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BAYDELTA CONSERVATIONPLAN BDCP HIGHLIGHTS BDCP Bay Delta Conservation Plan December 2013 December 2013 December 13, 2013 Dear Reader, After seven years of discussion, collaboration, research, independent review, and informal public scrutiny, the Bay Delta Conservation Plan has been released for formal public review and comment. This document, titled Highlights of the BDCP, gives an overview of the legal basis for the plan and its central elements, which intend to meet the co-equal goals of ecosystem restoration and water supply reliability, as mandated by the 2009 Delta Reform Act. This document is based on technical information and is not intended to substitute for the 9,000 pages of material in the actual plan, available at www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com. Few parts of California are disconnected from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Nearly half of California’s land surface drains to the Delta, while water drawn from this low-lying estuary sustains cities and farms from San Jose to San Diego. The historic abundance and diversity of the region’s wildlife was legendary, from massive sturgeon to thick flocks of waterfowl. Several Delta species are now listed under state and federal laws to prevent extinction, and they have come to symbolize the estuary’s compromised ecology. California has struggled for several decades to balance competing demands for the Delta’s resources. The Bay Delta Conservation Plan offers a comprehensive, long-lasting, adaptive approach to both restore ecological functions and improve water supply reliability. The plan details 22 separate conservation measures intended to reverse the decline of the Delta’s native fish, plant and wildlife species. The plan identifies changes to the Delta water delivery system that would both reduce harm to fisheries and protect against risks posed by the failure of This Highlights of the BDCP provides levees. Earthquakes, sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and ongoing subsidence of a high-level overview of the public Delta islands together threaten Delta levees. Draft Bay Delta Conservation Plan. Analysis of alternatives and impacts to Delta communities are described in a separate document, It is intended to acquaint the reader the Bay Delta Conservation Plan Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. with the contents of the public Draft This 25,000-page document is also available for public review and comment. BDCP, and help the reader navigate that document. The Highlights of the The public review period for both documents will last until April 14, 2014. Government agencies, BDCP is not part of the Bay Delta cities, counties, elected officials, tribes, landowners, organizations, businesses, and the general Conservation Plan. public are encouraged to review and comment on the plan and its potential impacts. At stake are California’s natural heritage and economic prosperity. The Bay Delta Conservation Plan reflects the widespread recognition that we cannot stabilize water deliveries from the Delta without reversing recent ecological trends. It also reflects the general agreement that the current situation in the Delta is unsustainable, and we must act now for the sake of future generations. John Laird, Secretary California Natural Resources Agency Photos are courtesy of DWR unless otherwise noted. On the cover: Swainson’s hawk (left) For more information, visit www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com December 2013 Table of Contents Introduction 1 The Delta The Delta as a Place The Problem BDCP Solutions BDCP Approach Habitat Conservation Planning BDCP in Context of Other Delta Efforts Overview of the Plan 12 Description of Chapters INTRODUCTION Delta Smelt Covered Species Science Overview 18 BDCP Science Program The Delta Science Review and Input Biological Goals and Objectives The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta The Delta is the critical link in California’s water delivery system. (Delta) is a vitally important ecosystem and About half of California’s annual runoff flows to the Delta. Two out Conservation Strategy 24 home to hundreds of aquatic and terrestrial of three Californians and 3 million acres of farmland receive some Conservation Zones species, many of which are unique to the water delivered from the Delta. A multitude of fish and wildlife Conservation Measures area. The Delta is home to more than 500,000 species depend upon the Delta for survival. people, and a thriving agricultural economy. Expected Outcomes 52 The Delta is also a critical link in California’s Development of Effects Analysis Models water supply system. Climate Change Delta Effects Analysis for Natural Communities Freshwater originating in the Sierra Nevada Primary Water Sources Effects Analysis for Covered Fish and eastern coastal range flows to the SWP/CWP Service Areas Delta, providing water supplies for 25 million Californians and the economies Out ow to Ocean Implementation 78 Adaptive Management and Monitoring of the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and Southern California. This water Sacramento Governance Implementation Schedule irrigates farms where much of the nation’s domestic fresh produce is grown. The Delta San Francisco Cost and Funding supports critical infrastructure of statewide Alternative BDCP Approaches 96 importance, including energy transmission Fresno BDCP Alternatives to Take lines; transportation routes for ships, trains and Economic Benefits of Take Alternatives trucks; and water delivery structures. The Delta is also home to historic towns, working farms, Bakers eld Environmental Review 106 and waterways popular with boaters, birders, The Alternatives Screening Process and other recreationalists. EIR/EIS Alternatives Analysis As one of California’s most valuable natural Los Angeles Public Participation resources, the Delta has been stretched to the breaking point. Its ecosystem is in steep Acronyms and Definitions 111 San Diego decline, which jeopardizes the Delta’s ability to deliver water supplies and support fisheries. Introduction 1 December 2013 December 2013 The Delta as a Place The Sacramento, San Joaquin, Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and Calaveras rivers converge in the Delta—the largest estuary on the west coast. The Delta of today is made up of dozens of islands and channels, and more than 1,000 of miles of levees. Not only is the Delta important for fish and wildlife and California’s water delivery system, it also supports distinctive geographic and cultural characteristics. There are 6 counties and 5 cities within the Delta with a resident BDCP Impacts in the Delta population of more than 500,000 people. The implementation of the proposed Bay Delta Conservation Plan (BDCP) conveyance facilities and The Delta sustains an important agricultural industry, features many habitat protection and restoration are expected to have temporary and permanent impacts on the historic sites, draws visitors for numerous recreational activities and Delta. The current proposed BDCP has been modified to reduce the project footprint and make use supports infrastructure of regional and statewide importance. of public lands to reduce impacts to communities and landowners. The public Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) for the BDCP provides the complete analysis Agriculture in the Delta – Beginning in the 1850s, settlers began of BDCP’s potential temporary and permanent impacts. The public Draft EIR/EIS is available for review to reclaim the marsh lands of the Delta for farming by channelizing and comment at www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com. sloughs, building levees, and creating islands. Since that time, the agriculture industry in the Delta has grown into a nearly $800 million Agricultural Land Stewardship Plan dollar industry and a way of life for generations of family-owned The BDCP Draft EIR/EIS proposes a number of mitigation measures designed to reduce the effects of Historic Delta Communities and -operated farms. The agriculture industry of the Delta not only BDCP implementation on agricultural resources. Draft EIR/EIS Chapter 14, Agricultural Resources, sets supports the regional economy, but also is fundamental to the forth the primary Mitigation Measure, AG-1: Develop an Agricultural Lands Stewardship Plan (ALSP) character of the Delta. to preserve agricultural productivity and mitigate for loss of Important Farmland and land subject Historic Character of the Delta – The Delta is home to numerous to Williamson Act contracts or in Farmland Security Zones. There are a number of other mitigation historic communities. During the mid-19th century, communities measures and environmental commitments proposed in the BDCP EIR/EIS that would avoid or lessen large and small began to emerge to meet the needs of a growing effects on agriculture. A number of measures are proposed in chapters that relate to other resource population and economy. Residential and commercial buildings as areas that also would reduce effects on agriculture. well as historic districts constructed during this era of growth still The state is developing the ALSP as a framework for an integrated and collaborative approach to using exist today. These historic buildings have intrinsic cultural value and a variety of agricultural stewardship strategies for addressing the conversion of agricultural land. This are an important component of the fabric of the Delta’s character. approach strives to minimize impacts to the agricultural land resources in the Delta and to avoid long- term cumulative impacts to the agricultural economy and/or to wildlife that depend on farmland for Recreation Recreation in the Delta – The Delta has been a haven for habitat. This approach focuses on maintaining the viability of Delta agriculture. sportsmen since the 1920s. Today, the Delta’s 500 miles of navigable waterways are a recreation destination for boaters, anglers, wind The ALSP approach takes into account the desire of individual Delta farmers to continue working on surfers, kayakers, and canoers. Wildlife viewing, bird watching, their land, the long-term viability of regional agricultural economies, the economic health of local hiking, cycling, camping, picnicking, and hunting are popular governments and special districts, and the Delta as an evolving place. This approach is designed to recreational activities in the Delta. Sightseeing, wine tours, and encourage early planning that results in multiple benefits and long-term partnerships with local festivals draw tourists to the Delta. interests. The goal of this approach is to develop projects with sustainable outcomes that benefit both the environmental and social-economic communities in the Delta. Finally, the approach recognizes Transportation and Navigation in the Delta – In addition to a that local interests, including Delta farmers, have unique and specialized knowledge and seeks to network of roads, highways, freight, and passenger rail in the Delta, involve these interests in the process. Learn more about the Agricultural Land Stewardship Planning marine facilities within the Delta serve as extensions of the surface Process at https://agriculturallandstewardship.water.ca.gov. transportation, particularly for freight and goods. Commercial shipping activities in the Delta are important industries for the Transportation regional economy. 2 Introduction Introduction 3 December 2013 December 2013 The Problem Climate Change Millions of Californians who depend on water supplies Over the last 100 years, sea level has risen Once a vast marsh and floodplain with meandering channels and sloughs, the Delta provided a vital pumped through the Delta have seen those supplies approximately 0.6 feet at the Golden Gate migratory corridor and dynamic habitat for a rich diversity of fish, wildlife, and plants. The Delta of today increasingly reduced as a result of efforts to better Bridge, and as levels continue to rise—an is altered by a system of manmade levees and dredged waterways constructed to support farming and meet the biological needs of protected fish and additional increase of 4 feet or more by 2100 urban development, and to provide flood protection for local towns and cities. The natural flows in the is predicted—pressure will increase against wildlife species. Delta also are altered by operation of the State Water Project (SWP) and Central Valley Project (CVP), Delta levees, potentially causing instability which deliver water to millions of Californians. Many other factors affect species health in the Delta, and seepage. Threatened Water Supplies including water quality issues (e.g., dissolved oxygen and toxic substances), nonnative species, hatchery management, illegal fishing, food availability, predation, and smaller local water diversions. As warmer average temperatures push Despite the careful negotiation of water-sharing snow levels to higher elevations in the plans and agreements to improve statewide In this highly altered environment, several native fish Delta Smelt Population Decline* water management, regulatory requirements Sierra Nevada mountain range, more winter species have declined to the lowest population numbers 2,000 have reduced the flexibility of California’s precipitation will fall as rain. More intense Estimated Population in their recorded histories. In response to this decline and water system. The California Department of 1,500 storm runoff and peak flood events will other factors, federal and state regulators placed limits on Water Resources (DWR) and the United States 1,000 further stress levees. Multiple levee failures Delta water deliveries over the last two decades—making Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) need to from a single flood are possible, depending it increasingly challenging to deliver water to meet the 500 respond to natural differences in the amount of on water levels, tides, wind, and other needs of 25 million Californians and 3 million acres of precipitation the state receives from one year factors. 196 197 197 198 198 199 199 200 200 farmland. The Delta also is threatened by continuing land to the next. Lack of ability to divert water in wet 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 subsidence, seismic risk, and effects of climate change. *Data obtained from CDFW, January 2013. Risk of Catastrophic Failure years due to regulatory requirements prevents The Delta has been carved into levee- water agencies from storing water so that it can The heart of California’s water system rests in ringed islands separated by waterways. be used during dry years. the Delta, and its current configuration puts Subsidence of the Delta’s peat soils it—and the state’s broader economy— due to farming operations has put some of these islands more than The U.S. Geological Survey at serious risk. The status quo of the Delta— 20 feet below sea level. estimates a 63 percent both the ecosystem and the water system chance of a 6.7 magnitude depending on it—is not sustainable. Hundreds of miles of levees in earthquake in the the Delta are vulnerable to winter storms, seepage, slumping, and San Francisco Bay before natural processes that eat away at 2036. The Delta’s current the Delta’s peat soils. levee network has not been tested against such strong A major earthquake or storm pose The Current State of the Delta the greatest dangers to the Delta, seismic activity and the potentially causing levee failures stability of Delta levees Lack of Floodplain Habitat Lost Tidal Marsh and flooding on as many as 20 is of concern due to the Levees act as a barrier, disconnecting many historic floodplains from water Ninety-eight percent of the lands that historically provided intertidal channels. Without the ability to inundate floodplains at critical times, marsh and shallow subtidal habitat have been lost due to levees and islands at once and jeopardizing proximity of fault lines, many fish are left without valuable habitat for spawning and rearing. dikes built to prevent flooding. These barriers have resulted in less water supplies for two-thirds of uncompacted weak habitat for fish and lower production of important aquatic food sources the state. Saltwater from the San soils, and potential Barren Channel Margins and organic material. Francisco Bay could be drawn deep Levees and riprap do not provide fish with ideal habitat features, such for liquefaction. into the Delta, potentially forcing as overhanging shade, instream woody material, and shallow benches. Altered Flow and Entrainment federal (CVP) and state (SWP) water Contaminants, Nutrients, Predation, and Invasive Species Flow and quality of water in the interior Delta can be affected by SWP Levee breaches due to flood project operators to limit exports Contaminants, nutrients, predation, and invasive species affect water and CVP pumps. Fish can be pulled toward and into the pump operations at Tyler Island, 1986 from the south Delta. quality, fish health, the food chain, and habitat conditions, disrupting where they can become disoriented and trapped. the Delta’s natural balance. Source: 2008 Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) 4 Introduction Introduction 5 December 2013 December 2013 BDCP Solutions The BDCP provides a way to improve ecosystem health while also restoring and protecting water How the BDCP Plans to Address the Problem supplies. The BDCP offers the greatest hope in many years that California may manage risks to its central water supply, recover a natural treasure, and deal wisely with future challenges. Align Water Operations to Better Reflect Natural Seasonal Reconnect Floodplains to improve the production of important Flow Patterns by creating new water diversions in the north aquatic food sources for fish as well as spawning and rearing Improving the Delta Ecosystem Delta equipped with state-of-the-art fish screens, thus reducing habitat. The BDCP, through conservation measures, would reverse the trend of habitat loss, habitat reliance on south Delta exports. Greater seasonal variability in degradation, and declining populations of native species, and improve the natural flow patterns Restore and Develop New Tidal Habitat consisting of brackish flows would improve conditions for fish. Minimizing south Delta through the Delta. The BDCP includes an accelerated habitat restoration program that would create and fresh-water tidal marsh and shallow subtidal habitat for pumping would provide more natural east-west flow patterns. 