Chapter 9 fulfills a specific and narrow regulatory
      permit holders to                                                                                                                                                                 and CVP. Covered fish populations would be
                                  purpose under the federal ESA. This chapter should be viewed as a tool          a. For a take alternative to pass the cost practicability test, it
      proceed with an                                                                                                                                                                   expected to continue to decline. To arrest those
                                  to help understand the process for selecting the proposed project.                 must be economically feasible, generating economic benefits
      activity, such as                                                                                                                                                                 declines, operational constraints similar to
                                                                                                                     to the funding entities that are larger than its costs.
      construction or                                                                                                                                                                   those of BDCP could be imposed on the existing
      other economic                                                                                              b. Logistical considerations include accessibility and availability   infrastructure.		It	is	also	reasonable	to	assume	
      development, that           Chapter 9 Fulfills ESA Regulatory Requirement                                      of resources and sufficient suitable lands necessary for           that some level of habitat restoration would
      may result in the                                                                                              construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyance             be required without BDCP to comply with the
                                  The federal ESA requires DWR, as the applicant for an “incidental take”            facilities and habitat restoration.                                current	Biological	Opinions.
      “incidental” taking
                                  permit, to evaluate in an HCP what alternative actions to the “take” of
      of a listed species.                                                                                        c. Technology considerations rendered take alternatives               These	scenarios,	called	the	Existing	Conveyance	
                                  federally listed species were considered and why those alternatives were                                                                              High-Outflow	Scenario	and	the	Existing	
                                                                                                                     impracticable in cases when the alternative would require
                                  not selected.                                                                                                                                         Conveyance	Low-Outflow	Scenario,	are	used	to	
                                                                                                                     the use of untested or unproven technology.
                                                                                                                                                                                        provide a reasonable comparison point for the
                                                                                                                4. Additional adverse and unavoidable effects                           cost practicability analysis and the evaluation
                                                                                                                   Identification of resource areas where significant and               for consistency with BDCP goals.
                                                                                                                   unavoidable adverse effects would result from a take
                                                                                                                   alternative, such as air quality, water quality, land use, and       *2075 was used as the end point of the economic analysis to
                                                                                                                                                                                         account for the 50-year life of the water facility. The additional
                                                                                                                   effect, on other species.                                             10 years assumes that a permit extension would be granted to
                                                                                                                                                                                         continue operations.

 96 Alternative BDCP Approaches                                                                                                                                                                            Alternative BDCP Approaches 97
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          December 2013