30,000 acres of aquatic habitat over the next 15 years. It would also reconnect floodplains, develop native fish. New diversions help protect critical water supplies against the new tidal habitat, return riverbanks to a more natural state, and boost food supplies for fish. threats of sea level rise and earthquakes. Return Riverbanks to a More Natural State through the addition of logs, trees, bushes, and channel margin habitat Securing Water Supplies from Levee Failures and Climate Change Reduce Physical Impact of a Southern Diversion Point (risk suitable for native fish. The BDCP would partially isolate water deliveries from increasingly stressed Delta levees, while using of fish trapping) by adding north Delta diversion points to allow for greater operational flexibility to better protect fish. North Delta Control Invasive Species and Address Other Stressors state-of-the-art fish screens and water project operating rules that accommodate fish spawning and diversion points would reduce trapping of fish at the pumps. to protect fish from predation and help restore the productivity migratory patterns. The new water delivery facilities would allow water to reach the federal and state of Delta waters. water project pumps even in the event of major levee failure in the Delta. The BDCP would help California cope with changing weather patterns by enabling the capture of large amounts of winter flood flow at times of minimal ecological risk. A more reliable facility for moving water through the Delta would also boost operational flexibility to enhance the state’s ability to respond to drought. Securing More Reliable Water Supplies The BDCP would retrofit, modernize, and add greater flexibility to the state’s water system. The proposed BDCP puts more tools to work that would restore water supply reliability, securing supplies for Californians. The proposed project also reduces exposure to possible system interruption caused by the potential failure of aging levees and seismic events. Additionally, the BDCP could reduce regulation as ecosystem restoration is realized. 6 Introduction Introduction 7 December 2013 December 2013 Co-Equal Goals: Balancing Water Supplies BDCP Approach and Ecosystem Restoration The BDCP is a proposed 50-year Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan (HCP/NCCP) that would help secure California’s water supply by building new water The co-equal planning goals infrastructure and investing in habitat restoration to improve the ecological health of the Delta, while of the BDCP are to: minimizing impacts to local communities and farms. Habitat Conservation Planning · Improve and protect the The BDCP includes a series of conservation measures to enhance ecosystem processes and function, ecological health of the What is a Habitat Conservation Plan and a Natural Delta such as increased seasonal floodplain habitat, intertidal and associated subtidal habitat, improved hydrologic conditions, and improved salinity within the Delta estuary, as well as reduced direct losses Community Conservation Plan? of fish and other aquatic organisms. Each conservation measure plays a part in an interconnected An HCP and NCCP are a comprehensive approach to landscape (or · Protect water supplies web of conservation activities designed to improve the health of natural communities and, in so waterscape)-level environmental improvement provided for in the doing, improve the overall health of the Delta ecosystem. federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act (NCCPA). LI ABILITY As the Delta ecosystem improves in response to the implementation of BDCP conservation measures, RE LY water operations would become more reliable, offering more secure water supplies for two-thirds of An HCP/NCCP describes, among other things: W AT E R S U P P California’s population. • Activities to be covered by a conservation plan • Measures that: R AT I O N - Will be implemented to appropriately minimize What the BDCP would do: and mitigate for the environmental effects of · Provide the permits necessary under federal and state endangered species laws to complete project-level activities that the covered activities, and TO will restore and protect water supply, water quality, and ecosystem health - Will provide for the conservation and management ES of covered species and their habitats R · Provide a comprehensive means to coordinate and standardize mitigation and compensation for impacts associated • Likely effects of implementing actions described ECOSYSTEM with implementing the BDCP in the plan on species and their habitats The BDCP is subject to • Funding sources sufficient to implement a · Provide an adaptive management and monitoring program to enable the BDCP to adjust as conditions change and new environmental review under conservation plan information emerges the National Environmental The goal of an HCP/NCCP is to provide for the conservation of species Policy Act (NEPA) and the · Provide clear expectations and regulatory assurances regarding BDCP activities and habitats covered by a conservation plan. An HCP/NCCP is managed California Environmental · Provide funding and new methods of decision-making for ecosystem improvements adaptively to ensure the conservation plan meets its goals. Quality Act (CEQA). Why is an HCP/NCCP the Best Choice for Achieving A combined Environmental the State’s Co-Equal Goals? Impact Report/Environmental What the BDCP would not do: The BDCP’s approach of using an HCP/NCCP to meet the co-equal goals Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) • Solve all environmental challenges in the Delta reflects a significant departure from the single-species approach used to is being prepared to review date to address the Delta’s ecological troubles. Instead, the BDCP uses the the environmental effects of • Guarantee a specific water supply to any water project user HCP/NCCP approach to begin to address the species and habitat needs of the proposed BDCP actions • Address all factors (such as ocean conditions) that may affect fish and wildlife species the Delta holistically. The HCP/NCCP approach creates a durable regulatory and a reasonable range of framework that will allow for fundamental and systematic improvements alternatives, including a “no • Eliminate other permitting requirements in the Delta. The regulatory nature of the HCP/NCCP also provides a action” alternative. For more mechanism by which project proponents can obtain long-term permits • Address California’s need for continued investment in water conservation, recycling, desalination, treatment of information about the EIR/IES from regulatory agencies in return for meeting ecological needs. contaminated aquifers, and other measures to expand supply and storage process, see pages 106-109. 8 Introduction Learn more about key regulatory guidelines for BDCP development on page 13. Introduction 9 December 2013 December 2013 Application of the Sacramento- BDCP in Context of Other Delta Efforts Federal, State, and Local Program Coordination San Joaquin Delta Reform Act While the BDCP is a cornerstone of balancing water supply In the Delta, a variety of state, local, and federal agencies are responsible for flood, water supply, and The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Reform Act ecosystem management. Many other agencies, non-governmental organizations, and interest groups reliability with ecosystem health under the Delta Reform Act of 2009 prescribed several criteria that must be also are stakeholders in managing public safety, water supply, and ecosystems in the Delta. These of 2009, many additional efforts are underway to address addressed before the BDCP can be incorporated agencies and organizations are already working to support a wide variety of programs, planning flood protection, economic sustainability, land use planning, into the Delta Plan by the Delta Stewardship efforts, and studies in the Delta. and other issues essential to a sustainable future for people Council (DSC): and the environment. • A reasonable range of flow criteria, rates Statewide Water Management Efforts Help Achieve the Co-Equal Goals of diversion, and other operational criteria Delta Stewardship Council As California’s population continues to expand, and the effects of climate change are felt, the need will grow for an integrated required to satisfy the approval of an NCCP. The DSC is an independent state agency required to approach to water management. No quick or singular fix will satisfy California’s future water demand. A multitude of diverse projects, • Other operational requirements and flows develop a comprehensive management plan for the most of them local or regional, are needed. This effort will require cooperation across boundaries and disciplines so that water supply necessary for recovering the Delta ecosystem Delta (Delta Plan). The Proposed Final Draft Delta Plan projects provide multiple benefits, such as managing floodwaters, saving on water treatment costs, and enhancing the environment. and restoring fisheries under a reasonable Programmatic EIR was released in September 2012. The range of hydrologic conditions, which will final plan was adopted by the DSC in May 2013. State The California Water Plan is the State’s long-term strategic plan for guiding the management and development of water resources. The identify the remaining water available for and local agencies proposing covered actions within the water plan is advancing an integrated water management approach that combines flood management, environmental stewardship, export and other beneficial uses . Delta will need to certify for the DSC that those efforts are and water supply actions. The BDCP and integrated water management support one another. Making smart use of water statewide will • The potential effects on migratory fish, consistent with the Delta Plan. The planning efforts of the boost the likelihood that we achieve the co-equal goals of water supply reliability and a healthy Delta ecosystem. aquatic resources, and terrestrial species. Delta Protection Commission, the Delta Conservancy, and the BDCP, along with other conservation planning efforts, Key integrated water management elements that help support the BDCP include: • The potential effects on Sacramento River will inform the DSC as it implements the Delta Plan. · Increases in water use efficiency, both in homes and on farms and San Joaquin River flood management. Delta Plan and BDCP · Increases in water supply, such as through the recycling of wastewater • Reasonable range of Delta conveyance · Improved operational efficiency and transfers or exchanges that move water to meet demand alternatives, including through-Delta, dual- To be incorporated into the Delta Plan and for public funds conveyance, and isolated water conveyance to be available for habitat restoration, the BDCP must be The federal and state governments embrace such actions as part of their broader responsibilities for California water planning— alternatives and capacity and design approved by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife separate but complementary to the BDCP. In fall 2013, the California Natural Resources Agency, California Environmental Protection options of a lined canal, an unlined canal, (CDFW) as an NCCP. Agency, and the California Department of Food and Agriculture released a draft Water Action Plan aimed at providing the foundation for and pipelines/tunnels. sustainable water resource management. The Water Action Plan will be implemented over the next 5 years in close collaboration with State Water Resources Control Board • The potential effects of climate change, sea state, federal, and local governments. Delta Flow Criteria level rise, and changes in total precipitation The Delta Reform Act of 2009 required the California State California is using water smarter than ever before, but great potential savings remain. A 2009 law requires urban water suppliers to and runoff patterns on the conveyance Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to develop flow reduce , on a statewide basis, per capita water use 20 percent by 2020, a change that could reduce demand by 2 million acre-feet per alternatives and habitat restoration criteria for the Delta ecosystem and prohibits construction year. Irrigation districts that supply farmers are now required to charge farmers based at least in part on the volume of water they use, activities considered in the EIR. of BDCP facilities until the Water Board issues an order a change that could accelerate the trend in California agriculture to reduce water consumption. Using municipal wastewater to irrigate • The resilience and recovery of Delta approving a change in the point of diversion, which landscaping, desalination, capture of stormwater, and the elimination of bureaucratic barriers to water transfers will help to stretch local conveyance alternatives in the event of shall include appropriate Delta flow criteria. The DSC has supplies and reduce dependence on exports of water from the Delta. catastrophic loss caused by earthquake, Farmers throughout the Central Valley are using smart recommended that the Water Board adopt and implement flood, or other natural disaster. phones, iPads, and other high-tech devices to monitor flow objectives for the Delta by June 2014. irrigation and soil moisture levels to reduce water • The potential effects of each Delta consumption while maintaining crop production. conveyance alternative on Delta BDCP Relationship with other Delta Efforts water quality. DELTA STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL DELTA PLAN Source: California Water Code Section 85320 STATE WATER RESOURCES BAY DELTA CONSERVATION DELTA PROTECTION DELTA CONSERVANCY COMMISSION CONTROL BOARD PLAN STRATEGIC PLAN ECONOMIC DELTA FLOW CRITERIA CONSERVATION PLAN SUSTAINABILITY PLAN 10 Introduction Introduction 11 December 2013 December 2013 OVERVIEW OF THE PLAN Great Blue Heron Key Regulatory Guidelines The BDCP is an HCP and NCCP (described on page 9) designed Federal Endangered Species Act to meet the goals of ecosystem First enacted in 1973, the purpose of the federal ESA is to provide a means restoration, water supply The BDCP is an HCP and NCCP whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened reliability, and water quality developed to comply with: species depend may be conserved and to provide a program for the within a stable regulatory conservation of these species. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) framework. The BDCP is the • Federal Endangered result of more than 7 years of and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are responsible for Species Act collaboration and scientific and implementing and enforcing ESA. policy review and input. • California Natural Community and Section 7 of ESA requires that a federal agency ensure that any federal The BDCP is fundamentally Conservation Planning Act action undertaken, funded, and carried out not jeopardize the continued rooted in a set of biological goals existence of any listed threatened or endangered species or adversely and objectives. The biological modify or destroy critical habitat. goals and objectives (described on pages 20-23) are used to Section 10 of ESA defines the process and requirements for obtaining an guide the implementation of 22 Incidental Take Permit. To “take” is to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, separate but complementary wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect any threatened or endangered species. conservation measures, which Section 10 was amended in 1982 to require that applicants design, can be grouped by type: water implement, and secure funding for an HCP to minimize or mitigate harm flow/conveyance actions (pages of impacted species due to a project or action as a condition of granting an 26-33), habitat actions (pages Incidental Take permit. Section 10 also defines HCP content requirements. 34-43), and actions to address other stressors (pages 44-50). California Natural Community and Conservation Planning Act Together, the biological goals and objectives, conservation Enacted in 1984, the California Endangered Species Act (CESA) seeks to measures, actions to reduce protect or preserve native species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, or avoid impacts, and the mammals, invertebrates, and plants, and their habitats, from extinction. adaptive management and CESA is administered by the CDFW. monitoring program make up The Plan Area the conservation strategy for the In 1991, the National Community Conservation Planning Act (NCCPA) was BDCP. The BDCP Plan Area includes enacted to help implement CESA. The Act was replaced in 2001 with a the Statutory, or legal, Delta, as revised and expanded NCCPA. This created the NCCP program under the well as parts of Suisun Marsh CDFW. The purpose of the NCCP program is to conserve natural communities and the Yolo Bypass. at the ecosystem level while accommodating compatible land use. 12 Overview of the Plan Overview of the Plan 13 December 2013 December 2013 Description of Chapters The following provides a brief description of each BDCP chapter. Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 8 Chapter 12 Introduction provides background, planning Effects Analysis describes the effects of BDCP Implementation Costs and Funding Sources Glossary goals, regulatory context, a description of the implementation on ecosystem processes, outlines implementation cost estimates Appendices scope of the BDCP including the Plan Area natural communities, and covered species. It over the proposed 50-year term of the is important to note that other environmental BDCP, including the costs related to each of Appendices included in the BDCP provide and covered species, overview of the planning additional technical detail on various topics process, and details of how the BDCP is impacts (such as impacts on the human its primary components. This chapter also environment) are evaluated in the EIR/EIS. identifies likely funding sources. supporting BDCP chapter content. organized. Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 9 Existing Ecological Conditions provides a Plan Implementation describes the timing Alternatives to Take describes alternatives description of historical ecological conditions and phases of conservation measure BDCP considered that would either reduce in the Delta, as well as a description of existing implementation, plan reporting procedures, the amount of take or increase the level of conditions in both the physical environment regulatory assurances, changed circumstances conservation of listed species. The chapter also and in natural communities. and remedial measures, approach to describes in detail whether each alternative addressing unforeseen circumstances, and was found to meet BDCP goals and be Chapter 3 permit amendment procedures. practicable. This Highlights of the BDCP document Conservation Strategy describes biological provides an overview of some, but not all, Chapter 7 Chapter 10 goals and objectives and the conservation chapters included in the 2013 public Draft measures in detail, including the methods Implementation Structure describes the Integration of Independent Science in BDCP. Key aspects of the following chapters and approach. This chapter also describes institutional structure and organizational BDCP Development describes the role of are discussed in this document: Chapter 3, the adaptive management and monitoring arrangements that will be established to independent scientific advice used to guide govern and implement the BDCP. This chapter the development of the BDCP. Conservation Strategy; Chapter 5, Effects program. identifies the roles, functions, authorities, and Analysis; Chapter 6, Plan Implementation; Chapter 4 responsibilities of the various entities that will Chapter 11 Chapter 7, Implementation Structure; participate in BDCP implementation. List of Preparers identifies the entities or Chapter 8, Implementation Costs and Funding Covered Activities describes activities “covered” by the Plan—activities for which individuals who participated in preparing Sources; and Chapter 9, Alternatives to Take. regulatory agencies will make decisions on the BDCP or provided technical assistance on Refer to the 2013 public Draft BDCP online issuance of permits. BDCP development. at www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com for detailed information. 14 Overview of the Plan Overview of the Plan 15 December 2013 December 2013 California Clapper Rail Covered Species Plant and Wildlife Species: Covered species are a special group of species, all native to the Plants Mammals Birds Delta, that have been imperiled by past human activities. The BDCP • Alkali milk-vetch • San Joaquin kit fox • Tricolored blackbird Conservation Strategy includes biological goals and objectives for 56 species, 11 of them fish, and identifies conservation measures • San Joaquin spearscale • Riparian woodrat • Suisun song sparrow designed to contribute to their protection and recovery. The BDCP • Boggs Lake hedge-hyssop • Salt marsh harvest mouse • Yellow-breasted chat Conservation Strategy covers the species listed on these two pages. (CDFW) • Heckard’s peppergrass • Riparian brush rabbit • Least Bell’s vireo Delta tule pea • Legenere • Suisun shrew • Western burrowing owl Fish Species: • Heartscale • Western yellow-billed Reptiles • Delta smelt cuckoo • Brittlescale • Giant garter snake • Longfin smelt • Greater sandhill crane • Slough thistle • Western pond turtle • California black rail • Winter-run Chinook salmon • Suisun thistle Amphibians • California clapper rail • Spring-run Chinook salmon • Soft bird’s-beak • California red-legged frog • Swainson’s hawk (USFWS) • Fall-run and late fall-run • Delta button-celery • California tiger salamander San Joaquin kit fox family Delta smelt Chinook salmon • White-tailed kite • Dwarf downingia Invertebrates • Central Valley steelhead • Carquinez goldenbush • Vernal pool tadpole shrimp • Green sturgeon • Delta tule pea • Conservancy fairy shrimp • White sturgeon • Suisun Marsh aster • Longhorn fairy shrimp • Sacramento splittail • Mason’s lilaeopsis • Vernal pool fairy shrimp • River lamprey • Delta mudwort • Midvalley fairy shrimp (CDFW) • Pacific lamprey • Side-flowering skullcap • California linderiella (USFWS) Chinook salmon California red-legged frog • Valley elderberry longhorn beetle 16 Overview of the Plan Overview of the Plan 17 Science Review and Input to the BDCP Conservation Principles Review 2007 è Options Evaluation Report 2008 è Draft Conservation Strategy Non-aquatic Resources Science Panel Input Adaptive Management Science Panel Input 2009 SCIENCE OVERVIEW DRERIP Science Panel Input – Action Feasibility and Prioritization SCIENCE OVERVIEW Science Review and Input BDCP Science Program: Continuing Goals, Objectives, and Delta Regional Ecosystem Independent Science Reviews 2010 Metrics Science Panel Input Restoration Implementation Conservation plans require an extensive body of scientific investigation, study, Science would play a key role in BDCP implementation, providing information about the è Working Draft BDCP Chapters Plan (DRERIP) Evaluation and analysis. NCCPA requires a process for Aquatic Resources Biological Goals In 2009, the BDCP convened a team of independent science to guide conservation benefits of habitat restoration and improved flows 2011 52 experts to review each of the draft for sensitive fish species, among other issues. and Objectives Science Panel Input plans as they are developed. BDCP uses and conservation measures to identify their builds upon extensive scientific investigation, As part of the BDCP implementation, a science National Research Council Review – effectiveness using a modified DRERIP study, and analysis of the Delta compiled Science and Adaptive Management manager would be selected to manage the evaluation process developed by the CALFED over several decades, as well as new and BDCP science program. The science program Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program. Effects Analysis Science Panel Input ongoing independent research and study. would be open, transparent, and collaborative. In the DRERIP process, teams of experts BDCP Chapter 10 details the integration of independent science in the BDCP It would provide decision-makers and the public with the best science possible on the Delta, and 2012 è Preliminary Draft BDCP Chapters worked through a rigorous examination of proposed actions by analyzing the magnitude development. should increase confidence in the results of Phased Effects Analysis Methodology and certainty of the benefits and impacts of BDCP implementation. Science Panel Input To meet NCCPA obligations, the BDCP engaged implementing each of the BDCP’s conservation independent scientific advice throughout the The information generated by the BDCP National Research Council Review – measures. Subsequent to the DRERIP analysis, a planning process and enlisted well-recognized science program and BDCP’s extensive adaptive Sustainable Water and Environmental Management Synthesis Team convened to consider synergies experts in ecological and biological sciences. management program would be put to practical and conflicts between various measures and to Six BDCP Independent Science Advisory Panels provided reports on a number of key use, as BDCP is implemented. (For more information, see Draft BDCP Chapter 6, Plan è Administrative Draft BDCP Chapters recommend possible modifications. topics that were used to inform development Implementation, and Chapter 7, Implementation Agency Review and Input Information generated from this process of the BDCP. See the timeline on the right Structure, of the public Draft BDCP.) provided new insights about the effects of for more information about the numerous National Research Council Adaptive stressors and conservation measures on Delta scientific reviews that have guided the BDCP Areas of uncertainty or disagreement would be Management Review species and processes. Results were used to identified, such as the ecological role of freshwater è development. revise the draft conservation measures, and flows during certain seasons. Through the BDCP 2013 Revised Administrative Draft BDCP inform parts of the BDCP effects analysis and process, it would be determined whether the area Released March – May 2013 of uncertainty or disagreement can be tested with the development of the adaptive management timely, valid scientific research that is also logistically and economically feasible. Over time, such research should provide data that better informs future è Public Draft BDCP December 2013 and monitoring program. management and regulatory decisions. Ongoing Science Review 18 Science Overview throughout BDCP Implementation Science Overview 19 December 2013 December 2013 Biological objectives for the BDCP will be “SMART”—specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound—to the maximum extent possible. This strategy includes specific targets such as larger fish populations, healthier individual fish, and larger habitat areas. Where a high level of uncertainty is associated with the measurability, achievability, or relevance of an objective, that uncertainty is explicitly acknowledged in the objective and associated rationale. Uncertainties in objectives will be addressed through planned research, monitoring, and the adaptive management program. Success in achieving the biological goals and objectives will be measured during implementation of the BDCP and through monitoring and targeted research as part of the adaptive management program. Riparian Brush Rabbit (CDFW) Biological Goals and Objectives BDCP Conservation Pyramid The BDCP conservation pyramid reflects relationships between biological outcomes that the The BDCP includes 22 conservation measures based on the best scientific data available and built BDCP is intended to achieve and actions that would be implemented to meet these objectives. on a set of core hypotheses about how to improve ecological processes and functions in the Delta. Biological goals and objectives are the benchmarks by which plan success will be measured. Biological goals articulate the broad, intended outcomes of the Plan. Biological objectives are specific, measurable outcomes expected as a result of the Plan. Conservation measures are designed to achieve the biological objectives and will directly or Global recovery goals and objectives for some of the covered species indirectly contribute to achieving one or more biological goals. were developed by sh and wildlife agencies, independent of BDCP, Global and have helped guide the development of the conservation strategy. The BDCP includes 67 goals and 165 objectives for 56 fish and terrestrial species, their habitats, and Goals & Objectives the Delta ecosystem. The biological goals and objectives are the basis of the conservation strategy and are designed to serve four important functions: A total of 67 goals and 165 associated objectives articulate improvements for species. The biological goals and objectives were informed by global recovery 1. Describe the desired biological outcomes of the conservation strategy and how those outcomes goals but have been framed to re ect what is achievable by the BDCP. The level BDCP Goals Monitoring of conservation of each covered species was determined by a variety of factors will contribute to the long-term conservation of covered species and their habitats. including the level of impact, the proportion of the range of the species in the & Objectives BDCP will monitor the e ectiveness of the Plan Area, and the ability of the Plan participants to in uence conservation. 2. When possible, provide quantitative targets and timeframes for achieving desired outcomes. conservation measures toward achieving the 3. Serve as benchmarks to measure progress in achieving outcomes. The BDCP’s conservation measures are designed and expected to biological goals and objectives. produce ecosystem changes su cient to achieve the biological 4. Provide metrics for the monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation goals and objectives. The goals and objectives, in turn, Conservation Measures measures and as a basis for adaptively managing the conservation measures to achieve the were formulated in a way that conservation measure e ectiveness can be monitored. desired biological outcomes. The biological goals and objectives were developed over several years, through a process informed by Models were used to test whether conservation measures, collectively, would likely achieve the input from a group of independent science advisors, DWR staff, representatives of each of the fish and biological goals and objectives. Where results were wildlife agencies, and stakeholders from interested nongovernmental organizations and agencies. The uncertain, testable hypotheses were developed to Expected Outcomes link the action to the outcome. These hypotheses process included two independent science review panels and a public working group. will be tested during Plan implementation. As conservation measures are being implemented and monitoring data becomes available, the adaptive management process will be used to inform whether adjustments to the Analyze, Synthesize, Evaluate conservation measures are necessary to improve their e ectiveness. 20 Science Overview Science Overview 21 Understanding Biological Goals and Objectives Natural Community Goals and Objectives focus on maintaining or enhancing ecological functions and values of specific natural communities. Achieving natural community goals and objectives serves to expand and conserve habitat while The BDCP biological goals and objectives are organized hierarchically based on ecological scale: sustaining and increasing the abundance and distribution of desirable species, including covered species and other native Landscape-scale biological goals and objectives focus on the extent, distribution, and connectivity species. There are 18 natural community goals and 47 objectives. among natural communities and improvements within the overall Plan Area to achieve natural Natural Community Example community and species-specific goals and objectives. Goal: Create large expanses and interconnected patches of tidal Natural community biological goals and objectives focus on specific natural communities (e.g., freshwater emergent wetland habitat. recurring assemblages of plants and animals) within the Plan Area. Objectives Include: Species-specific biological goals and objectives address specific needs for species within • Restore or create at least 13,900 acres of tidal freshwater emergent wetland in Conservation Zones 1, 2, 4-7, and 11 natural communities. by year 40 of BDCP implementation The BDCP will address ecological functions and processes at a broad landscape scale, as well as discrete • Restore tidal freshwater emergent wetlands in areas that components at the natural community and species-specific scale. The ecosystem-wide actions are increase connectivity among conservation lands intended to enhance ecological functions and advance the conservation of species and the natural Applicable Conservation Measures (CM): communities that depend on them. The needs of many covered species are addressed, in large part, at • CM3 – Natural Communities Protection and Restoration the landscape and natural community levels. Species-specific goals and objectives were developed only • CM4 – Tidal Natural Communities Restoration when additional factors, such as specific habitat requirements or population factors, were needed to • CM6 – Channel Margin Enhancement conserve the species. Landscape-Scale Goals and Objectives focus on improvements to the hydrodynamic, chemical, and biological processes of the Delta, including more natural flow patterns, increased food production, reductions in the effects of nonnative species, reduction in the adverse effects of contaminants, and increases in the extent and spatial distribution, function, and connectivity of natural communities. There are 4 landscape-scale goals and 27 related objectives. For the covered wildlife and plant species, goals and objectives address the desired extent, distribution, connectivity, and ecological function Species-Specific Goals and Objectives focus of ecosystems supporting their habitats and life requirements within the BDCP landscape. on stressors and habitat needs not addressed in the landscape scale and natural community goals and Landscape Scale Example objectives. There are 45 goals and 91 objectives Goal: Reduced harm to covered species in the Plan Area. that are species-specific. Objectives Include: The Plan Area Species-Specific Example for winter-run Chinook salmon • Avoid and minimize adverse effects on covered species resulting from covered activities Goal: Improve survival of immigrating and emigrating winter-run Chinook salmon to support increased abundance and long-term • Manage the distribution and abundance of nonnative population viability. predators in the Delta to reduce predation on covered fishes • Reduce entrainment, impingement, and salvage losses of Objectives Include: covered fish species • Improve survival for Sacramento River winter-run Chinook between Knights Landing and Chipps Island to 52 percent by year 19 of BDCP Applicable Conservation Measures (CM): implementation (CDFW) • CM1 – Water Facilities and Operation • Create a viable alternate migratory path through the Yolo Bypass Chinook salmon • CM6 – Channel Margin Enhancement • Reduce illegal harvest of adult winter-run Chinook salmon • CM12 – Methylmercury Management Applicable Conservation Measures (CM): • CM13 – Invasive Aquatic Vegetation Control • CM1 – Water Facilities and Operation • CM15 – Localized Reduction of Predatory Fishes • CM15 – Localized Reduction of Predatory Fishes • CM2 – Yolo Bypass Fisheries Enhancement • CM16 – Nonphysical Fish Barriers • CM21 – Nonproject Diversions • CM4 – Tidal Natural Communities Restoration • CM17 – Illegal Harvest Reduction • CM22 – Avoidance and Minimization Measures • CM5 – Seasonally Inundated Floodplain Restoration • CM19 – Urban Stormwater Treatment • CM6 – Channel Margin Enhancement • CM21 – Nonproject Diversions 22 Science Overview Science Overview 23 December 2013 December 2013 Conservation Measures CONSERVATION STRATEGY The BDCP includes 22 conservation measures. While they Measure Title Conservation Zone (CZ) Level Notes* are organized in the BDCP by landscape level, natural WATER FLOW community level, and species level, as described on CM1 Water Facilities and Operation Plan Area-wide Landscape Construct and operate a dual-conveyance water delivery system. pages 22-23, they are organized in this document HABITAT by type: water flow/conveyance, habitat, and CM2 Yolo Bypass Fisheries Enhancement CZ 2 Landscape Seasonal modifications of the Yolo Bypass to improve the timing, other stressors. frequency, and duration of inundation to improve fish habitat CM3 Natural Communities Protection and CZs 1-11 Landscape Protection of a variety of natural communities with specific Conservation Zones Restoration requirements by 5-year increments CM4 Tidal Natural Communities CZs 1, 2, 4-7, 11 Natural Community Restore 65,000 acres Conservations zones are geographic Restoration areas defined by the biological needs CM5 Seasonally Inundated Floodplain Plan Area-wide Natural Community Restore 10,000 acres of the species covered under the Restoration BDCP. They were identified based CM6 Channel Margin Enhancement CZs 1, 2, 4-6, and/or 7 Natural Community Restore 20 linear miles on landscape characteristics, CM7 Riparian Natural Community CZs 4 and 7 Natural Community Restore 5,000 acres, primarily in association with CMs 4, 5, and 6 land elevations, particular land Restoration features likely to be present CM8 Grassland Natural Community CZs 1, 8, and/or 11, and Natural Community Restore 2,000 acres at specific elevations, and Restoration other zones as needed land uses. CM9 Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal CZs 1, 8, or 11 Natural Community Restore vernal pool complex and alkali seasonal wetland Wetland Complex Restoration complex to achieve no net loss This map shows each CM10 Nontidal Marsh Restoration CZs 2 , 3, 4, 5, and/or 6 Natural Community Restore 1,200 acres and create 500 acres of managed wetlands conservation zone. consisting of greater sandhill crane roosting habitat The general location CM11 Natural Communities Enhancement Plan Area-wide Natural Community Applies to all BDCP-protected