        Summary of Take                                Take             Take Alternative Description                             Operational Criteria 1                        Average Annual       Primary Differences between Take Alternative
                                                    Alternative                                                                                                                Water Deliveries 2   and BDCP Proposed Action
        Alternatives Evaluated
                                                         BDCP          Dual-conveyance	with	Intakes	at	         Decision tree for Fall X2 and                                  4.71–5.59	MAF	3
                                                       Proposed        locations	2,	3,	and	5,	and	up	to	        spring	outflow,	Scenario	6	OMR,	                               North	Delta:	49%     N/A
        Chapter 9 of the public Draft                   Action         9,000 cfs	diversion	capacity	            without	San	Joaquin	River	I/E	ratio                            South	Delta:	51%                                                                                Scenario 6:
        BDCP studies these alternatives                                                                                                                                                             CM1 components:                                                            State and federal regulatory agencies developed
                                                                      Dual-conveyance with
        to take.                                    A:				West	Canal	 west canal alignment,
                                                                                                                Modified spring outflow, Fall X2,                              5.01	MAF             •			Location	and	type	of	primary	conveyance	facility                       Scenario 6	to	identify	alternative	operating	criteria	to	
                                                                                                                OMR	criteria	same	as	BiOp	RPAs,	                               North	Delta:	52%     •			Location	of	intakes	and	associated	intake	facilities
                                                          15,000	cfs Intakes	W1	through	W5,	and	
                                                                                                                without	San	Joaquin	River	I/E	ratio                            South	Delta:	48%     •			Number	of	pumping	plants	                                              address Sacramento River flows downstream of the
                                                                      up	to	15,000	cfs	diversion	capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Water	facility	components                                              intakes, San Joaquin River migratory fish survival,
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CM1 components:                                                            April	through	May	Old	River	and	Middle	River	flows,	
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	and	location	of	intakes	and	associated	intake	facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •				Number	of	pumping	plants	                                             spring Delta outflow for longfin smelt, and Fall X2.
                                                                       Dual-conveyance	with	Intakes	at	                                                                        4.49	MAF
                                                    B:				Tunnels	                                              Modified spring outflow, Fall X2,                                                   •				Location	of	conveyances	pipelines	and	initial	tunnel	between	         Appendix	5.J	of	the	public	Draft	BDCP		provides	
                                                                       locations	1	and	2	and	up	to	6,000	cfs	                                                                  North	Delta:	41%
                                                          6,000 cfs                                             Scenario 6	OMR	criteria,	without	San Joaquin	River	I/E	ratio                             intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay
                                                                       north Delta diversion capacity                                                                          South	Delta:	59%                                                                                additional information on Scenario 6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	of	forebays
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			North	Delta	diversion	capacity	
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			South	Delta	diversions
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CM1 components:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	and	location	of	intakes	and	associated	intake	facilities
       Why	Are	the	Take	Alternatives	Different	                        Dual-conveyance with tunnel/                                                                            5.01	MAF	
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	of	pumping	plants	
                                                    C:				Tunnels                                                                                                                                   •				Location	of	conveyances	pipelines	and	initial	tunnel	between	
       from	the	EIR/EIS	Alternatives?	                    15,000	cfs
                                                                       pipeline, five intakes, and up to        Same	as	Take	Alternative	A                                     North	Delta:	52%
                                                                                                                                                                                                         intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay                    Notes:
                                                                       15,000	cfs	diversion	capacity	                                                                          South	Delta:	48%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	of	forebays                                                 1		
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              		Reverse	flow	criteria	improved	from	NMFS	2009	BiOp	
       Alternatives	to	reduce	or	avoid	the	take	                                                                                                                                                    •			North	Delta	diversion	capacity                                          reasonable and prudent alternative.
       of covered species are often distinct from                                                                                                                                                   •			South	Delta	diversions                                             2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              		Values	are	for	the	early	long-term	(2025).	Entries	with	
       the alternatives developed to satisfy                                                                                                                                                        CM1 components:                                                             ranges represent take alternatives with the decision
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	and	location	of	intakes	and	associated	intake	facilities         tree. Proportions associated with north Delta and
       CEQA	and	NEPA	regulatory	requirements.	                         Dual-conveyance with                                                                                                         •			Number	of	pumping	plants                                                south Delta represent the average fraction of water
       Alternatives	to	satisfy	CEQA	must	avoid	                        Intake	in	location	1	with	up	to	                                                                                             •			Location	of	conveyances	pipelines	and	initial	tunnel	                   deliveries from each point of diversion based on the
                                                                                                                Modified spring outflow, Fall X2,                              4.19	MAF                                                                                         historic frequency of water year types.
                                                    D:				Tunnels	     3,000 cfs	north	Delta	diversion	                                                                                                 between intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay
       or substantially lessen impacts to the                                                                   Scenario	6	OMR	criteria,	without	                              North	Delta:	28%
                                                          3,000 cfs    capacity; reduce tidal natural                                                                                               •			Number	of	forebays                                                 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              		Take	Alternatives	G	and	H	include	the	same	CM1	
                                                                                                                San	Joaquin	River	I/E	ratio                                    South	Delta:	72%
       human environment on a wide variety                             communities restoration to                                                                                                   •			North	Delta	diversion	capacity                                          operating criteria as is included in the BDCP proposed
                                                                       40,000 acres                                                                                                                 •			South	Delta	diversions                                                  action.	Take	Alternatives	G	and	H	include	different	
       of	issue	areas.	In	contrast,	alternative	                                                                                                                                                    CM4 Components                                                              restoration	configurations	for	CMs	4,	5	and	6	than	
       actions evaluated in an HCP are only                                                                                                                                                         •			Amount/location	of	tidal	natural	communities	restored                   the BDCP proposed action. These differences in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CM1 components:                                                             tidal wetland restoration may affect the outflow
       required to avoid or lessen impacts to                          Isolated	conveyance	with	pipeline	       Modified spring outflow and Fall X2;                           3.40	MAF             •			Operation	of	existing	SWP	and	CVP	south	Delta	export	facilities	        requirements and, therefore, may result in different
       covered fish and wildlife species.           E:				Isolated	                                                                                                                                                                                                             water supply than that shown in this table. No
                                                                       and	five	intakes,	with	up	to	15,000 cfs	 no south Delta criteria because                                North	Delta:	100%        for Clifton Court Forebay and Jones Pumping Plant
                                                          15,000	cfs                                                                                                                                                                                                            information exists to more specifically estimate water
                                                                       north Delta diversion capacity           south Delta diversion is not operating                         South	Delta:	0%      •			Number	and	location	of	intakes	and	associated	intake	facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Number	of	forebays                                                      supply for these take alternatives. Therefore, the water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                supply shown in this table is a reasonable estimate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CM1 components:                                                             The March through May average outflow criteria for
                                                                                                           Modified	spring	outflow	and	Fall X2,	                                                                                                                                the high-outflow outcome of the spring outflow
                                                                       Through-Delta conveyance with Delta                                                                     4.17	MAF             •			Location	and	type	of	primary	conveyance	facility
                                                    F:				Through-                                         OMR	criteria	same	as	BiOp	RPAs,	without	San	Joaquin	River	                                                                                                           decisions tree are noted in Chapter 9, Table 9-3.
       How Are Take Alternatives Different?                            channel modifications and different                                                                     North	Delta:	0%      •			Number	of	intake	pumping	plants
                                                          Delta                                            I/E	ratio	except	when	flows	at	Vernalis	are	greater	than	
                                                                       intake locations                                                                                        South	Delta:	100%    •			Number	of	diversion	pumping	plants
                                                                                                           10,000	cfs	
       The take alternatives vary in as few                                                                                                                                                         •			Number	of	intermediate	pumping	plants
       components as possible to allow              G:				Less	Tidal	 Reduce tidal natural communities
                                                                                                                                                                               4.71–5.59	MAF	3
                                                                                                                                                                                                    CM4 components:
                                                                                                                Same	as	BDCP	Proposed	Action                                   North	Delta:	49%
       comparisons. They vary along three basic           Restoration restoration	to	50,000	acres	3                                                                            South	Delta:	51%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Amount/location	of	tidal	natural	communities	restoration            BiOp	 =	 biological	opinion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cfs	      =	 cubic	feet	per	second
       dimensions:	(1)	the	location,	type,	and	                                                                                                                                                     CM4 components:                                                         CM	       =	 conservation	measure
                                                                      Increase	tidal	natural	communities	
       scale of the water conveyance facility,                        restoration	to	75,000	acres,	seasonally	                                                                 4.71–5.59	MAF	3      •			Amount/location	of	tidal	natural	communities	restoration	           CVP	 =	 Central	Valley	Project	
                                                    H:				More	                                                                                                                                     CM5 components:                                                         I/E	ratio	=	 inflow/export	ratio	
       (2)	the	amount	of	natural	community	                           inundated floodplain restoration to      Same	as	BDCP	Proposed	Action                                    North	Delta:	49%
                                                          Restoration                                                                                                                               •			Amount/location	of	seasonally	inundated	floodplain	restoration      MAF	 =	 million	acre-feet
                                                                      20,000 acres, and channel margin                                                                         South	Delta:	51%
       restoration,	and	(3)	water	operations.                                                                                                                                                       CM6 components:                                                         N/A	 =	 not	applicable
                                                                      enhancement	to	40	linear	miles	3
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •			Amount/location	of	channel	margin	enhancement                       NMFS	 =	 National	Marine	Fisheries	Service	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OMR	 =	 Old	and	Middle	River	
                                                                                                                Same	as	BDCP	Proposed	Action	but	modified	spring	outflow	
                                                    I:				Modified	                                                                                                            4.34	MAF                                                                                     RPA	 =	 reasonable	and	prudent	alternative	
                                                                                                                criteria	(44,500	cfs	in	50%	of	years	instead	of	average	                            CM1 component:
                                                          Spring       Spring	outflow	at	44,500	cfs                                                                            North	Delta:	51%                                                                             SWP	 =	 State	Water	Project	
                                                                                                                monthly outflow scaled to the 90% forecast for the water                            •		Rate	of	flow	for	spring	outflow	operating	criteria	
                                                          Outflow                                                                                                              South	Delta:	49%                                                                             X2	       =	 measure	of	western	Delta	salinity
                                                                                                                year, with scaling3)

 98 Alternative BDCP Approaches                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alternative BDCP Approaches 99
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         December 2013

        Chapter 9 Summary of Conclusions                                                                                                                            Annual Water Deliveries

        Years of study and analysis have shown that the actions proposed in the BDCP are those that not only                                                        Per the Chapter 9 analysis of the BDCP proposed action, average annual water deliveries under BDCP
        meet the goals of the BDCP, but also do the best at balancing those goals with levels of take for all fish                                                  proposed water conveyance is estimated to fall between 4.7 and 5.6 million acre-feet depending on
        and wildlife species, with economic, technical, and logistical viability, and with other environmental                                                      hydrology and other factors. The following graphic compares the estimated water supplies that would
        effects. There are alternatives to take that meet some, or even most, of the criteria. However, none of                                                     result from continued operations of the existing system under projected regulatory restrictions in the
        the take alternatives to the proposed BDCP meet all of the criteria required of a successful project.                                                       future, compared to estimated water deliveries under BDCP actions.

        The table below shows whether the take alternatives meet each of the criteria. A “No” in any criteria
        eliminates that take alternative from viability. For example, Take Alternative B would convey less                                                                                  Actual and Projected Water Deliveries with and without BDCP
        water from the north Delta than the proposed actions, provides a similar level of conservation benefit,                                                          6
        and does not add unavoidable adverse effects. However, Take Alternative B does not pass the cost
        practicability test because Water Contractor benefits would not exceed costs by a 20% margin* and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         High Project
        it would result in greater take than the proposed action from an operational perspective due to an                                                                                                                WITH BDCP: Ecosystem          Deliveries: 5.6
                                                                                                                                                                         5                                                Improvements and Climate
        increased reliance on south Delta intakes, therefore eliminating it as a viable alternative.                                                                          20-Year                                     Change Adaptations
                                                                                      * 20% is a typical value used in economic cost benefit test.                           Deliveries:                                                                 Low Project
                                                                                                                                                                                 5.2       Ecosystem       Current                                      Deliveries: 4.7
                                                                                                                                                                         4                  Decline        Project
                                   Reduces      Conservation                                                                                                                                              Deliveries:
                                 Take of Some       Benefit                                 Practicability Assessment
                                   Covered         to Some                                                                         No Additional                                                              4.7
                                                                  Consistent                                                                                                                                                                  High Project