and -restored habitats of each conservation and Management measure may be OTHER STRESSORS determined by looking CM12 Methylmercury Management CZs 1, 2, 4-7, 11 Species Minimize the risk for methylation of mercury in restored habitats in the “Conservation CM13 Invasive Aquatic Vegetation Control CZs 1, 2, 4-7, 11 Species Control nonnative aquatic vegetation Zone” column in the CM14 Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel CZ 6 Species Maintain dissolved oxygen concentrations above levels that chart at right, which lists the Dissolved Oxygen Levels impair covered fish species between Turner Cut and Stockton zone associated with each CM15 Localized Reduction of Predatory CZs 1, 2, 4-7, 11 Species Reduce the abundance of predatory fish in high predator density conservation measure. BDCP Plan Area Fishes locations Conservation Zone CM16 Nonphysical Fish Barriers CZs 5-8 Species Placement of nonphysical fish barriers at strategic locations For more information about the throughout the Delta conservation measures identified for CM17 Illegal Harvest Reduction Plan Area-wide Species Reduce illegal harvest of Chinook salmon, Central Valley each zone, see Chapter 3, steelhead and sturgeon Section 4, of the public Draft BDCP. CM18 Conservation Hatcheries Plan Area-wide Species Expand and establish conservation hatcheries for Delta smelt and longfin smelt CM19 Urban Stormwater Treatment Plan Area-wide Species Implement stormwater treatment measures to decrease contaminant discharges to the Delta CM20 Recreational Users Invasive Species Plan Area-wide Species Minimize risk of introducing invasive nonnative species What is a Conservation Measure? What is a Covered Activity? Program CM21 Nonproject Diversions Plan Area-wide Species Remediate agricultural and other diversions not associated with A conservation measure is a prescribed action designed to achieve Covered activities are those that support water supply, such as water SWP or CVP through voluntary program the biological goals and objectives of the BDCP and to satisfy state conveyance and facilities maintenance and improvements, as well AVOIDANCE AND MINIMIZATION and federal regulatory requirements. as any restoration efforts that affect threatened and endangered CM22 Avoidance and Minimization Plan Area-wide Species Avoid and minimize effects of BDCP activities on natural Measures communities and provide habitat for covered species species. Covered activities include the conservation measures. *These acreage targets estimate implementation of habitat conservation measures over the life of the plan. 24 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 25 December 2013 December 2013 CM1|conveyance Water Facilities and Operation A cornerstone of the BDCP strategy is to construct and operate a dual-conveyance water delivery The existing operation of the SWP/CVP pumps in Considering the goals of water supply and system that would modernize the heart of California’s aging water supply network in a way that better the southern Delta can cause or increase a reversal ecosystem health, the BDCP would implement flow balances the needs of the Delta ecosystem and the large part of California’s population that relies on it. in river flows, potentially altering salmon migratory management changes to address the following patterns and can contribute to the decline of flow-related issues for fish: Conservation Measure 1 (CM1) in the proposed project would sensitive fish species such as the delta smelt. By • Reverse flows in Old River and Middle River The new north Delta make substantial changes to water operations in the Delta by relocating the main point of water diversion to • Entrainment, salvage, and predation diversions will be subject implementing a dual-conveyance system to serve the existing the north and establishing new operating criteria effects on native fish species due to SWP/CVP pumping plants (that will not be enlarged) that focuses to improve water volume, timing, turbidity, and to strict operating criteria south Delta intakes on two major components: salinity, along with other conservation measures, to generate river and Delta • Delta Cross Channel effects on fish migration the BDCP would improve native fish migratory • Salinity, flow, and habitat in Suisun Marsh conditions needed for 1. Construction of new water facilities, including: patterns and habitat conditions and allow for • Flow modification effects in the improving fish populations • Three proposed north Delta intakes greater operational flexibility. Sacramento River and to protect water with state-of-the-art fish screens • Effects on Delta outflows quality and water rights of • Two 30-mile long main tunnels • Effects of climate change those in the Delta. • New 40-acre intermediate forebay • New Head of Old River operable gate The BDCP would be managed adaptively based • Improvements and expansion of Clifton Court Forebay on the ability to meet BDCP biological goals and objectives. Operation of the water system would 2. Operation of both new and existing water be governed with input from scientists, regulatory conveyance facilities, including: agencies, water users, and the public. • North Delta intakes • South Delta export facilities • Delta Cross Channel gates • Suisun Marsh salinity control gates • North Bay Aqueduct intake Since first proposed, CM1 water facilities and conveyance operations have been refined, largely in response to the potential impact to Delta communities. Changes include: • Clifton Court Forebay • The number of new Sacramento River intakes • Shrinking of the intermediate forebay from has been reduced from five to three and 750 acres to 40 acres capacity reduced from 15,000 cfs to 9,000 cfs • Height of the pumping plants at the intake • Underground tunnels, instead of a surface facilities reduced from 60 feet to approximately canal, proposed for water transport 30 feet. • Alignment shift away from Delta communities 26 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 27 December 2013 December 2013 CM1 Features: • Three intakes, together capable of diverting up to 9,000 cfs. CM1|conveyance (cont.) • State-of-the-art fish screens that Water Facilities would protect passing fish. and Operation • A forebay for collection of the water diverted from the river. • Two tunnels to carry water 30 miles The BDCP proposes to secure and protect California’s The gravity-driven system would eliminate the need to the existing pumping plants in the water supply by: for an intermediate pumping plant in the Delta. south Delta. From there, water would • Constructing a water conveyance system Using gravity to transport water would save be moved into existing aqueducts underground to reduce exposure to possible water tremendous amounts of energy and reduce that supply much of the state. supply interruptions caused by aging levees that greenhouse gas emissions. may be affected by seismic and flood events and ongoing subsidence Tunnel and Intake Design and Construction • Building intakes in the north Delta to avoid The proposed tunnel and intake facilities would: increased salinity from tidal effects and expected climate change and to provide increased • Protect the state’s most critical water delivery operational flexibility to improve fish populations system by ensuring that the new facilities have Intermediate Forebay: A new 40-acre • Improving regulatory predictability of water forebay would be constructed to collect Dual-Bore Tunnels: Two 40-foot inside- 200-year flood protection diameter tunnels would be constructed, side water from the river intakes before it diversions by better protecting threatened and • Protect against the impacts of sea level rise and enters the tunnel system. by side, more than 150 feet below ground endangered fish flooding due to climate change by building to deliver water supplies to the redesigned Clifton Court Forebay. intakes upstream in the north Delta Using Gravity to Move Water • Protect against earthquake damage by using the The proposed BDCP project includes three new intakes latest seismic criteria and design methodologies in along the Sacramento River in the north Delta and the tunneling industry twin underground main tunnels through the Delta, approximately 30 miles long, to carry water under the The new water delivery system would be built using Delta to the CVP and SWP pumping plants. A forebay proven tunnel-boring machine technology. Tunnels would be needed near the intakes to collect water would be excavated using a machine with a circular Clifton Court Forebay: Redesigned to improve overall operations, the existing diverted from the river, then gravity flow would move cutter head that mines through the soil. As the forebay would be dredged, divided, water supplies through the tunnels. machine advances, a pre-cast concrete, segmented refurbished, and expanded to the south. tunnel-lining system is installed behind the cutter Proposed north Delta conveyance facilities The twin tunnels would be lined with concrete would supply water to the northern portion head, bolted together, and grouted in place. This of the forebay, while the southern portion segments and capable of moving a maximum of proven technique allows the machine to mine in soft, will continue to provide flows to the SWP 9,000 cubic feet per second (cfs). The gravity-flow saturated ground while maintaining the stability Designed for 9,000 cfs capacity: and operate as it does today. system requires two 40-foot-diameter tunnels to and integrity of the surrounding soil. As designed, the tunnels could not carry more than 9,000 cfs unless convey the needed flows and overcome friction losses Surge new intakes and pumping plants South Bay to keep water moving through the system. Sedimentation Tower were added to the system. Such a Pumping Pumping Plant Basin Plant retrofit would be extremely expensive and would require an entirely new To On-Bank Delta- permitting process. Intake Intermediate Mendota Forebay Canal Canal Clifton Court Forebay or Sacramento River California South Delta Aqueduct (dredged, expanded, and divided) Pumping Single-Bore Tunnel Vent/Access Vent/Access Plants Shaft Shaft Proposed Tunnel System Dual-BoreTunnels (Approx. 30 Miles) California Aqueduct (SWP) No final decisions on the proposed conveyance facility have been made. Completion of environmental review and public Delta-Mendota Canal (CVP) input is now underway. The elements described here are for the purpose of assisting the public review as a guide to the South Bay Aqueduct BDCP and proposed project identified in the Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. 28 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 29 December 2013 December 2013 CM1|conveyance (cont.) SCREEN Water Facilities and Operation BDCP Flow Patterns to Meet Biological Goals and Objectives Intakes: Three new intake facilities are proposed along the Sacramento River. Each The purpose of CM1 is to construct intake would be able to divert up to 3,000 cfs capacity, and operate a facility that improves Yolo Bypass Fishery Enhancement (CM2) New for a total of 9,000 cfs capacity. Intakes would include state-of-the-art fish screens held to performance North Bay conditions for covered species and Flows from the Sacramento River into the Yolo Bypass have been Aqueduct standards to protect passing covered fish. Intakes natural communities in the Delta while significantly reduced over the last two centuries. CM2 will manage flows and seasonal habitat to increase fish abundance, passage, and survival improving water supply reliability. rates, and operate a new Fremont Weir gate to more frequently inundate Water operations criteria to benefit fish the Yolo Bypass when Sacramento River flows are at their peak. For more include the key components listed on information on CM2, see pages 34-35. Intakes North Delta these two pages. For more information BDCP Biological Goals: on BDCP flow criteria, see Chapter 3: Conservation Strategy, Section 3.4 of the public Draft BDCP. • Maintain or increase the diversity of spawning, rearing, and migration conditions for covered fish species Proposed • Provide flows that support the movement of adult covered Forebay fish species to spawning habitats Delta Outflow Delta Cross • Minimize movement of covered fish species into areas of R high predation Because of the potential importance BDCP Actions: Channel Gates nto of fall and spring outflows in meeting For delta smelt: • Reduce or avoid impingement, and salvage losses of covered me the biological goals and objectives • Potential increase in Delta fall fish species Georgiana Slough cra for delta and longfin smelt, these two outflow from September to Nonphysical Barrier BDCP Actions: Sa factors are managed by two separate November in wet and above normal • Establish new intakes with 9,000 cfs diversion capacity, decision trees. The BDCP decision years as determined to be necessary operated according to strict operating criteria trees for fall and spring outflow are through the Decision Tree process described in more detail on page 32. • Manage diversions in real-time similar to south Delta • Improve low-salinity zone rearing Suisun Marsh diversions, with Sacramento River bypass flows managed BDCP Biological Goals: habitat in fall Salinity Control Gate to allow migrating juvenile salmon to avoid entering • Increase delta smelt rearing habitat For longfin smelt: the interior Delta, maintain survival past the north Delta • Increase longfin smelt abundance • Potential increase in spring outflows Sa diversions, and improve upstream adult migration in the fall n Tunnel/Pipeline as determined to be necessary Jo • Establish bypass flows up to 15,000 cfs in December aq through the Decision Tree process uin • Establish bypass flows up to 17,000 cfs during the January Ri v er through June fish migration period • Provide flows to help fish migrate Middle r Conveyance South Delta Diversions • Implement up to seven nonphysical barriers, including a barrier at Georgiana Slough to guide fish with a combination BDCP Biological Goals: BDCP Actions: ive R r of sounds, lights, and bubbles away from routes leading to • In summer and winter months, manage real-time • Reduce the straying of covered salmon, particularly fall and the south Delta pumps and to areas of suitable habitat te south Delta operations to substantially reduce late-run Chinook salmon, into the south Delta channels Wa entrainment for all covered fish species, particularly • Provide operational flexibility to maintain water levels San Joaquin River covered fish populations for south Delta farmers and to improve water quality • Implement additional potential flow improvements conditions (salinity control and dissolved oxygen levels) in ver Delta Cross Channel Gates in the spring to reduce entrainment and provide the San Joaquin River d Ri Head of Old River better Delta spring flow patterns Ol Operable Barrier Manage the Delta Cross Channel gates to improve covered fish migration. The • Test the use of a gate at Head of Old River to protect out- • Reduce reverse flows in the Old and Middle rivers migrating covered fish in the spring gates will close from December through June and open from July through by opening and closing the operable gate at the September. The gates will be managed under real-time operations in October and • Restore floodplain habitat to enhance San Joaquin River November based on monitoring for the presence or absence of fish, water quality head of Old River to protect covered fish from covered fish survival rates in wet years entrainment at the existing SWP/CVP pumps and criteria, and perceived risk to covered species. improve covered fish survival • Reduce south Delta diversions, particularly in the spring and in wet years, to contribute to Delta outflows and minimize entrainment in the south Delta 30 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 31 December 2013 December 2013 CM1|conveyance (cont.) BDCP Operational Criteria Water Facilities and Operation Operation of the new and existing water Applying BDCP Water Diversion conveyance facilities will be managed to specific Operations Criteria Decision Tree criteria related to: The most sensitive time of year for Delta fisheries is • Old River and Middle River flows December through June. Operations would vary depending Two key areas of uncertainty for the BDCP are: to meet the biological goals and objectives • Head of Old River gate operations on the hydrologic conditions (e.g., water year type, actual • Delta outflow Sacramento River flows, fish presence), but would always • The importance and magnitude of fall outflow 2. Develop and implement a science plan • North Delta bypass flows include a minimum Sacramento River flow passing the in achieving abundance and habitat objectives and data collection program to test the hypotheses intakes before water could be diverted. Under all conditions, for delta smelt To benefit fish, flow criteria will be applied month operational criteria require gradual ramping up of diversions 3. Identify spring and fall outflow criteria needed by month and according to the five water-year and do not interfere with major river flows. • The importance of and magnitude of spring to meet biological goals and objectives (to be types: wet, above-normal, below-normal, dry, As an example of how BDCP operational criteria outflow for achieving the longfin smelt performed by the permitting agencies once and critical. would be implemented, the graphic below abundance objective dual-conveyance operations begin) illustrates hypothetical operations in Because of debate over the importance of these The decision-tree process would begin immediately December through April. two factors in the Plan’s ability to meet biological Analysis of the water supply reliability benefits and estimated after the Plan is approved and function as an early annual water deliveries of BDCP are included in Chapter 9. For objectives for these species and their effect on more information, see the Alternative BDCP Approaches section water operations, and the level of uncertainty part of the adaptive management and monitoring beginning on page 96. program. Once the fall and spring outflow criteria 64,000 surrounding them, these two factors are addressed in a collaborative decision-tree adaptive are determined based on the results of the Diversions up to 9,000 management process that will be used to evaluate hypotheses-testing process described above, the Example Sacramento Flows Wet Year Example: and refine spring and fall outflow criteria prior to decision-tree process will end. At that point, the and North Delta Diversions 64,000 cfs (Jan. 21, 2006) BDCP Maximum Diversion: 9,000 cfs initiating CM1 operations. adaptive management and monitoring program will continue as the primary process for adjusting The decision tree process will involve the following all aspects of the conservation strategy, including steps: spring and fall outflow operating criteria for dual- 1. Clearly articulate scientific hypotheses to test conveyance operations. Maximum Possible Diversion of 9000 cfs is reached at the efficacy of fall and spring outflow options river flows of 30,571 cfs under proposed operations 35,000 Diversions up to 9,000 2014 2024 through 2049 2064 Dry Year Example: P 6,400 cfs (Jan. 21, 2009) 20,000 BDCP Maximum Diversion: 384 cfs BDCP Biological Outflow Scenarios, Dual Ecosystem and Permits 1,600–7,000 Diversions Goals and Habitat Improvement, and Conveyance Fish Population Expire 900–3,000 15,000 Objectives Other Stressors Measures Operations Improvement Diversions 9,000 FISH POPULATIONS 0–540 Diversions Ecosystem and 5,000 No Species Response Diversion Sacramento River Flows (cfs) 32 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 33 December 2013 December 2013 Fish Passage Proposed locations for each 3-1 Permanent Fish Passage Improvements – To provide adult 3-1 3-2 3-3 action. Some locations are CM2|habitat fish passage, smaller gated structures would be built, with at least one 1-1 2-1 general or approximate. on the west side of Fremont Weir. These structures would be operated Yolo Bypass Fishery for fish passage for a wider period of time than the inundation notch 2-2 3-5 Enhancement would be operated. Because these structures would be smaller than the inundation notch, their impacts to other land uses within the Bypass would be minimal to nonexistent. 