                                                                                                                                                     Million-Acre Feet
                  Take              Species        Covered                                                                         Unavoidable
                                                                  with BDCP                                                                                                                                                                  Deliveries: 3.9
              Alternative 1        Without         Species                                                                           Adverse
                                                                  Dual Goals?       Do Water
                                  Increasing       Without                                                                            Effects?
                                    Take of      Decreasing                        Contractor      Logistically    Technically
                                                                                                                                                                         3                                                                    Low Project
                                   Others? 3        Take of                          Benefits       Feasible?       Feasible?                                                                                             WITHOUT BDCP:      Deliveries: 3.4
                                                 Others? 2,3                      Exceed Costs?                                                                                                                           Continued
            BDCP Proposed                                                                                                                                                                                                 Decline
            Action Tunnels            -               -               Yes             Yes              Yes              Yes              -
            9,000 cfs                                                                                                                                                    2
            A: West Canal,
               15,000 cfs            No              N/C              Yes             Yes              Yes              Yes             No
            B: Tunnels,
               6,000 cfs             No              N/C              Yes              No              Yes              Yes             Yes
            C: Tunnels,
               15,000 cfs            No              N/C              Yes             Yes              Yes              Yes             No
            D: Tunnel,
               3,000 cfs             No              No               No               No              Yes              Yes             Yes
            E: Isolated,
               15,000 cfs            No              N/C              No               No              Yes              Yes             No                                    1992                         TODAY                                      2025
            F: Through-Delta         No              N/C              No              Yes              Yes              No              No
            G: Less Tidal
               Restoration           Yes             No               No              Yes              Yes              Yes             Yes
            H: More
               Restoration           No              Yes              Yes             Yes              No               Yes             No
            I: Modified Spring
               Outflow               Yes             Yes              No               No              Yes              Yes             No
             Take Alternatives fail if answer is “No” to one or more questions.
             In some cases, take alternatives also increase or reduce benefits to some covered species. For example, Take Alternative G reduces
             benefits to covered fish due to less tidal natural community restoration. Take Alternative H increases benefits to some covered fish
             due to more restoration of several aquatic natural communities, but increases take on some covered terrestrial species.
             Measured against the BDCP.
        N/C = No measurable change in benefits compared to the BDCP.

 100 Alternative BDCP Approaches                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Alternative BDCP Approaches 101
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             December 2013

        Economic Benefits of Take Alternatives                                                                                      Summary of BDCP Benefits

        Appendix 9.A of the public Draft BDCP provides a detailed                                                                    The costs and economic benefits of the BDCP                                     The table below summarizes the economic
        analysis of the direct economic benefits to the state’s urban and          The BDCP would be implemented                     and the various take alternatives described                                     benefits and costs to the state’s urban and
        agricultural water agencies receiving water supplies from the CVP          over 50 years, and many important                 below are calculated using the following                                        agricultural water agencies receiving water
        and the SWP. These water agencies will fund the construction               factors such as the underlying                    common assumptions:                                                             supplies from the CVP and SWP under
        and operation of the new water conveyance facility. To make                demand for water and the nature                                                                                                   each take alternative. Economic benefits
        this investment economically feasible, the economic benefits of            of environmental regulations in                     • Construction begins in 2015 and lasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     are calculated in comparison to “Existing
        the facility must exceed the costs. Appendix 9.A evaluates these           the Delta will continue to evolve.                    10 years.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Conveyance,” without BDCP, for high- and
        costs and economic benefits. This information is used in Chapter           Nonetheless, two conclusions                        • BDCP operations begin in 2025 and extend
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     low-outflow scenarios (see box at right for
        9 to evaluate the cost practicability of each take alternative.            emerge from Appendix 9.A:                             to 2075 to include a 50-year operating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     explanation). As a result, some benefits are
                                                                                   1.   As proposed, the BDCP would                                                                                                  negative, meaning it would be worse to
                                                                                                                                       • All values are in 2012 dollars (millions), and
                                                                                        result in substantial economic                                                                                               implement the alternative than to do nothing.
                                                                                                                                         are discounted to present value using a
                                                                                        benefits to the urban and
                                                                                                                                         3 percent real discount rate.
                                                                                        agricultural water agencies
        As	is	standard	in	economics,	Appendix	9.A	compares	economic	outcomes	
                                                                                        that rely on the Delta for at least
        of the BDCP proposed action to the conditions assuming the BDCP is not          a portion of their water supplies.        Alternative or Scenario Description                     Total Economic Benefits and Costs
        implemented.	For	the	purposes	of	this	analysis,	“Existing	Conveyance”	                                                                                                                                                      Chapter 9 High-Outflow
                                                                                   2. Implementing the BDCP                        Alternative or          Facility Size Deliveries   1
                                                                                                                                                                                           Total       Total           Net          and Low-Outflow Scenarios
        represents the existing water delivery infrastructure without BDCP. BDCP                                                      Scenario                 (cfs)       (MAF)          Benefits     Costs         Benefits
                                                                                      would help reduce a range               BDCP proposed action            9,000         4.705         $18,011     $13,472         $4,540
        proposed action is compared to existing conveyance with the water                                                                                                                                                           Existing	conveyance	with	high-outflow	
                                                                                      of risks that are of great              high-outflow scenario
        operations restrictions that are proposed in the Plan.                                                                                                                                                                      and low-outflow scenarios were used
                                                                                      consequence to the public,              BDCP proposed action            9,000         5.591         $18,826     $13,487         $5,339
                                                                                                                              low-outflow scenario                                                                                  to provide a reasonable comparison
                                                                                      including uncertainty pertaining
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    point for the cost practicability
                                                                                      to water supplies, vulnerability        A:	W	Canal	15,000	cfs          15,000         5.009         $23,187     $11,110        $12,076
        Values analyzed in this section (Appendix 9.A) are reported in                                                                                                                                                              analysis.	In	both	scenarios,	existing	
                                                                                      to earthquakes in the Delta             B:	Tunnels	6,000	cfs            6,000         4.487         $14,445     $12,345         $2,089
        discounted 2012 dollars. Chapter 8 presents cost and funding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    conveyance is assumed in the future.
                                                                                      region that can threaten levee          C:	Tunnels	15,000	cfs          15,000         5.009         $23,187     $15,641         $7,545
        estimated in undiscounted 2012 dollars after adjusting for                    stability, disrupt water exports,       D:	Tunnel:	3,000	cfs            3,000         4.188          $8,923     $10,240        -$1,317
        inflation. For comparison purposes, the cost of the BDCP in                   and restrictions on Delta water                                                                                                                 High-Outflow Scenario
                                                                                                                              E:	Isolated	15,000	cfs         15,000         3.399         -$8,697     $15,711        -$24,407
        discounted dollars is estimated at $18.9 billion.                             exports as a result of future sea                                                                                                               Assumes:
                                                                                                                              F:	Through-Delta               15,000 2       4.172         $12,060     $5,233          $6,826
                                                                                      level rise and other effects of
                                                                                                                              G:	Less	Tidal	Restoration       9,000         4.705         $18,011     $13,432         $4,579          •		Operations	of	existing	south	Delta	water	
                                                                                      climate change.                                                                                                                                    conveyance facilities
                                                                                                                              H:	More	Restoration             9,000         4.705         $18,011     $13,505         $4,506          •	Fall	X2	and	enhanced	spring	outflow
                                                                                                                              I:	Modified	Spring	Outflow      9,000         4.338         $13,417     $13,472         -$55            •	South	Delta	operating	restriction	(Scenario	6)
                                                                                                                              Existing	Conveyance	             N/A          3.446                                                     •		Implementation	of	some	floodplain	
                                                                                                                              High-Outflow	Scenario                                                                                      restoration	in	the	Yolo	Bypass
                                                                                                                              Existing	Conveyance	             N/A          3.889                                                     •		Installation	of	one	nonphysical	barrier
                                                                                                                              Low-Outflow	Scenario
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Low-Outflow Scenario
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Assumes	costs	similar	to	the	high-outflow	
                                                                                                                                  Total average annual water deliveries.                                                              scenario, but without Fall X2 and additional
                                                                                                                                  Two	7,500	cfs	intakes	would	be	constructed:	one	each	at	the	Delta	Cross	Channel	                    spring outflow
                                                                                                                                  and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta.
                                                                                                                                cfs	=	cubic	feet	per	second						MAF	=	million	acre-feet