1-3 Through CM2, the BDCP proposes actions to enhance habitat for covered fish 3-2 Early Action Fish Passage Improvements – Modifications species by modifying Yolo Bypass hydrology and habitat to: CM2 also addresses other issues to the Fremont Weir may help improve fish passage while larger • Increase and improve spawning • Increase food web production such as flood, agriculture, terrestrial modifications are planned and designed. The existing Denil fish ladder habitat, vector control, recreation, and in Fremont Weir could be modified by removing wooden baffles to and rearing habitat for and availability test whether the modification would allow passage for sturgeon and educational activities. Local landowners 3-5 some covered fish species • Reduce stranding and illegal salmon. Wedge-shaped sturgeon ramps also could be built into the and stakeholders have provided input • Improve upstream and harvest of covered fish species on operational considerations related to edges of the Fremont Weir, potentially enabling sturgeon to ascend it. downstream fish passage • Reduce exposure of covered fishery, agricultural, and waterfowl needs. 3-4 3-3 Stilling Basin Modification – As an early action or as part of salmonids to predators overall design, modify the existing Fremont Weir stilling basin to ensure Key Elements of the Measure*: that the basin drains sufficiently toward the new passage facilities. 1-2 Early Fish Protective Actions Effective drainage of the stilling basin would prevent stranding of juvenile and adult fish as the floodplain empties. 1-1 Accelerate Fish Rescue – Provide funding to 1-3 Expanded Fish Rearing Project – Support fish detect and rescue stranded fish at Fremont Weir until fish rearing studies at Knaggs Ranch, to explore cooperative land 3-4 Sacramento Weir Improvements – Make physical passage measures are determined to be successful. use opportunities Initial studies indicate fish rearing in the modifications to reduce juvenile fish stranding and, if necessary, 2-1 bypass is compatible with farming. construct fish passage facilities at Sacramento Weir. These 2-3 1-2 Monitor and Research – Conduct monitoring improvements could be built in conjunction with modifications of the 2-4 and research activities to support the adaptive 3-6 Sacramento Weir and Yolo Bypass to reduce flood risk, as considered in management program. other major planning processes. Moving Fish and Water into and around the Bypass 3-5 Tule Canal/Toe Drain and Lisbon Weir 3-6 Improvements – Improve the hydrologic connectivity of the 2-1 Manage Extended Inflows to Bypass Through 2-3 Potential Yolo Bypass Modifications – Make additional Tule Canal/Toe Drain by modifying road crossings and agricultural New Gated Channels at Fremont Weir – localized modifications to optimize benefits to covered fish species impoundments, to reduce the delay, stranding, and loss of migrating Construct gated channels through the Fremont Weir to in the Bypass and to limit impacts to land use. Add, remove, or salmon, steelhead, and sturgeon. Modify Lisbon Weir to improve increase the frequency, extent, and duration of seasonal modify berms, levees, and water control structures. Construct fish passage while maintaining or improving water management for inundation of floodplain habitat in the Yolo Bypass for terraces or modify agricultural channels and control structures to 3-6 improve distribution and hydrodynamic characteristics of water irrigation. the benefit of covered fish species. The channels would connect to the existing low-flow channel of the Bypass. moving through the Yolo Bypass. Modifications may also reduce 3-6 Lower Putah Creek Improvements – In concert with planning sponsored by the Ecosystem Restoration Program, The gates would control flows into the Bypass when the fish stranding, improve land access, help maintain agricultural realign Lower Putah Creek within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area to improve upstream and downstream passage of salmon weir is not overtopping. The gates would be designed productivity, or provide additional operating flexibility. and steelhead and to provide enhanced floodplain habitat. and operated to provide for upstream and downstream 2-4 Operational Criteria – Develop operational criteria to passage of salmon, steelhead, sturgeon, and lamprey between the Yolo Bypass and the Sacramento River optimize benefits for covered fish while minimizing negative Historic floodplain in the Central Valley has been the functions of floodplain habitat, giving adult without interfering with flood control functions and effects to existing uses. Criteria would govern how water and fish passage facilities would be operated to manage the timing, significantly reduced over the last two centuries. fish an improved migratory corridor, increasing operations. Localized levee and drainage improvements frequency, extent, and duration of inundation in the Yolo Bypass The resulting loss of fish spawning and rearing and improving spawning, and giving young fish will be made if necessary. to minimize negative effects to other uses such as agriculture, habitat, fish migration corridors, and food web an opportunity to grow larger, healthier, and 2-2 Local Irrigation Improvements – Identify hunting, waterfowl habitat, environmental education, and wildlife production have significantly affected the ability stronger before they return to the Sacramento appropriate improvements, such as to the Yolo Bypass viewing. Working with water levels upstream in the Sacramento of threatened and endangered fish species to River, the Delta, and the ocean. Wildlife Area water supply or provide fish screens for River, inundation events could be extended, and new, smaller inundation events could be created. Once implemented, survive and thrive. small Yolo Bypass diversions. The desirability of using Ultimately, improving flows, passage, food supplemental flows through Knights Landing Ridge Cut monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of operations The fundamental purpose of CM2 is to boost production, and access to habitat in the Yolo also will be evaluated. would guide any recommended changes through adaptive management. survival rates of migratory fish by moving Bypass will support the recovery and resiliency enough water into the Yolo Bypass to restore of migratory fish species. * Further evaluation is required to select the final set of actions to be implemented. Together, the selected actions will 34 Conservation Strategy meet or exceed the fish benefits attributed to this conservation measure. Further environmental review will be needed. Conservation Strategy 35 December 2013 December 2013 CM3|habitat CM4|habitat Natural Communities Protection Tidal Natural and Restoration Communities Restoration CM3 would involve acquiring 69,275 acres for Lands for the reserve system would be secured CM4 would restore 65,000 acres of freshwater and The tidal habitat restoration targets would be protection to establish a habitat reserve system. This through a variety of mechanisms, including, but not brackish tidal habitat, including at least 55,000 phased on the following schedule: reserve system would: limited to: acres of tidal perennial aquatic, tidal mudflat, • 19,150 acres restored within the first 10 years tidal freshwater emergent wetland, and tidal • Protect and enhance areas of existing natural • Purchasing in fee title of BDCP implementation brackish emergent wetland natural communities. communities and covered species habitat • Purchasing or applying permanent conservation • 29,800 acres (cumulative) restored by year 15 The remaining 10,000 acres would consist of • Protect and maintain existing covered plant easements • 65,000 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40 transitional uplands to accommodate sea level rise. species • Changing federally or state-owned lands to more The tidal natural communities’ restoration would Of the total 55,000-acre target for tidally influenced • Provide habitat among the lands in the reserve protective land use designation be focused within Restoration Opportunity Areas natural communities, 20,600 acres must occur in system, and connectivity to existing conservation • Enacting permanent agreements with state, (ROAs) 1 through 5 (shown below). particular ROAs, as shown in the map on the left. lands inside and outside the Plan Area federal, and local agencies to restore, enhance, The remaining 44,400 acres would be distributed and manage public lands in the reserve system among the ROAs, or outside the ROAs to meet • Purchasing mitigation credits from mitigation biological goals and objectives. Restoration banks actions would be implemented by the BDCP CM3 also provides general guidelines for natural Implementation Office based on land availability, community restoration that applies to all restoration Restoration biological value, opportunities for meeting conservation measures (CM4-CM11). Additional Opportunity biological goals and objectives, and practicability. land would need to be acquired to enable some Areas restoration, as described for each restoration 1 conservation measure. Tidal Restoration Targets by ROA Minimum Total Restoration ROA Acreage Target Coordination with 2 (percentage 3 of total area) Regional Conservation Plans 1 Yolo Bypass/Cache Slough 49,167 10% Where regional conservation plans overlap with or adjoin 2 Cosumnes/Mokelumne 7,805 19% the Plan Area, the BDCP would collaborate and coordinate 4 3 Suisun Marsh 82,970 8% with the sponsors of those regional conservation plans on the 4 West Delta 6,178 34% acquisition, restoration, and management of habitat lands 5 South Delta 39,969 13% within areas common to both plans. Where mutually beneficial, the BDCP would encourage joint acquisitions of land with The remaining acreage would be distributed among the ROAs, or local government plan sponsors to leverage opportunities outside the ROAs, as needed to meet biological goals and objectives. and to secure large, contiguous blocks of habitat. The BDCP 5 would explore opportunities to fund habitat acquisition and/ BDCP Plan Area BDCP Plan Area or restoration actions that may benefit the BDCP and other regional conservation plans. 36 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 37 December 2013 December 2013 CM5|habitat CM6|habitat Seasonally Inundated Channel Margin Floodplain Restoration Enhancement CM5 would restore 10,000 acres of seasonally CM6 would restore 20 linear miles of channel The channel margin habitat enhancement activities Although seasonally inundated floodplains may be inundated floodplain, on the following schedule: margin habitat to improve habitat conditions along would be accomplished on the following schedule to restored along channels in the north, east, and south • At least 1,000 acres restored by year 15 important juvenile salmon migration routes. reach a total of 20 enhanced miles: Delta, the most promising opportunities for large- of BDCP implementation scale floodplain restoration are in the south Delta. Actions to enhance channel margin habitats may • At least 10 miles by year 10 of BDCP • 10,000 acres (cumulative) by year 40 include the following, depending on site conditions: implementation The most promising opportunities would be • 5 additional miles by year 20 • Modify levees or construct setback levees to chosen based on benefits to covered species, • 5 additional miles by year 30 create low benches feasibility, and compatibility with ongoing • Plant riparian and emergent vegetation on agricultural uses and potential flood control constructed benches projects. Actions to restore seasonally inundated • Install large woody debris (LWD) floodplain habitats may include, but are not (e.g., tree trunks limited to: and stumps) • Acquiring lands, in fee title or through into benches or Enhancement conservation easements existing riprapped Flood Plain Bench • Creating and expanding floodway bypasses levees. to expand river floodplain habitat and Native Emergent Native Riparian Grass-Levee Top of redirect flood flows Wetland Vegetation Vegetation Slope Levee • Setting back levees and removing or breaching levees • Removing existing riprap or other bank protection • Modifying channels in unconfined reaches or where levees are set back to create Existing Levee Feature habitat for salmon and splittail (example) Winter/Spring Water Line • Grading restored floodplain surfaces Soil and Revetment • Lowering restored floodplain elevation Channel margin restoration Summer/Fall Water Line • Allowing riparian vegetation to naturally improves habitat while maintaining levee integrity establish on the floodplain where farming is LWD Countersunk into Stream Bank (example) no longer feasible or compatible Revetment Not to Scale • Continuing farming practices and crop types that provide high benefits for covered fish Channel margin enhancement actions would be located only along channels that provide species rearing and outmigration habitat for juvenile salmon. Channels targeted for action include the Sacramento River between Freeport and Walnut Grove, the San Joaquin River between Vernalis and Mossdale, and Steamboat and Sutter sloughs. 38 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 39 December 2013 December 2013 CM7|habitat CM8|habitat Riparian Natural Grassland Natural Community Restoration Community Restoration CM7 would restore 5,000 acres of native riparian Actions to restore riparian forest and scrub, as CM8 would restore 2,000 acres of grassland and The most strategically important areas for forest and scrub, mostly in association with the appropriate to site-specific conditions, include, but protect 8,000 acres to achieve biological goals and restoration are: restoration of seasonally inundated floodplain, are not limited to: objectives for covered species. Actions to design • Grasslands in CZs 1 and 11 that may be tidal, and channel margin habitat, on the and locate restored grassland habitat would: • Planting native riparian vegetation connected with larger expanses in the Jepson following schedule: • Connecting existing habitat along riparian • Support habitat for associated covered species Prairie area • 1,100 acres by year 15 of BDCP implementation corridors • Improve connectivity among existing patches • Grasslands in CZ8 that may be connected to • 5,000 acres (cumulative) by year 40 • Maintaining plantings of grassland and other natural habitats the west and southwest of the Plan Area • Controlling invasive nonnative plants • Improve native wildlife habitat functions of • Uplands adjacent to restored tidal brackish Riparian forest and scrub would be restored transitional uplands adjacent to BDCP-restored emergent wetlands in Suisun Marsh to include the range of necessary conditions tidal habitats • Areas adjacent to restored freshwater to support habitat for the riparian-associated emergent wetland covered species. Riparian restoration sites would Restoration would be phased on the following be prioritized to improve linkages to allow schedule: terrestrial covered and other native species to • 1,140 acres restored by year 10 of BDCP move between protected habitats within and implementation adjacent to the Plan Area. • 2,000 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40 40 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 41 December 2013 December 2013 CM9|habitat CM10|habitat CM11|habitat Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal Nontidal Natural Communities Enhancement Wetland Complex Restoration Marsh Restoration and Management Under CM9, vernal pool complexes and alkali CM10 would restore 1,200 acres of nontidal Actions to restore nontidal freshwater marsh, CM11 consists of the preparation and implementation seasonal wetland complexes in CZs 1, 8, or 11 freshwater wetland within CZs 2, 4, and/or 5 on the as appropriate to site-specific conditions would of management plans for protected natural would be restored to achieve no net loss of following schedule: include: communities and covered species habitats throughout vernal pool and alkali seasonal wetland acreage the reserve system. CM11 provides for the monitoring • 400 acres restored by year 10 of BDCP • Securing sufficient annual water to sustain from covered activities. The restored vernal pool and maintenance of restoration sites in perpetuity. The Implementation habitat function complex would consist of vernal pools and swales management plans developed under CM11 provide • 600 acres restored by year 20 • Establishing connectivity with existing within a larger matrix of grasslands. Similarly, the assurance that the BDCP reserve system will continue • 1,200 acres (cumulative) restored by year 40 irrigation and drainage conveyance system alkali seasonal wetland complex would consist to function as intended. The content of these plans will and giant garter snake habitat of alkali seasonal wetlands within a larger matrix CM10 would also create 500 acres of managed include: • Preparing site for planting native marsh of grasslands. Specific restoration sites would be wetlands consisting of greater sandhill crane roosting vegetation, and maintaining plantings • Biological goals and objectives to be achieved selected based on the suitability of available lands habitat in the Greater Sandhill Crane Winter Use Area • Controlling invasive nonnative plants with the enhancement and management of for restoration, biological value, and practicability. in CZs 3, 4, 5, or 6 on the following schedule: the reserves In conjunction with protection of 600 acres • 250 acres restored during years 1 through 5 • Vegetation management actions that benefit of vernal pool complex and 150 acres of alkali Expanding Sandhill Crane Habitat covered communities, habitats, and species seasonal wetland complex, restoration actions of BDCP implementation • 250 acres restored during years 6 through 10 The greater sandhill crane, one of the oldest and reduce fuel loads as appropriate would contribute to the establishment of a large, living bird species, winters in California’s Central • Infrastructure, hazards, and easements interconnected vernal pool complex and alkali Restored nontidal marsh would consist of two blocks: • Existing land uses and management practices seasonal wetland complex reserve in the Plan Area. Valley with one of the greatest concentrations in 600 acres in CZ 2 outside the Yolo Bypass, and 600 the central east Delta. The cranes roost in habitat • Terms and conditions of conservation The amount of vernal pool complex restoration acres in CZs 4 or 5 or both, contiguous with 1,500 consisting of wetlands or flooded agricultural fields. easements when applicable would be determined during implementation acres of rice land or equivalent protected or restored • Management actions and schedules giant garter snake habitat. While restored nontidal In addition to the restoration identified in CM10, based on the following criteria: • Monitoring requirements and schedules marsh would be designed and managed primarily to the BDCP includes a comprehensive strategy for • Established data and report preservation, • If restoration is completed prior to impacts, contributing to the species’ recovery. Construction support giant garter snake, CM10 would also support indexing, and repository protocols then 1.0 wetted acre of vernal pools would and operation of conveyance facilities would other native wildlife functions, including waterfowl • Adaptive management approach be restored for each wetted acre directly be designed to avoid and minimize impacts to foraging, resting, and brood habitat and shorebird the crane. To ensure that the important crane affected (1:1 ratio). foraging and roosting habitat. CM11 provides extensive details as guidance for population on Staten Island is unharmed by the preparation and implementation of these • If restoration takes place concurrent with construction, the plan commits to a performance management and enhancement actions. impacts, then 1.5 wetted acres of vernal pools standard of no net loss of crane use days on Staten would be restored for each wetted Island. This standard would be achieved through a acre directly affected (1.5:1 ratio). number of avoidance and minimization measures. Sandhill Cranes 42 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 43 December 2013 December 2013 CM12|other stressors CM13|other stressors CM14|other stressors Methylmercury Invasive Aquatic Stockton DWSC Management Vegetation Control Dissolved Oxygen Levels Chinook Salmon CM12 is focused on minimizing conditions that CM13 would control the growth of invasive The 7.5-mile low dissolved oxygen area of the above levels that impair covered fish species promote production of methylmercury in restored aquatic vegetation, such as Brazilian waterweed Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC) creates between Turner Cut and Stockton. As needed, tidal natural community areas. Mercury is present (Egeria densa), water hyacinth, and other a barrier for upstream migration of adult fall-run the existing aeration facility would be modified in sediments and soils throughout the Delta. nonnative submerged and floating aquatic Chinook salmon and Central Valley steelhead. with the addition of aerators and associated Mercury can be converted to methylmercury vegetation. CM13 would rely on existing control Low dissolved oxygen levels can also cause infrastructure. The BDCP would share in funding under conditions often found in wetland soils. methods used by the California Division of physiological stress on and mortality of fish. the long-term operation and maintenance costs High concentrations of methylmercury in the Delta Boating and Waterways Egeria Densa and Water associated with the aeration system within 1 year CM14 provides funding to ensure that the Stockton cause adverse effects to covered fish and wildlife Hyacinth Control Programs. The primary control of BDCP implementation. DWSC Aeration Facility continues to operate species. method would be the application of herbicides as to maintain dissolved oxygen concentrations specific as possible to species and site conditions. Tidal marsh restoration may elevate the Limited mechanical removal of invasive production of methylmercury in the Delta. vegetation also would be used. Other removal Restoration projects under CM4 would include methods could be implemented depending on project-specific methylmercury management site-specific conditions, current research, and plans that would include the following intended outcomes. An early detection and rapid components: response program would be implemented, and • A review of available information on mercury restoration sites would be designed to minimize levels expected in site sediments the risk of invasive vegetation establishment and propagation. • A determination if sampling mercury concentrations and/or post-restoration monitoring is warranted • A plan for conducting sampling if characterization sampling is recommended • Actions such as capping mercury-laden sediments and/or minimizing microbial methylation by using livestock grazing to reduce loads of organic matter prior to flooding Conservation Measures Promoting Species Recovery by Focusing on Other Stressors The recommendations of each project-specific An important component of the BDCP Conservation Strategy consists of measures that seek to reduce the direct methylmercury management plan would be and indirect adverse effects of other stressors on the ecological functions of the Delta, covered species, and natural incorporated into each restoration plan (CM4) and communities. A number of factors have been identified that adversely affect covered fish species through their impact its implementation. on the species themselves, prey resources, or habitat conditions. Implementation of conservation measures addressing these other stressors is expected to reduce adverse effects on, or improve productivity for, covered species. CMs 12 through 21 focus on actions to reduce other stressors. 44 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 45 December 2013 December 2013 CM15|other stressors CM16|other stressors CM17|other stressors Localized Reduction of Predatory Fishes Nonphysical Fish Barriers Illegal Harvest Reduction The primary purpose of CM15 is to improve CM16 would use nonphysical CM17 would reduce illegal harvest of Chinook abundance and passage of covered fish species barriers to redirect juvenile fish Delta Cross salmon, Central Valley steelhead, and sturgeon by by locally reducing nonnative predatory fishes. away from channels and river Channel providing funding to increase the enforcement CM15 would temporarily reduce populations reaches in which survival is lower of fishing regulations in the Delta and bays. of nonnative predatory fish species at specific than in alternate routes. This With this funding, CDFW would hire and equip locations and eliminate or reduce the suitability measure is expected to benefit 17 additional game wardens and 7 supervisory of habitat at predation “hotspots.” CM15 would only salmon. The barriers would and administrative staff to support existing seek to reduce mortality rates of the life stages use a combination of sound, field wardens, with full increase in enforcement of covered fish that are particularly vulnerable to light, and bubbles. Funding is Georgiana Slough beginning by year 3 of BDCP implementation. Nonphysical Barrier predatory fish, such as migrating juvenile salmon. provided for an estimated seven Because predators are a natural part of the Delta barriers to be constructed and ecosystem, CM15 is not intended to entirely operated. Likely sites include Head remove predators at any location, or substantially of Old River, Delta Cross Channel, alter the abundance of predators at the scale of the Georgiana Slough, and possibly Delta ecosystem. This conservation measure will Turner Cut and Columbia Cut. not remove fish-eating birds or mammals, which are native predators. Implementation of CM15 would include Columbia Cut experimental treatments at priority hotspots, Nonphysical Barrier monitoring effectiveness, assessing outcomes, and Turner Cut revising operations with guidance from the BDCP Nonphysical Barrier Adaptive Management Team. Potential methods of reducing predatory fish populations include electrofishing, passive trapping, active capture, and predatory lottery fishing tournaments. Delta Smelt Head of Old River Operable Barrier Nonphysical fish barriers would be used October through June, when fish are present, to direct fish away from rivers and channels where mortality is high. While more research is needed to confirm results, DWR’s pilot study on Georgiana Slough saw a two-thirds Nonphysical barrier at reduction in entrtainment using a combination of sound, lights, Georgiana Slough and bubbles to deter fish from entering the channel. 46 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 47 December 2013 December 2013 CM18|other stressors CM19|other stressors CM20|other stressors Conservation Urban Stormwater Recreational Users Invasive Hatcheries Treatment Species Program CM18 would establish new and expand existing • Expanding the refugial population of delta To implement stormwater management action, CM20 would provide funding to introduce and conservation propagation programs for delta and smelt and establish similar population of CM19 would provide grant funding to public implement the Delta Recreational Users Invasive longfin smelt, including: longfin smelt at the University of California, agencies, cities, and counties where stormwater Species Program to help prevent the introduction Davis Fish Conservation and Culture drains into Delta waterways. Features to be funded of new aquatic invasive species and reduce the • Continuing development of a USFWS delta Laboratory in Byron may include: spread of existing aquatic invasive species within and longfin smelt conservation hatchery to the Plan Area. The program would consist of house a delta smelt refugial population and CM18 does not propose reintroduction of either • Retention or irrigation holding ponds for the education, outreach, and watercraft inspection at provide a source of Delta and longfin smelt for species into the wild. But the hatchery stock would capture and irrigation use of stormwater selected recreational facilities. experimentation be available for this purpose if it was deemed • Vegetated buffer strips to slow runoff and necessary in the future. capture sediments and pollutants from stormwater • Bioretention systems (e.g., grass buffer strips, sand beds, ponding areas, mulch layers) to slow runoff and remove pollutants from stormwater • Stormwater curb extensions adjacent to commercial businesses that are likely to contribute oil and grease runoff • Stormwater media filters to remove particulates and pollutants • Moisture monitors on commercial sprinkler systems to eliminate unnecessary watering • In lieu of new storm drain connections for new construction, use on-site infiltration systems, such as pervious pavement in place of asphalt and concrete, and downspout disconnections to redirect roof water to vegetation or cisterns on existing developments 48 Conservation Strategy Conservation Strategy 49 December 2013 December 2013 CM21|other stressors CM22|avoidance and Nonproject Diversions minimization CM21 would fund actions to reduce potential Avoidance and Minimization entrainment of covered fish that may result from Measures the operation of diversions in the Plan Area not CM22 would implement measures to avoid associated with the SWP or CVP. Funding would and minimize effects on covered species and support the following actions: natural communities that could result from BDCP • Creating a technical support team to activities. CM22 helps satisfy ESA and NCCPA inventory and prioritize candidate projects regulatory requirements, and would minimize adverse effects on natural communities, covered • Developing a remediation program for species and their critical habitat, and jurisdictional willing landowners to fund and permit the wetlands and waters throughout the Plan Area. construction of remediation projects of Specific measures would be developed for each unscreened diversions BDCP project. General avoidance and minimization measures during construction include: • Prioritizing projects consistent with the Anadromous Fish Screen Program and Fish • Training workers Screen and Passage Program, including: • Having qualified biologists monitor - Funding and technical assistance construction - Assessment of fish entrainment monitoring at unscreened diversions • Implementing best management practices - Construction of fish screens at selected to avoid adverse effects such as erosion, diversions to reduce impacts to covered sedimentation, contaminant spills, and fish encroachment of equipment into adjacent lands • Restoring temporarily degraded or removed natural communities • Restricting activity in certain seasons in sensitive areas • Avoiding or minimizing fish stranding during construction • During the planning phase, conducting surveys in the project footprint to assess plant and wildlife habitat and implement protective measures as necessary Western Burrowing Owl 50 Conservation Strategy December 2013 December 2013 EXPECTED OUTCOMES American White Pelican Tools Used to Develop the Effects Analysis Covered species are The BDCP conservation measures are The effects analysis presents a systematic, The BDCP EA uses literature reviews and a total of 68 environmental and biological models to a special group of expected to benefit 56 species, 11 of scientific evaluation of the potential determine net effects. Chapter 5 of the public Draft BDCP provides the full list of models used. The species, all native them fish, and 14 natural communities, beneficial, adverse, and net effects of the following is a brief description of the types of models used in the EA. to the Delta, that and reduce the effects of a broad range of BDCP on biological resources. The effects Conceptual Models Environmental Models have been imperiled ecological stressors in the Delta. Based on analysis also provides state and federal by past human the effects analysis the BDCP will conserve fish and wildlife agencies with information Conceptual models organize information Environmental models set the stage for the activities. The BDCP all 56 species covered by the Plan. State needed to consider issuance of permits within a logical structure that provides a analysis of biological effects by describing includes goals and and federal fish and wildlife agencies will and authorizations for the BDCP. plausible explanation for a phenomenon. A key physical conditions, including flow, objectives designed further review this information before conceptual model describes key attributes, temperature, salinity, and turbidity. A broad range of analytical tools, including linkages, and structure associated with an to contribute to making permit determinations under hydrologic and hydrodynamic models, issue. Conceptual models explicitly lay out Biological Models the protection, NCCPA and ESA. temperature models, water quality models, assumptions and logic underlying arguments Biological models link environmental change, conservation, and The expected outcomes of BDCP biological lifecycle models, habitat models, and assessments and are commonly used often characterized by the environmental recovery of these implementation are analyzed and conceptual models, and literature reviews as a first step in developing qualitative or models, to change in biological performance. species. described in Chapter 5, Effects Analysis, were used to assess the effects of BDCP quantitative models. Biological performance is typically measured of the public Draft BDCP, which reflects activities on covered species and natural as a change in abundance, survival, or physical Chapter 9 of the extensive scientific study throughout communities over the 50-year BDCP Qualitative models impact, such as the percentage of a species life public Draft BDCP the Delta region. The effects analysis implementation period. stage entrained in pumps. includes an analysis Qualitative models likewise describe a logical describes how implementation of all of the water relationship between variables. These models Habitat Suitability Models 22 conservation measures and covered supply reliability are often used to develop working hypotheses activities would affect ecosystems, natural The effects analysis is long and very Habitat suitability models evaluate multiple benefits and of how a particular system works. communities, and covered species in the complex due to: attributes of the environment as habitat for the estimated annual Plan Area. Proposed actions will result Quantitative models various life stages of species. water deliveries in fundamental, systemic, and long-term • Size of the Plan Area • Large number of natural Quantitative models are used to understand Population and Life History Models of BDCP. For more physical changes to the Delta. These communities and covered species environmental and biological functions. These information, see changes include substantial alterations to Life history models integrate the effects of addressed by the Plan models reflect a conceptual understanding of the Alternative water conveyance and management and multiple stressors across multiple life stages • Scale of covered activities the relationship between attributes, processes, BDCP Approaches extensive restoration of tidal, floodplain, to evaluate impacts of actions at population • Duration of BDCP implementation and outcomes. Quantitative models are section beginning and terrestrial communities. scales. Currently, the application of life history (50 years) often data-intensive, requiring a great deal on page 96. models is limited because of the difficulty in • High variability within the Delta of quantitative information to develop the capturing all of the expected changes from the in terms of hydrology, salinity, model, and more such information to test its BDCP in one model. potential impacts of climate predictions. change, and more 52 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 53 December 2013 December 2013 Chinook Salmon (CDFW) Effects Analysis on BDCP Proposed Conservation Measures to Improve the Delta Ecosystem Analytical comparisons in the effects analysis use the following Development of the Effects Analysis Net Effects Environmental Baseline intervals over the Plan’s 50-year lifespan: To evaluate the effects of BDCP actions, The BDCP EA evaluates the combined The biological response to BDCP conservation comparisons are made between an effects of all covered activities, including the measures are evaluated against an environ- Current Conditions – Current conditions are