 102 Alternative BDCP Approaches                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alternative BDCP Approaches 103
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            December 2013

        The BDCP would reduce risks to statewide water supplies by addressing uncertainty associated with                                               Benefit of Reduced Seismic Risk
        water deliveries, vulnerability of the water supplies to earthquakes in the Delta region, and restrictions
                                                                                                                                                        An important benefit of an isolated                Expected Present Value Benefits of
        on Delta water exports as a result of future sea level rise and other effects of climate change. The                                                                                               Reduced Seismic Risk (millions)
                                                                                                                                                        conveyance facility is that it reduces the
        associated benefits of reducing each of these risks are outlined in the following tables.
                                                                                                                                                        vulnerability of the water export system to
                                                                                                                                                        expected seismic events in the Delta region. As                                                                     of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Take                  Facility      Deliveries   1
        Water Supply Benefits                                                    Water Quality Benefits                                                 presently configured, large earthquakes in and           Alternative             Size (cfs)       (MAF)
        Several take alternatives analyzed in Chapter 9                          By diverting water directly from the Sacramento River                  around the Delta region may cause numerous                                                                         Risk
        would result in significant net benefits to the                          through new intakes, the BDCP will reduce salinity                     levees to fail and flood some islands. When        BDCP proposed action             9,000          4.705            $470
        agencies participating in the development of                             levels in, and improve the quality of, Delta water                     these islands flood, seawater may be pulled        high-outflow scenario
        the BDCP due to the value of increased water                             exports. Permit requirements will continue to protect                  into the Delta, potentially rendering its waters   BDCP proposed action             9,000          5.591            $364
                                                                                                                                                                                                           low-outflow scenario
        supply reliability. The expected present                                 water quality for in-Delta users. The improved water                   unsuitable for export purposes for some
                                                                                                                                                                                                           A:	W	Canal	15,000	cfs           15,000          5.009            $563
        value benefits to water supply are $15.7                                 quality benefits to urban and agricultural users                       period of time. During this outage period,
                                                                                                                                                                                                           B:	Tunnels	6,000	cfs             6,000          4.487            $313	
        billion for the BDCP under the high-outflow                              attributed to reduced salinity has a present value                     no SWP or CVP deliveries could be made,
                                                                                                                                                        resulting in a potential shortage to consumers     C:	Tunnels	15,000	cfs           15,000          5.009            $563
        scenario and $16.6 billion for the BDCP                                  of roughly $1.8 billion under the BDCP proposed
                                                                                                                                                        throughout the Bay Area, San Joaquin Valley,       D:	Tunnel:	3,000	cfs             3,000          4.188                $55
        under the low-outflow scenario.                                          action high-outflow and low-outflow scenarios.
                                                                                                                                                        Central Coast, and Southern California.            E:	Isolated	15,000	cfs          15,000          3.399            $665
                                                                                                                                                                                                           F:	Through-Delta               15,000    2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           4.172            -$62
        Expected Present Value Benefits of                                       Expected Present Value Benefits of
        Water Supply Reliability (millions)                                      Water Quality Improvements (millions)                                  The expected welfare benefits of reduced           G:	Less	Tidal	Restoration        9,000          4.705            $470
                                                                                                                                                        seismic risks to urban and agricultural            H:	More	Restoration              9,000          4.705            $470
                                                                       Total                                                                  Total     agencies would be $0.5 billion under the
                  Take                 Facility      Deliveries 1      Water              Take                 Facility Deliveries 1          Water                                                        I:	Modified	Spring	Outflow       9,000          4.338            $470
               Alternative            Size (cfs)       (MAF)          Supply           Alternative            Size (cfs)  (MAF)              Quality    BDCP high-outflow scenario and $0.4 billion        Notes:
                                                                      Benefits                                                               Benefits   under the BDCP low-outflow scenario.               1
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Total average annual water deliveries.
         BDCP proposed action            9,000           4.705         $15,722   BDCP proposed action           9,000           4.705          $1,819                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Two	7,500	cfs	intakes	would	be	constructed:	one	each	at	
         high-outflow scenario                                                   high-outflow scenario                                                  These benefits are relatively low due to a           the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta.
         BDCP proposed action            9,000           5.591         $16,642   BDCP proposed action           9,000           5.591          $1,819   conservative estimate of a Delta outage. More      cfs	=	cubic	feet	per	second						MAF	=	million	acre-feet
         low-outflow scenario                                                    low-outflow scenario
                                                                                                                                                        severe seismic events could lead to a longer
         A:	W	Canal	15,000	cfs          15,000           5.009         $21,305   A:	W	Canal	15,000	cfs          15,000          5.009          $1,319
                                                                                                                                                        outage, resulting in greater BDCP seismic risk
         B:	Tunnels	6,000	cfs            6,000           4.487         $13,130   B:	Tunnels	6,000	cfs           6,000           4.487          $1,002   reduction benefits.
         C:	Tunnels	15,000	cfs          15,000           5.009         $21,305   C:	Tunnels	15,000	cfs          15,000          5.009          $1,319
         D:	Tunnel:	3,000	cfs            3,000           4.188          $7,799   D:	Tunnel:	3,000	cfs           3,000           4.188          $1,068
         E:	Isolated	15,000	cfs         15,000           3.399        -$11,937   E:	Isolated	15,000	cfs         15,000          3.399          $2,576
         F:	Through-Delta               15,000   2
                                                         4.172          $9,363   F:	Through-Delta              15,000   2
                                                                                                                                4.172          $2,759
         G:	Less	Tidal	Restoration       9,000           4.705         $15,722   G:	Less	Tidal	Restoration      9,000           4.705          $1,819
         H:	More	Restoration             9,000           4.705         $15,722   H:	More	Restoration            9,000           4.705          $1,819
         I:	Modified	Spring	Outflow      9,000           4.338         $11,128   I:	Modified	Spring	Outflow     9,000           4.338          $1,819
            Notes:                                                                 Notes:
              Total average annual water deliveries.                               1
                                                                                     Total average annual water deliveries.
              Two	7,500	cfs	intakes	would	be	constructed:	one	each	at	             2
                                                                                     Two	7,500	cfs	intakes	would	be	constructed:	one	each	at	
              the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta.       the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta.
            cfs	=	cubic	feet	per	second						MAF	=	million	acre-feet               cfs	=	cubic	feet	per	second						MAF	=	million	acre-feet

 104 Alternative BDCP Approaches                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Alternative BDCP Approaches 105
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      December 2013

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Step 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Does the alternative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 meet the project’s

       ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW                                                                                                                                                                                                     purpose and need?