those environmental baseline condition and conservation measures, to determine the net mental baseline of existing biological that exist prior to implementation of the BDCP. Chapter 2 of the public Draft BDCP describes the existing ecological conditions conditions expected to occur under BDCP. effect of implementing the Plan for: conditions, such as: in the Study Area. The environmental baseline reflects the • Ecosystems and landscapes • Current regulatory requirements such as existing or pre-implementation condition in • Natural communities Biological Opinions Near-Term (NT) Conditions – NT conditions are expected under the Plan Area. The effects analysis compares • Covered plants and wildlife • Extent of species habitats the BDCP in the first 10 years of implementation. During this all conservation measures at various • Covered fish • Water quality and pollutant inputs period, the BDCP is expected to address a substantial portion of times during BDCP implementation. As the planned aquatic and terrestrial restoration with associated • Water temperatures required by the ESA, the effects analysis also To calculate the net effects, different methods improvements in water quality and food production. Also • Flow describes the level of take (loss, harm, or were developed for each of the categories during this period, the new water facilities will be constructed harassment of species) and the effect of that listed above. For each category, the positive but no new operations will occur. Climate conditions in the NT take from BDCP actions. and negative effects were combined to Temporary and Construction Effects reflect physical analysis of the 2020 conditions. determine the overall net effect. The following section focuses on net effects of BDCP Early Long-Term (ELT) Conditions – ELT conditions reflect The BDCP conservation measures will be actions, which include temporary and construction BDCP actions from years 10 through 15. During this period, implemented at different times over the The following sections focus on the net effects effects. For more specific information about temporary significant changes in the Delta environment will result from 50-year period, and according to conditions of BDCP. For details regarding the positive and construction-related impacts considered, see the BDCP. Operation of the new water facility is expected to expected at the following intervals: and negative effects for each category, see Chapter 5, Effects Analysis, of the public Draft BDCP. begin during this period while changes to tidal, floodplain, and Chapter 5, Effects Analysis, of the public Draft The EIR/EIS includes additional information regarding terrestrial environments made during the first 10 years of BDCP - Current (immediately preceding BDCP. temporary and construction impacts of BDCP actions. implementation would begin to mature. ELT climate conditions BDCP implementation) reflect physical analysis of the 2025 conditions. - Within 10 years (Near Term) BENEFICIAL BDCP EFFECTS - Within 15 years (Early Long-Term) Scientific Uncertainty Late Long-Term (LLT) Conditions – LLT conditions reflect full + Scientific Uncertainty - Within 50 years (Late Long-Term) implementation of BDCP actions from years 15 through 50. ADVERSE BDCP EFFECTS Because the Delta is an ecologically complex Because the Delta is an ecologically All planned habitat restoration will have occurred by year 40, The effects analysis also considers climate estuary, there is a degree of scientific uncertainty. complex estuary, there is a degree of along with full application of the new water facility and change impacts over the entire 50-year NET BDCP EFFECTS Where a high level of uncertainty is associated with scientific uncertainty. Where a high level full implementation of most other conservation measures. implementation period. the potential for a conservation measure to achieve of uncertainty is associated with the ability LLT climate conditions reflect physical analysis of the 2060 plan objectives, that uncertainty will be addressed To calculate the net benefit of BDCP actions, the EA of a conservation measure to achieve plan conditions. summarizes the positive and negative effects of the through research, monitoring, and the adaptive objectives, that uncertainty will be addressed plan to determine the net effect to each covered species. management program. through research, monitoring, and the adaptive management program. 54 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 55 December 2013 December 2013 Details about how Climate Change Expected Climate Climate Change climate change factors Change Adaptation Description Adaptation Change is natural and inevitable in the Delta. The change in the global Benefits into the effects analysis climate system is one of the factors affecting the Delta in several ways. Conservation are available in the Enhanced Restoration of wetlands, floodplains, and riparian habitats will following appendices of Over the last 100 years, sea level has risen approximately 0.6 feet at ecosystem restore ecosystem functions that benefit humans as well as species, measures will provide the Golden Gate Bridge, and levels are expected to continue to rise. An services including, among others, flood control, water purification, and the public Draft BDCP: sediment retention. numerous benefits additional increase of 1.5 feet or more by 2060 is predicted. This change to the Bay-Delta Appendix 2.C, Climate will cause changes in the position, Protection from Increased wetland plant biomass, including below-ground ecosystem, natural Change Implications and sea level rise production, helps to promote natural growth and the ability of the location and depth of tidal habitat, marsh to keep pace with sea level rise. A wider and more extensive communities, and Assumptions, provides The BDCP would partially isolate marsh plain in tidal wetlands and a wider floodplain in river systems and may also change tidal mixing and covered species an overview of the water deliveries from increasingly increases protection of upland habitat and human structures from salinity patterns in the Delta. It will flooding and storm surges, which are predicted to worsen with that are expected scientific understanding stressed Delta levees, while using climate change. state-of-the-art fish screens and also increase water pressure against to reduce species of climate change and water project operating rules that Delta levees, potentially causing Marsh grasses, microalgae, phytoplankton and woody biomass vulnerability to the observed and projected Carbon instability and seepage. As warmer included in riparian restoration remove carbon dioxide from the changes anticipated in minimize potential impacts to fish sequestration and atmosphere. Marsh soils store carbon from marsh organisms, helping adverse physical and average temperatures push snow levels climate change California and the Plan spawning and migratory patterns. mitigation to control carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to climate biological effects of The proposed project also would higher in the Sierra Nevada mountain change. Area. climate change. help California cope with changing range, more winter precipitation will The brackish marshes in the North Bay and Suisun Marsh provide an Appendix 5.A.1, Climate Protection of weather patterns by enabling the fall as rain. More intense storm runoff migrating birds important resting place for birds along the Pacific Flyway. Due to sea Change Implications for capture of large amounts of winter and peak flood events will further level rise, these birds will experience increasing loss of mudflats used for forage and resting during long-distance migration. Tidal wetland Natural Communities flood flow that coincide with times stress levees. Multiple levee failures restoration will help to offset this habitat loss. and Terrestrial Species, of more minimal ecological risk. from a single flood are possible, summarizes the A more reliable facility would also Increased upland The tidal wetland restoration will have a wide upland transition area, depending upon water levels, tides, transition zones projected effects of boost the state’s ability to respond providing refuge for wetland animals during extreme high tides climate change in wind, and other factors. The Effects (predicted to increase with climate change) and opportunities for to the natural differences in the wetland migration upslope in response to sea level rise. California and the Plan Analysis explicitly considers the amount of precipitation the state Area that are relevant effects of climate change over the receives from one year to the next. When wetlands behind levees dry out, the organic matter in the soil to the BDCP natural 50-year implementation period by Reduction in risks of levee failure oxidizes, which can increase subsidence. This increase can reduce communities and incorporating calculated assumptions the stability of levees and increase the risk of levee failure during flooding, resulting in saltwater intrusion into aquifers and farmlands. terrestrial (non-fish) of sea level rise, temperature increase, and changes in seasonal Restoration will increase wetland persistence and reduce subsidence. covered species. precipitation and runoff patterns upstream of the Delta into relevant Natural water Improved floodplain connections to rivers will restore the ability of analyses during years 10 through 15 and years 15 through 50 of BDCP Appendix 5.A.2, Climate management floodplains to absorb flood flows and provide a reservoir of water to implementation. These future conditions provide points of comparison to help aquatic species withstand droughts. Change Approach and Implications for Aquatic starting operations, which also include the same assumptions of climate change. Sea level is assumed to increase by 0.49 feet by the end of year 15 Increased resilience Seasonally inundated floodplains provide more resilience to invasive Species, characterizes to threats from species by increasing numbers and health of native species. the projected effects of BDCP implementation and by 1.54 feet above present level by year 50 of invasive species of climate change on BDCP implementation. aquatic covered species Increased habitat A mosaic of habitats that can be used by different species that have In some cases, the effects of climate change will overshadow variability evolved to use specific habitats helps to support species diversity. (fish) and identifies the the ecological benefits of the BDCP. For example, temperature- approach and methods related effects modeled in the BDCP and predicted to occur Increased habitat Wetland restoration will include networks of channels within used to incorporate marshes that are used by fish for foraging, refuge, and movement in by the end of the permit term (2064), are caused solely or complexity and out of the marsh. Currently, such channel networks are rare. climate change into the substantially by climate change. BDCP models. Protection and restoration of a variety of natural communities Increased habitat patch size and will increase the patch size and connectivity of these habitats. connectivity Increasing patch size will tend to increase population sizes of native species, which provides more resiliency against a changing climate. Increasing connectivity allows more genetic exchange among populations and movement to more suitable habitats as environmental conditions change. 56 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 57 December 2013 December 2013 Assessing Ecosystem and Ecosystem and Landscape Effects Landscape Effects The BDCP ecosystem and landscape effects A variety of models were used to evaluate analysis describes the indirect and ecosystem- the effects that the BDCP would have at the level effects on covered species during ecosystem and landscape level in the Plan construction and operation of the water facilities Area. Ecosystem and landscape effects are and following habitat restoration. those that affect general ecological processes. Overall, the BDCP will result in substantial Models, including conceptual models, ecosystem and landscape level effects through: analyzing ecosystem and landscape effects of BDCP implementation evaluated foodwebs, • Restoring, enhancing, and protecting more flows, water quality, water temperature, than 110,000 acres of terrestrial and aquatic dissolved oxygen, sediment, salinity, and habitat contaminants. All of these factors are known to be important in achieving high-quality • Shifting the location, amount, and timing of habitats for fish, plants, and wildlife. diversion of SWP/CVP water from the Delta The BDCP results in the following landscape and ecosystem-level effects: • Substantially improved south Delta flows in the Plan Area • Increased frequency and duration of flooding of the Yolo Bypass, especially in drier years • Increased access to habitat for covered species, including channel margin and riparian habitat and other natural communities • Potential for increased aquatic food production and availability • Changes in lower Sacramento River flows and outflows, depending on the specific outcome of the decision trees Expected Outcomes 59 December 2013 December 2013 Ecosystem and Landscape Effects Sediment Sediment is critical to tidal habitat. Sediment eroded from upstream areas is deposited in various parts of the Delta, depending on factors such as flow rate, tidal forcing, and local conditions. Additionally, sediments already in the Plan Area can be raised and transported by wind or water with the potential to redistribute as Flow tidal wetland restoration (CM4) occurs. Implementation of dual-conveyance under CM1 (Water Facilities and Operation) was estimated to result in approximately 8 to The BDCP would fundamentally change how water flows through the Delta. While the existing south Delta 9 percent less sediment entering the Plan Area from the Sacramento River, the main facilities will continue to operate at times, BDCP actions would shift about half of exports to the north source of sediment for the Delta and downstream subregions. Delta intakes which would improve natural east-to-west flows (outflow to Bay). The timing of Delta exports and outflows will be adjusted to specifically benefit the aquatic ecosystem and covered fish species. Appendix 5.C, Attachment 5C.A, of the public Draft BDCP provides additional detail on BDCP Water Temperature changes to Delta flows. Water temperature in the Plan Area will not change due to the BDCP. The BDCP is committed to avoiding temperature changes in the Plan Area, as well as upstream, Water Quality including the upper San Joaquin River and tributaries, the Sacramento River, the American River, and the Trinity River. tfow to ocean Water quality is defined by both the physical (temperature, turbidity) and chemical properties of water (salinity, pollutant concentrations) that cause biological responses in covered fish species. The map on the right shows how the effects analysis addresses Contaminants ral ou water quality. The BDCP will not introduce new contaminants or increase the Natu Aquatic Habitat and Foodweb Water Quality concentrations of contaminants in the Plan Area directly, with the Water quality issues are a critical exception of herbicides, which will be applied in limited and safe The proposed tidal marsh, channel margin, floodplain, and riparian concern and also are being addressed concentrations to control invasive aquatic weeds. Some conservation Delta Cross in the EIR/EIS. BDCP staff will continue Channel Gates measures have the potential to change how contaminants already restoration measures are expected to increase suitable habitat for covered present in the Plan Area are mobilized. Appendix 5.D of the public to work with local interests to ensure fish species and restore important ecological functions of the Delta. Uses of that water quality impacts have been Draft BDCP shows that: Georgiana Slough this restored habitat by covered fish include: accurately identified. Nonphysical Barrier • Water operations will have few to no effects on toxins in the Delta. • Restoration will increase bioavailability of certain toxins, especially • Adult holding, foraging, and spawning methylmercury, but the overall effects are expected to be localized • Egg and larval development and of low magnitude. • Juvenile rearing Suisun Marsh • Available data suggest that species exposure to contaminants will Salinity Control Gate be low. BDCP aquatic restoration is expected to provide increased • The long-term benefits of restoration may reduce exposure to Natural outfow to o ce a n existing toxins in the environment and eliminate sources. production of periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, Nat ura macroinvertebrates, insects, and small fish that contribute l ou tf o w to the aquatic foodweb. The BDCP’s extensive habitat to o restoration will promote linkages between various habitat ce an types, mimicking historical conditions. Overall, the restoration Salinity of tidal natural communities has the potential to provide a The low-salinity zone is an important area for many large net benefit to several covered fish species, although fully fish. Many fish species have a preferred range of achieving this potential will require careful design, and, when salinity and a range of physiological tolerance to appropriate, management of restored areas. If monitoring salinity, both of which can influence their distribution. Dissolved Oxygen The estuarine salinity gradient is controlled by the results identify adverse effects that will not support meeting balance of Delta outflow and tide. Head of Old River Covered fish species in the Delta require high dissolved oxygen levels Operable Barrier the expected biological outcomes, the existing and future for survival. Low dissolved oxygen levels can create passage barriers and increase species mortality. The simulations of dissolved oxygen restoration actions will be modified and refined as part of concentrations in the Delta found only minor differences among the BDCP EXP adaptive management. scenarios. For most of the regions, differences due to climate change were Water Conveyance: larger than those due to the effects of BDCP operations, in models used to TS OR Intake determine net effects. The BDCP also includes CM14, which would ensure R PO Water Conveyance Tunnel/Pipeline TS that the existing dissolved oxygen machine in the San Joaquin River Forebay EX would remain in operation. 