                             While conservation plans                    The environmental review will:                                     The Alternatives Screening Process                                     Step 2
  The environmental          like the BDCP are meant                                                                                                                                                              Does the
                                                                           • Identify environmental impacts                                                                                                                                             Step 3
  review process is being    to be beneficial to the                                                                                        The 15 action alternatives analyzed in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                             alternative reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Is the alternative
                                                                           • Evaluate reasonable alternatives that could                                                                                     or avoid significant
  conducted by four state    environment, specific                                                                                          Draft EIR/EIS were developed over a 7-year                                                                  feasible?
                                                                             avoid or minimize those impacts                                                                                                      impacts?
  and federal agencies;      actions in the Plan can                                                                                        period in collaboration with state and federal
                                                                           • Develop mitigation (ways to reduce or avoid
  DWR is the state lead      have an impact on natural                                                                                      agencies, public water agencies, nongovernment
                                                                             environmental impacts)
                             (biological) and human                                                                                         organizations, agricultural interests, and the
  agency	under	CEQA,	                                                      • Provide information for public review and                                                                          Screening Level Two                        Only those alternatives
                             environments. These                                                                                            general public. To satisfy CEQA and NEPA                                                       that fulfilled all three
  while Reclamation,                                                         comment                                                                                                              Focused on identification of
                             impacts must be evaluated                                                                                                                                                                                     levels of screening
  USFWS, and NMFS serve                                                    • Disclose to decision-makers the project                        requirements, state and federal lead agencies         those alternatives that would            criteria were moved
                             and actions identified to                                                                                      are required to study, and make available for                                                  forward for further
  as the joint federal co-                                                   impacts, mitigation, and public comments                                                                             avoid or substantially reduce
                             mitigate them. State and                                                                                                                                                                                      evaluation and study.
                                                                                                                                            public review and comment, a reasonable range         potential adverse impacts.
  leads	under	NEPA.          federal environmental                       The EIR/EIS will evaluate a reasonable range of                    of alternatives for consideration that meet the
                             laws require a review of                    alternatives, including a no action alternative and                                                                      Through the second screening process,
                                                                                                                                            project’s purpose and need.
                             potential impacts of the                    an independent impact analysis for key resource                                                                          21 alternatives representing a synthesis of the
        BDCP before it can be approved, permitted,                       areas (such as water resources, air quality, and                   The BDCP alternatives were selected using a           conveyance concepts and operational concepts
        and implemented. A combined EIR/EIS is being                     cultural resources). Mitigation is proposed in the                 multi-step screening selection process, including     were developed.
        prepared in accordance with CEQA and NEPA.                       EIR/EIS to reduce impacts on the environment.                      consideration of the responsible and cooperating
                                                                                                                                                                                                Screening Level Three
                                                                                                                                            agencies’ comments during scoping and on
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Focused on identification of those alternatives
                                                                                                                                            preliminary draft documents. Alternatives were
                                                                                                                                                                                                  that were technically feasible and practical in
                                                                                                                                            also screened to ensure compliance with the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  terms of design, construction, and cost. Because
                                                                                                                                            2009 Delta Reform Act.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  CEQA and NEPA require only that a reasonable
          The	public	review	Draft	EIR/EIS	is	available	for	public	review	on	the	BDCP	website:             Screening Level One                                   range of alternatives be considered, alternatives
                                                                                                                                              Focused on identification of alternatives           were narrowed down to eliminate duplicative
                                                                                                                                              that would allow for the conservation and           analyses.
      BDCP Environmental Review Process                                                                                                       management of covered species; protection
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ultimately, 15 action alternatives and the No
                                                                                                                                              and restoration of aquatic, riparian, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Action Alternative were carried forward for
                                                                                                                                              terrestrial habitats; and restoration and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  evaluation in the EIR/EIS. Each action alternative
                                                                                                                                              protection of SWP and CVP water supply
                 CEQA EIR                                    Lead Agencies                                                                    reliability.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  includes conservation components such as
                                                           Staff/Consultants                                                                                                                      creation and restoration of habitat, activities
                                  EIR/EIS Process                                   Alternatives                                              The first screening process resulted in the         to reduce other stressors (e.g., water quality
                                                                                                             Draft EIR/EIS and                development of initial conveyance concepts          improvements), and reduction of predation.
                                     Conduct                                                                                       Final
                                  Environmental                                                                                               and operational considerations.
                                                                                                              Public Review       EIR/EIS
                                     Analysis                 Public Input
                                                                                                               & Comment
                 NEPA EIS                                                                    BDCP
                                                           Scoping Meetings                 Action
 106 Environmental Review                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Environmental Review 107
       EIR/EIS Alternatives Analysis
       The 15 action alternatives and the No Action                                               hydrology, and the human environment. The                                           stakeholder and agency involvement over the
       Alternative selected for review in the Draft EIR/EIS                                       alternatives studied in the EIR/EIS include a variety                               last 7 years. Draft EIR/EIS Alternative 4 represents
       include various combinations of water conveyance                                           of conveyance alignments and other specifications                                   the BDCP Proposed Project outlined in this
       configurations, capacities, operations, and habitat                                        resulting from public scoping sessions conducted                                    Highlights of the BDCP document.
       restoration, and their effects on biological resources,                                    in 2008 and 2009, the Delta Reform Act of 2009, and

       EIR/EIS Alternatives                                                                                                                                                           Operational Scenarios                                                                        W2
                                                                                                   NORTH DELTA
                            ALIGNMENT          CONVEYANCE                INTAkE
                                                                                                                                                    HABITAT RESTORATION 3               Scenario A would include specific criteria guiding water supply                                                                     2
                             OPTION 1             TYPE 1               LOCATIONS 2                                            SCENARIO                                                                                                                                   W4
                                                                                                   CAPACITY (cfs)                                                                       parameters at a variety of locations and facilities. This scenario
                                                                                                                                                                                        includes criteria for: north Delta diversion bypass flows; south            W5                                                          3
         No Action                                Through-
                                                                             N/A                 Current Operations                 N/A                          N/A                    Delta channel flows; Fremont Weir/Yolo Bypass operations;                                                                                       Intakes2
                                                                                                                                                                                        Delta inflow and outflow; Delta Cross Channel gate operations;                                                                              4
         Alternative 1A    Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual               1 through 5                    15,000 cfs                    A                                                  Rio Vista minimum instream flows; Delta water quality and
                                                                                                                                                                                        residence time; and in-Delta agricultural, municipal, and
         Alternative 1B      East Canal              Dual               1 through 5                    15,000 cfs                    A                                                  industrial water quality requirements.                                                                                                      5

         Alternative 1C      West Canal              Dual         West (W)1 through W5                 15,000 cfs                    A                                                                                                                                                                                              6
                                                                                                                                                                                        Scenario B includes additional south Delta modifications from
                                                                                                                                                                                        Scenario A. This scenario would add an operable barrier at the
         Alternative 2A    Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual
                                                                       1 to 3, 6 and 7,
                                                                                                       15,000 cfs                    B                                                  Head of Old River, Fall X2, and additional south Delta protections.                                                                      7
                                                                       or 1 through 5                                                             Approximately 153,000 acres of
                                                                                                                                                  restored and protected habitat
                                                                       1 to 3, 6 and 7,
         Alternative 2B      East Canal              Dual                                              15,000 cfs                    B
                                                                       or 1 through 5                                                                                                   Scenario C would adopt the operational guidelines of Scenario A
                                                                                                                                                                                        north of the Delta. South of the Delta, this scenario would be
         Alternative 2C      West Canal              Dual             W1 through W5                    15,000 cfs                    B                                                  consistent with the existing 2008-2009 Biological Opinions.

         Alternative 3     Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual                  1 and 2                     6,000 cfs                     A
                                                                                                                                                                                        Scenario D would be modified from Scenario A to eliminate use
                              Modified                                                                                                                                                  of south Delta intakes and add criteria surrounding Fall X2.
         Alternative 4 *   Pipeline/Tunnel
                                                     Dual                2, 3, and 5                   9,000 cfs                     H

                                                                                                                                                  Approximately 113,000 acres of
         Alternative 5     Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual                     1                        3,000 cfs                     C                                                  Scenario E would be modified from Scenario A to increase
                                                                                                                                                  restored and protected habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                        north Delta diversion bypass flow and would include other
                                                                                                     15,000 cfs                                                                         modifications to south Delta channel flow criteria, Fremont Weir
         Alternative 6A    Pipeline/Tunnel         Isolated             1 through 5                                                  D
                                                                                               (No South Delta Intakes)                                                                 operations, Rio Vista minimum instream flow criteria, and Delta
                                                                                                     15,000 cfs                                   Approximately 153,000 acres of        inflow and outflow criteria.
         Alternative 6B      East Canal            Isolated             1 through 5                                                  D
                                                                                               (No South Delta Intakes)                           restored and protected habitat

                                                                                                     15,000 cfs                                                                         Scenario F increases Delta outflow up to 1.5 million acre-feet
         Alternative 6C      West Canal            Isolated           W1 through W5                                                  D
                                                                                               (No South Delta Intakes)
                                                                                                                                                                                        annually, as requested by the SWRCB and other interest groups.
                                                                                                                                                  Approximately 163,000 acres of
                                                                                                                                                  restored and protected habitat
         Alternative 7     Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual                2, 3, and 5                   9,000 cfs                     E
                                                                                                                                                  and an additional 20 miles of         Scenario G would be similar to those described under
                                                                                                                                                  Channel Margin Habitat                Scenario B, but would be modified to conform to the conveyance
         Alternative 8     Pipeline/Tunnel           Dual                2, 3, and 5                   9,000 cfs                     F
                                                                                                                                                                                        components of the separate corridors option.

                                                                                                                                                  Approximately 153,000 acres of
                           Through-Delta                           Delta Cross Channel                                                                                                                                                                                             Intake
                                                  Through-                                                                                        restored and protected habitat        Scenario H would be modified from Scenario A to include the
         Alternative 9        Separate                            and Georgiana Slough                 15,000 cfs                    G                                                                                                                                             Intake Line
                              Corridor                            channel modifications                                                                                                 decision tree process and CM1 operations. This operational                                 Pipeline/Tunnel Option
                                                                                                                                                                                        scenario is included in the proposed BDCP project under CM1.                               Modified Pipeline/Tunnel Option
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   East Option
        * (BDCP Proposed Project)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  West Option
                                  Alignment and conveyance options may include a combination of isolated, pipeline/tunnel, or canal features that may be lined, unlined,                More information on the Decision Tree process and adaptive management is
                                  and located east, west, through, or under the Delta.                                                                                                  provided in the CM1: Water Facilities and Operations section beginning on        Separate Corridor Option
                                  Intake locations are analyzed for maximum impacts and may be refined. Appendix 3F of the public Draft BDCP provides additional information.           page 26.                                                                                   Fish Movement Corridor            All features shown are conceptual
                                  The BDCP planning process is working with various stakeholders to define more specific habitat restoration measures. These individual restoration                                                                                                Water Supply Corridor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and subject to change
                                  projects may be the subject of separate, site-specific environmental review processes as the BDCP or an alternative is approved and implemented.

108 Environmental Review                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Environmental Review 109
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                              December 2013

       Public Participation and
                                                                                                                               ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS
       Completing the BDCP
                                                                                                                                BDCP          Bay Delta Conservation Plan
       The availability of the public Draft BDCP and              The Final BDCP and Final EIR/EIS will be
                                                                                                                                CDFW          California Department of Fish and Wildlife
       public Draft EIR/EIS is accompanied by a                   submitted to federal, state, and local regulatory
                                                                                                                                CEQA          California Environmental Quality Act
       120-day public review and comment period                   agencies for approval and permit authorization.
       for both documents. During the formal public               After the EIR/EIS is certified and permits have               CESA          California Endangered Species Act
       review period, copies of both documents will               been issued, implementation of the actions                    cfs           cubic feet per second
       be available online, in repositories throughout            covered in the BDCP can begin.                                CM            conservation measure
       the state, and by request.                                                                                               CVP           Central Valley Project
                                                                                                                                CZ            conservation zone
       The state and federal lead agencies will also
                                                                                                                                Delta         Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta
       hold a series of public meetings in early 2014
       to provide information about the project and                                                                             DRERIP        Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan
       accept formal comments. All formal public                                                                                DSC           Delta Stewardship Council
       comments received on the Draft EIR/EIS will be                                                                           DWR           Department of Water Resources
       considered in the development of the Final                                                                               DWSC          Deep Water Ship Channel
       EIR/EIS. Details on how to provide comments                                                                              EA            Effects Analysis
       are available at:                                                                                                        EIR           environmental impact report                                                                                        EIS           environmental impact statement
                                                                                                                                ELT           early long-term
                                                                                                                                ESA           Endangered Species Act
                                                                                                                                GIS           geographic information system
                                                                                                                                HCP           Habitat Conservation Plan
       Public Participation Process                                                                                             I/E ratio     import/export ratio
                                                        You Are                                                                 LLT           late long-term
                                                                                                                                NCCP          Natural Community Conservation Plan
                                                                                                                                NCCPA         Natural Community Conservation Planning Act
                                                                                                                                NEPA          National Environmental Policy Act
         Lead and                            Lead          Public                               Lead
                            Consultant                                                                                          NMFS          National Marine Fisheries Service
                                             agencies      Draft
                                                                             Public             agencies           Final
         agency review
                            Draft EIR/EIS
                                             prepare       EIR/EIS
                                                                             Comments           prepare            EIR/EIS      NT            near-term
         of Consultant
                            released to
                                             Public        for formal
                                                                             Received           Final              released
         Administrative                      Draft         review and                           EIR/EIS            to public    O&M           operations and maintenance
         Draft EIR/EIS                       EIR/EIS       comment
                                                                                                                                OMR           Old and Middle Rivers
                                                                                                                                Reclamation   U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
                                                           Public Draft EIR/EIS process will include:                           ROA           Restoration Opportunity Area
                                                                                                                                RPA           reasonable and prudent alternative
                                                             •	Public meetings
                                                             •	Documents available at local libraries and online                SWP           State Water Project
                                                             •	Online information available at     SWRCB         California State Water Resources Control Board
                                                             •		Public comment accepted via email, standard mail,               USFWS         U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
                                                                hand delivery, and at public meetings
                                                                                                                                X2            The area in the Delta where fresh and salt water meet that is used as a
                                                             •		Landowner liaison to answer questions
                                                                                                                                              tool to manage water quality and Delta outflows, particularly in the fall.
                                                             •		120-day public review and comment period

 110 Environmental Review                                                                                                                                                                                     Acronyms and Definitions 111
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    December 2013

        Acre-foot – The volume of water that would                 Central Valley Project (CVP) – A federal water project           Delta – The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an          Endangered Species Act (ESA) – First enacted in 1973,
        cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to        operated by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation that irrigates       expansive inland inverted river delta and estuary, the        the purpose of this law is to provide a means whereby
        1,233.5 cubic meters (43,560 cubic feet).                  more than 3 million acres of farmland and provides drinking      largest on this half of the Pacific Rim and one of only       the ecosystems upon which endangered species and
                                                                   water to nearly 2 million consumers.                             a few worldwide. The Delta is formed at the western           threatened species depend, may be conserved and to
        Adaptive Management – A method for examining                                                                                edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the           provide a program for the conservation of these species.
        alternative strategies for meeting measurable              Channel Margin Restoration – Habitat restoration aimed           Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers which empty into            ESA is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
        biological goals and objectives, and adjusting future      at returning suitable sites along the waterside of levees to     Suisun Bay, an upper arm of San Francisco Bay.                and the Commerce Department’s NOAA Fisheries. The
        conservation management actions accordingly.               a more natural condition for increased food production,                                                                        USFWS has primary responsibility for terrestrial and
                                                                   rearing habitat, improved water temperature conditions,          Delta Reform Act 2009 – Legislation that created              freshwater organisms, while the responsibilities of NOAA
                                                                   and movement corridors for fish.                                 the Delta Stewardship Council, established new                Fisheries are mainly marine wildlife such as whales and
        Bay Delta Conservation Plan (BDCP) –                                                                                                                                                      anadromous fish such as salmon.
        A conservation plan prepared for the Sacramento-                                                                            standards for groundwater monitoring, statewide
        San Joaquin River Delta region to meet ESA and             Climate Change – Any significant change in the measures          water conservation, enforcing Delta diversion, and
        NCCPA requirements.                                        of climate lasting for an extended period of time.               setting state policy that achieves water supply reliability   Entrainment – The incidental diversion of fish and other
                                                                   Climate change includes major changes in temperature,            and restoring the Delta’s ecosystem must be applied           aquatic organisms that can occur when water is diverted
                                                                   precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur        coequally.                                                    from streams, rivers, or reservoirs.
        Biological Goal – A guiding principle for conservation
        in the Plan Area, based on the conservation needs of       over several decades or longer.
        the covered species and natural communities.                                                                                Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration                          Environmental Impact Report (EIR) – A detailed
                                                                   Co-Equal Goals – The goals of achieving water supply             Implementation Plan (DRERIP) – One of four regional           statement prepared under CEQA describing and
                                                                   reliability and restoration of the Delta’s ecosystem that must   plans intended to guide the implementation of the             analyzing the significant environmental effects of a
        Biological Objective – Measurable target that, if met,                                                                      CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program element.                 project on the human and natural environment and
        will achieve or support a biological goal.                 be applied coequally as directed in the Delta Reform Act of
                                                                   2009. The BDCP is aimed at contributing to the achievement       DRERIP was developed to refine the planning foundation        discussing ways to mitigate or avoid the effects.
                                                                   these two goals.                                                 specific to the Delta, refine existing and develop new
        Biological Opinion – Document that states the                                                                               Delta-specific restoration actions and provide Delta-         Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) – An
        opinion of either the USFWS or NMFS as to whether                                                                           specific implementation guidance, program tracking,           environmental impact document prepared pursuant
        a federal agency is likely to jeopardize the continued     Conservation Measure – A suite of related actions                performance evaluation, and adaptive management
                                                                   designed to achieve the biological goals and objectives                                                                        to NEPA for a major federal action that will significantly
        existence of listed species or result in the destruction                                                                    feedback.                                                     affect the quality of the human environment.
        or adverse modification of critical habitat.               of the BDCP and to satisfy state and federal regulatory
                                                                                                                                    Delta Stewardship Council (DSC) – Created by the              Environmental Justice (EJ) – The fair treatment and
        CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program –                                                                                      legislature in 2009, the Delta Stewardship Council is an      meaningful involvement of all people regardless of
        A multi-agency effort aimed at improving and               Conservation Zones – Geographic areas defined by the             independent state agency tasked with developing a
                                                                   biological needs of the species covered in the BDCP.                                                                           race, color, national origin, educational level, or income
        increasing aquatic and terrestrial habitats and                                                                             plan for achieving the coequal goals of providing a more      with respect to the development, implementation,
        ecological function in the Delta and its tributaries.                                                                       reliable water supply and protecting, restoring, and          and enforcement of environmental laws. EJ seeks to
                                                                   Covered Activities – Activities to be undertaken by non-         enhancing the Delta ecosystem.                                ensure that minority and low-income communities
        California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) – A            federal entities and proposed for coverage under incidental                                                                    have access to public information relating to human
        California law enacted in 1970 intended to require         take authorizations that are expected to be issued by            Early Long-Term – BDCP conservation measures that             health and environmental planning, regulations, and
        decision-makers to document and consider the               the state and/or federal fish and wildlife agencies on the       will be implemented in years 11 through 15 of the             enforcement. EJ ensures that no population, especially
        environmental consequences of their actions and to         basis of the BDCP. Covered activities are related primarily      50-year term of the BDCP.                                     the elderly and children, are forced to shoulder a
        provide a vehicle for public input into governmental       to water supply and power generation, including water                                                                          disproportionate burden of the negative human health
        actions that have environmental consequences. CEQA         conveyance (pipes, canals, and pumps), facility maintenance                                                                    and environmental impacts of pollution or other
                                                                   and improvements, but also include ecosystem restoration         Ecosystem – All of the living organisms of a natural
        requires the preparation of an environmental impact                                                                         community together with their surrounding physical            environmental hazard.
        report (EIR) for any project that may have significant     actions found in conservation measures.
                                                                                                                                    environment (e.g., soil, climate, water, light) all
        environmental effects. CEQA applies to any project                                                                          functioning as a unit. All the living organisms of an         Expected Outcomes – The anticipated ecological
        that requires approval by a state or local government      Covered Species – A special group of species, all native         ecosystem are linked together and with the physical           results of implementing the BDCP based on the Effects
        body.                                                      to the Delta, that have been imperiled by past human             environment by physical, chemical, and biological             Analysis.
                                                                   activities. The BDCP includes goals and objectives designed      processes.
        California Endangered Species Act (CESA) – State           to contribute to the protection and recovery of these
                                                                   species.                                                                                                                       Flow – The rate, direction, and volume of water
        law declaring it a policy of California to conserve,                                                                        Effects Analysis – The systematic, scientific evaluation      movement.
        protect, restore, and enhance endangered and                                                                                of the potential beneficial, adverse and net effect of the
        threatened species and their habitat, and allowing         Decision Tree – A tool developed to address areas of             BDCP. The Effects Analysis is Chapter 5 of the BDCP.
        authorization of the take of state-listed threatened,      scientific debate and uncertainty and adaptively manage                                                                        Forebay – A reservoir, usually small, constructed
        endangered, or candidate species if certain conditions     BDCP operations and flows to meet biological goals and                                                                         immediately upstream of an intake structure to
        are met.                                                   objectives.                                                      Endangered – Any species in danger of extinction              temporarily hold water.
                                                                                                                                    throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

 112 Acronyms and Definitions                                                                                                                                                                                                         Acronyms and Definitions 113
December 2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                       December 2013

        Habitat – An ecological or environmental area              Natural Community – Distinct, identifiable, and           Outflow – The amount of water passing a given            Setback levee – A constructed embankment to
        inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant,        recurring assemblage of plants and animals that are       point downstream of a structure.                         prevent flooding that is positioned some distance
        or other type of organism. Habitat is the natural          ecologically interrelated.                                                                                         from the edge of the river or channel.
        environment in which an organism lives, or the                                                                       Plan Area – The statutory Delta and all other areas
        physical environment that surrounds a species              Natural Community Conservation Plan                       where conservation measures are expected to be           Spawning Habitat – Aquatic habitat suitable for fish
        population.                                                (NCCP) – A Plan prepared pursuant to a planning           implemented to advance the goals and objectives          reproduction (e.g., egg laying and incubation).
                                                                   agreement entered into in accordance with Fish and        of the Plan. For example, the Suisun Marsh is located
        Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) – A plan prepared          Game Code Section 2810 and that identifies and            outside the statutory Delta, but it is part of the       State Water Project (SWP) – A water project
        under Section 10(a)(1)(B) of the ESA that provides         provides for the measures necessary to conserve           Plan Area and will be the focus of extensive tidal       operated and maintained by the California
        for partnerships between the USFWS and/or NOAA             and manage biological diversity within the Plan Area      restoration during the implementation of the BDCP.       Department of Water Resources that provides water
        Fisheries and non-federal parties to conserve the          while allowing compatible and appropriate economic                                                                 supplies for 25 million Californians and 755,000 acres
        ecosystems upon which listed species depend,               development, growth and other human uses.                 Rearing Habitat – Areas in Delta channels where          of irrigated farmland.
        ultimately contributing to their recovery. HCPs are                                                                  juvenile fish find food and shelter to live and grow.
        required as part of an application for an icidental take   Natural Community Conservation Planning                                                                            Take – Defined in the federal and state ESAs as to
        permit and can apply to listed and nonlisted species.      Act (NCCPA) – A California law authorizing the            Riparian Habitat – The green, vegetated areas on         harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap,
                                                                   Natural Community Conservation Plan program               each side of streams and rivers. These areas serve       capture, or collect a threatened or endangered
        Implementing Agreement – An agreement that                 to use an ecosystem approach to conserve                  many important functions, including purifying water      species.
        defines the terms for implementing an HCP.                 natural communities at the ecosystem scale while          by removing sediments and other contaminants;
                                                                   accommodating compatible land use. NCCPA                  reducing the risk of flooding and associated damage;     Threatened Species – Any species that is likely
        Incidental Take Permit – A permit that allows for          authorizes the CDFW to enter into a planning              reducing stream channel and stream bank erosion;         to become an endangered species within the
        the take of listed species incidental to, and not the      agreement with any person or public agency to             increasing available water and stream flow duration      foreseeable future throughout all or a significant
        purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity.                  prepare a natural community conservation plan in          by holding water in stream banks and aquifers;           portion of its range.
                                                                   cooperation with a local agency that has land use         supporting a diversity of plant and wildlife species;
        Independent Science Advisors – Those who                   permit authority over the activities proposed to be       maintaining or enhancing habitat conditions for          Vernal Pools – Isolated, seasonal bodies of standing
        provided input and advice, at the request of BDCP, to      addressed in the plan, to provide comprehensive           healthy fish populations in adjacent stream or river     water that typically form in the spring and dry out
        ensure that the Plan has access to the best available      management and conservation of multiple wildlife          reaches; providing water, forage, and shade for          completely in the hotter months of summer. Vernal
        science.                                                   species.                                                  wildlife and livestock; and creating opportunities for   pools range from broad, heavily vegetated lowland
                                                                                                                             recreationists to fish, camp, picnic, and enjoy other    bodies to smaller, isolated upland bodies with little
        Intertidal – The zone between high and low tide.           National Environmental Policy Act                         activities.                                              permanent vegetation. They are devoid of fish and
                                                                   (NEPA) – A federal law adopted by Congress in 1969                                                                 provide important breeding habitat for invertebrates
                                                                   requiring federal agencies to consider the potential      Restoration Opportunity Areas (ROAs) –                   like tadpole and fairy shrimp and many terrestrial or
        Invasive Species – Nonnative or native species
                                                                   environmental consequences of their proposed              Areas identified by the BDCP as the most appropriate,    semiaquatic species such as frogs, salamanders, and
        that adversely affect habitats and bioregions they
                                                                   action, and any reasonable alternatives, before           most promising locations for the restoration of tidal    turtles.
        invade economically, environmentally and/or
                                                                   deciding whether and in what form to take an action.      habitat and associated upland natural communities.
        ecologically. Invasive species threaten the diversity
                                                                   The NEPA review (a process involving environmental        Five ROAs have been identified. They are different
        or abundance of native species through competition                                                                                                                            X2 – X2 is the distance in kilometers from the Golden
                                                                   analyses and documentation) ensures that decisions        from, but overlap with, the conservation zones of the
        for resources, predation, parasitism, interbreeding                                                                                                                           Gate Bridge to the location where tidally averaged
                                                                   are better informed and allows for greater public         Plan Area.
        with native populations, transmitting diseases,                                                                                                                               bottom salinity is 2 parts per thousand (ppt), also
                                                                   involvement. NEPA applies to “proposals for
        or causing physical or chemical changes to the                                                                                                                                referred to as the mixing zone. It is a measure
                                                                   legislation and other major Federal actions.” Federal     Riprap – Rock or other material used to line and
        invaded habitat. Through their impacts on natural                                                                                                                             of western Delta salinity. Upstream of X2 water
                                                                   actions include actions with the potential for            stabilize shorelines. Riprap is an unnatural structure
        ecosystems, agricultural and other developed lands,                                                                                                                           becomes progressively fresher and downstream
                                                                   environmental impacts. Such actions may include           that reduces habitat quality by preventing the
        water delivery and flood protection systems, invasive                                                                                                                         of X2 water becomes more brackish (saltier) until
                                                                   adoption and approval of official policy, formal plans,   establishment and growth of vegetation.
        species may also negatively affect human health and/                                                                                                                          reaching the ocean. The location of X2 is largely
                                                                   programs, and specific federal projects. NEPA also
        or the economy.                                                                                                                                                               controlled by the amount of water flowing out of the
                                                                   applies in cases where an agency is exercising its
                                                                                                                             Salinity – The amount of dissolved salts in a given      Delta (Delta outflow). The higher the volume of water
                                                                   discretion in deciding whether and how to exercise
        Late Long-Term – BDCP conservation measures that                                                                     volume of water.                                         flowing out of the Delta, the shorter the distance
                                                                   its authority over an otherwise non-federal project
        will be implemented in years 16 through 50 of the                                                                                                                             from the Golden Gate Bridge to the 2 ppt (X2) salinity
                                                                   (for example, issuing a permit or approving funding).
        50-year term of the BDCP.                                                                                            Scenario 6 – State and federal regulatory agencies       line.
                                                                                                                             developed Scenario 6 to identify alternative
                                                                   Nonphysical fish barrier – A device placed in a
        Listed Species – Species designated as candidate,                                                                    operating criteria to address Sacramento River
                                                                   waterway to deter and prevent fish from passing
        threatened, or endangered pursuant to CESA and/or                                                                    flows downstream of the intakes, San Joaquin River
                                                                   without preventing the flow of water. Deterrents
        listed as threatened or endangered under ESA.                                                                        migratory fish survival, April through May Old River
                                                                   such as lights, sounds, or bubbles may be used.
                                                                                                                             and Middle River flows, Spring Delta outflow for
                                                                                                                             longfin smelt, and Fall X2.

 114 Acronyms and Definitions                                                                                                                                                                                            Acronyms and Definitions 115

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