60 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 61 December 2013 December 2013 Natural Communities Natural communities are distinct and recurring Assessing Effects for Natural Communities In general, covered activities are expected to result in an increase in the quantity and quality of collections of plants and animals associated with To assess the Plan’s effect on natural communities, the natural community types covered in the BDCP. The BDCP is expected to have a net increase of specific physical environmental conditions and amount of habitat lost was quantified for natural community 82,545 acres protected. This substantial increase in restored, protected, and conserved habitat will ecological processes. types. In addition to the quantitative effects analysis, the support ecosystem connectivity, accommodate sea level rise, and support ecosystem services in the effects of BDCP were assessed qualitatively by considering Delta such as nutrient transport, sediment capture, and flood-flow reduction. Restoration of tidal such factors as landscape connectivity, natural community natural communities in particular is expected to benefit a large number of covered species including patch size, hydrologic connectivity, native biodiversity, delta smelt, longfin smelt, salt marsh harvest mouse, California black rail, and Suisun thistle. and presence of rare species. Beneficial effects on natural communities were evaluated based on the ecosystem and natural community goals and objectives provided in Section 3.3 and implementation of the conservation measures described in Section 3.4 of the public Draft BDCP. The net effects on each natural community were then assessed, taking into consideration losses, restoration, protection, and enhancement, and the anticipated quality of the natural communities conserved relative to that of habitat lost. BDCP Effects on Existing Condition Net Effect of BDCP Implementation Natural Communities Total Expected Modeled Habitat Total Expected Modeled Habitat Protection The following table Covered Natural Community Types Total Extent in Conservation Net Change in Net Change Percent Change Plan Area Lands Total Extent in Percent Change Total Protected Total Extent in Extent in Extent of provides the anticipated (Acres) (Acres) Plan Area in Plan Area in Total Extent in Plan Area Protected Protected over (Acres) over Existing (Acres) (Acres) (Acres) Existing net effects for natural communities. Overall, Tidal perennial aquatic 86,263 41,260 86,056 -207 0% 41,074 -186 0% the BDCP is expected Tidal brackish emergent wetland 8,501 8,380 14,500 5,999 71% 14,380 6,000 72% to improve the amount, Tidal freshwater emergent wetland 8,856 4,927 32,843 23,987 271% 28,918 23,991 487% quality, and condition of Valley/foothill riparian 17,644 5,508 21,926 4,282 24% 10,727 5,219 95% natural communities within Nontidal freshwater perennial emergent the Plan Area. The average 1, 385 654 2,058 673 49% 1,408 754 115% wetland increase in protected lands Nontidal perennial aquatic 5,489 1,424 5,589 101 2% 1,754 330 23% is 52 percent, not counting Alkali seasonal wetland complex 3,723 2,910 3,723 - 0% 3,087 177 6% cultivated lands.* Vernal pool complex 11,284 6,292 11,284 - 0% 6,959 667 11% *To avoid skewing average Managed wetland 70,698 64,984 57,420 -13,278 -19% 60,028 -4,956 -8% protection in the positive direction, the total increase Other natural seasonal wetland 276 227 276 - 0% 227 - 0% in cultivated lands natural Grassland 76,315 20,816 75,798 -517 -1% 29,631 8,815 42% community protection was not included. The increase in Inland dune scrub 19 14 19 0 0% 14 - 0% cultivated lands protection is Cultivated lands 481,909 61,942 426,338 -55,571 -12% 103,676 41,734 67% unusually large due to the low number of existing, protected Total** 772,363 219,338 737,832 -34,531 -4% 301,884 82,545 38% cultivated land acres and the large increase in acres protected. **Totals may not sum directly due to rounding. 62 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 63 December 2013 December 2013 Assessing Effects for Covered Plants and Wildlife BDCP Effects on Covered Plants and Wildlife A protected area is a To determine BDCP effects, it is necessary to • Using this combination of location which receives The following table provides EA results for covered terrestrial species. The BDCP will result determine three outcomes for each covered quantitative and qualitative safeguards because of in a net beneficial effect for all terrestrial species in terms of total extent of habitat, extent of species: the effects of incidental loss or harm, information, a determination its recognized natural, protected habitat, or both. the beneficial effects expected to result from was made as to whether the ecological, and/or cultural the conservation strategy, and the net effect net effects on each species will values. They are areas Existing Condition Net Effect of BDCP on the species during the BDCP term. result in conservation of the set aside to maintain Total Expected Modeled Habitat Protection species. functioning natural Species Total Extent in Protected Percent Change Total Protected Net Change in Developing the EA and determining the net ecosystems, to act as Plan Area (Acres) (Acres) Acres in the Plan Extent in Extent of Protected over Area Protected effects for covered plants and wildlife involved The Plan’s contribution to recovery refuges for species and Existing several steps: was guided by the proportion of a to maintain ecological Riparian brush rabbit 6,012 531 1,820 1,289 243% species’ range and lifecycle within processes that cannot Riparian woodrat 2,166 100 490 390 390% • A thorough review of the most current otherwise survive. the Plan Area and the level of Salt marsh harvest mouse* 35,586 35,332 35,966 634 2% scientific information regarding species effect on that species. For example, San Joaquin kit fox 5,327 1,073 2,089 1,016 95% range, habitat use, and stressors was all else being equal, the Plan’s obligation to conducted. Using the information Suisun shrew 7,515 7,317 13,168 5,851 80% contribute to recovery for a species with a gathered from current literature, plant California black rail 25,382 21,394 34,322 12,928 60% small portion of its range in the Plan Area is less and wildlife species occurrence data, California clapper rail 6,716 6,120 12,088 5,968 98% than the Plan’s obligation to conserve another and expert review and input, geographic Greater sandhill crane 186,026 43,006 47,180 4,174 10% species with a large portion of its range in the information system (GIS) was used to 15,528 5,093 6,147 1,054 21% Plan Area. For listed species, conservation of Least bell’s vireo develop habitat models. a species is defined as the use of all methods Suisun song sparrow 27,708 26,567 29,361 2,794 11% • The GIS habitat models were used to and procedures that are necessary to bring Swainson’s hawk 480,120 100,007 148,509 48,432 48% conduct a quantitative assessment of any endangered species or threatened species Tricolored blackbird 416,745 105,273 174,057 68,784 65% the anticipated amount of habitat to be to the point at which the measures provided 401,550 87,345 113,204 25,859 30% Western burrowing owl adversely and beneficially impacted by under the ESA are no longer necessary. For Western yellow-billed cuckoo 12,395 4,199 7,692 3,493 83% BDCP. In some instances, precise impact non-listed species, contribution to recovery is White-tailed kite 514,434 130,872 170,321 39,359 30% footprint were included, such as for defined by the BDCP’s contribution to factors that prevent the species’ need to become state- Yellow-breasted chat 14,547 5,112 7,850 2,738 54% CM1 (Water Facilities and Operations), or federally listed in the future. Giant garter snake 83,795 29,475 336,255 306,780 1041% while hypothetical estimates were used for others, such as CM4 (Tidal Natural Western pond turtle 102,046 48,757 85,248 36,490 75% Communities Restoration). Species California red-legged frog 7,925 1,788 3,201 1,413 79% occurrence information was used to California tiger salamander 36,018 15,021 21,410 6,389 43% supplement the quantitative analysis.* Valley elderberry longhorn beetle 34,049 10,115 16,569 6,454 64% California linderiella 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% Conservancy fairy shrimp 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% * Use of species occurrence Longhorn fairy shrimp 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% information in the affects analysis Midvalley fairy shrimp 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% factors in the often incomplete nature of data sets. Vernal pool fairy shrimp 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% Vernal pool tadpole shrimp 11,472 6,311 6,953 642 10% * While there will be a net decrease in managed wetlands that provide habitat for salt marsh harvest mouse, there will be a net increase in tidal brackish marsh providing habitat with higher long-term conservation value consistent with the recovery plan for this species. 64 Expected Outcomes Swainson’s Hawk Expected Outcomes 65 December 2013 December 2013 BDCP Effects on Fish Species Assessing Effects for Covered Fish BDCP Effects on Covered Fish BDCP implementation will result in incidental take of covered fish This section describes the net effects on species. In some cases, the overall take of covered fish as a result fish based upon modeling focused on of the conservation measures is not quantifiable. Instead, take was potential changes in water flow under the evaluated by determining the magnitude and direction of positive or various BDCP scenarios. The species-specific Upstream Effects negative effects. These positive and negative effects were considered effects included an analysis of potential The BDCP does not change Shasta or Folsom in light of the importance of that effect to the species, and overall net changes to aquatic habitat, including water operations and, therefore, does not affect effects determinations were made. The predicted effects of the Plan temperature, water quality, and lifecycle Sacramento River or Lower American River will be compared to actual measurements of fish population trends in patterns. flows. However, the BDCP may result in real-time to ensure permit compliance and to adaptively manage the changes in the seasonal releases at Oroville BDCP. Reservoir, which will change spring and summer flows in the Feather River. As such, For fish, the following types of effects could result from the BDCP: the following changes to the environment and • Reduction in entrainment (capture) of fish in water diversions related effects on fish may occur in upstream habitats as a result of BDCP: • Modification of river flow and Delta outflow SHASTA • Increase in suitable habitat Chinook Salmon LAKE Redding • No effects on spawning and egg incubation • Increase in food and foraging in the Sacramento River, Trinity River, Clear • Permanent indirect and other indirect losses Creek, Lower American River, or the San NORTH, MIDDLE, Joaquin River are estimated to result from Several of these activities are predicted to benefit covered fish species & SOUTH FORKS LAKE FEATHER R. the BDCP, with the exception of a possible by increasing habitat and food resources, and more natural flow OROVILLE SAC slight reduction for Sacramento River spring- RAM patterns. Adverse conditions that could result in take are dependent run Chinook in some years. ENT DLE, on flow conditions and are evaluated in a detailed quantitative H, MID NORT H FORKS OR SOUT AN R. analysis. & AMER IC • Small to moderate reductions in flows during . Sacramento ES R. AREA COVERED BY COS UMN some summer and fall months are expected . Habitat Restoration THE BDCP MOK ELUM NE R in the Feather River. The BDCP habitat restoration actions have two principal objectives: Stockton ISLA US R . • Small to moderate increases in flows during San Francisco STAN E R. SAN TUO LUM N R. the spring in the Feather River. • Increase the amount and quality of available habitat for covered FRANCISCO MER CED SA BAY Chinook Salmon N fish species to address their unique life history stage needs JO AQ UI • Enhance the ecological function of the Delta N Pacific R. Ocean The Delta is a critical migratory corridor for adult fish returning to their spawning grounds and is habitat for several native estuarine species, including imperiled delta smelt and longfin smelt. Delta Smelt 66 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 67 December 2013 Salmon and Steelhead Lifecycle BDCP Effects on Chinook Salmon and Steelhead SHASTA LAKE Before dams were built on Chinook salmon and steelhead are environmentally, commercially, and culturally important The Delta is a critical migratory Sierra rivers, many young species whose habitat will be affected by BDCP activities. Four races (runs) of Chinook salmon and corridor for salmon and steelhead, Redding salmon and steelhead steelhead are seasonally present in the Plan Area and were considered in the effects analysis. All returning adults and outmigrating would hatch and grow in five species have seen dramatic declines in population numbers over the last 150 years. Today, it juveniles. The Delta habitat relied high Sierra streams before on by salmon and steelhead has beginning their journey to the is estimated that 95 percent of juvenile San Joaquin River salmon and 60 percent of Sacramento been degraded by invasive species, Pacific Ocean through the Delta. River salmon do not survive as they migrate through as a consequence of numerous direct and changes to natural flows, entrainment indirect stressors. The diagram on the right illustrates how salmon and steelhead use the Delta by unscreened diversions, high during a portion of their lifecycle and the challenges they face under current conditions. levels of predation, and substantially limited suitable habitat. After the construction of dams, hatcheries LAKE were built at lower OROVILLE elevations where most Chinook Salmon and Steelhead included in the Effects Analysis Chinook salmon and Species Description Federal California steelhead begin their ESA Status ESA Status life journey. Spawning habitat is limited to the upper Sacramento River and possibly Battle Creek. SA CR March is the peak month for returning adults entering the AM Adult salmon Winter-run Chinook Sacramento River basin. Peak emigration of young fish into Endangered Endangered EN the Delta is November but can begin in October and continue spend about 3 years TO through early May. Many winter-run Chinook hold and rear in in the Pacific Ocean before m R the Sacramento River for several months before reaching the rea . returning to their river Delta where they typically remain for several more months. ownst spawning grounds. Sacramento Spawning habitat is limited to the Sacramento River and a few im d of its tributaries. The Feather River Hatchery currently produces AREA a large number of spring-run salmon. COVERED BY sw Spring-run Chinook Threatened Threatened THE BDCP Adults begin migration upstream in March. Young spring-run Pacific Ocean nil e s emigrate downstream between November and April, with Juve some fish in the Delta into the summer. A large portion of Fall-run Chinook are present in the Sacramento River and San young salmon and Joaquin River systems. Late-fall run Chinook are currently only steelhead do not survive present in the Sacramento River system. their journey through the Delta. am San Francisco The BDCP includes a number of stre Adult fall-run Chinook typically migrate through the Delta Fall-run and Late Species of actions in the Delta to contribute from June through December. Fall-run juveniles typically N/A up Fall-run Chinook Concern SAN emigrate downstream and enter the Delta in the spring. to salmon recovery. SA n FRANCISCO t N ur re JO Late-fall run Chinook migrate into the Sacramento River from BAY on AQ October through April. There is a good deal of uncertainty m sal UI about when young late-fall Chinook enter the Delta. Adult N R. Steelhead are present in both the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River systems, though the San Joaquin River population is small. Steelhead Threatened N/A Steelhead typically emigrate in the fall, winter, and spring. Juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead are most Young steelhead typically spend 1 to 2 years in their home sensitive to the Delta environment and the effects of streams before quickly emigrating through the Delta region. BDCP during the December through June migratory Fresno period. To protect juveniles, the north Delta diversion bypass flow criteria would be applied to operations throughout the year. An example of how the north Delta diversion bypass flow criteria would be applied is provided on page 33. 68 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 69 December 2013 BDCP Benefits to Chinook Salmon and Steelhead SA C Effects on Chinook Salmon and Steelhead R AM EN TO The net effect of the BDCP on Chinook rather than snow-dominated), will increase Sacramento R . salmon and steelhead is expected to be stresses to Central Valley Chinook salmon Tidal Habitat positive. The magnitude of benefits of the and steelhead regardless of the BDCP. The CM4 will increase tidal habitat suitable for juvenile BDCP for Chinook salmon and steelhead at BDCP will not directly address the main Chinook salmon and, to a lesser degree, steelhead in the Cache Slough and Suisun Marsh as well as other the population level cannot be quantified effects of climate change but, by expanding regions in the Plan Area. Upstream Effects with certainty. Nonetheless, expanded and habitat, increasing habitat diversity, and While the BDCP upstream effects are generally limited to the Feather River, all upstream habitats improved habitat, increased food supplies, increasing the number of productive habitat are predicted to experience substantial adverse fow to ocean and reduced entrainment are just a few locations in the Delta, the BDCP may lead effects from climate change as a result in changes in runoff and precipitation patterns. The BDCP does benefits of BDCP. These positive effects to a more robust Chinook salmon and Riparian and Channel Margin Habitat not exacerbate these effects. have the potential to increase the resiliency steelhead population with the resiliency and CM6 and CM7 will enhance channel margins ral out and improve habitat along river corridors, The BDCP does not result in adverse effects to and abundance of Chinook salmon and diversity necessary to better cope with a expanding the high-quality nearshore habitat for Chinook salmon in the Sacramento River, Natu habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon Trinity River, Clear Creek, Lower American River, steelhead compared to existing conditions. changing environment. The map on the right and steelhead in the Plan Area. Stanislaus River, Mokelumne River or San Joaquin River, but could result in small positive increase The BDCP should contribute to recovery highlights key benefits of BDCP for Chinook in flows in the Feather River during the adult of the species and may help them cope salmon. Chapter 5, Sections 5.5.3 through migration period. with expected climate change and other 5.5.6., of the public Draft BDCP provides CM14 will directly improve dissolved oxygen conditions in the Stockton Deep Water Ship ongoing threats to recovery. Increasing air specific information on BDCP effects for each Channel, improving passage conditions for San Reduced Predation and water temperatures, as well as a general species. CM1, CM2, CM5, CM6, CM13, CM15, CM16 Joaquin River fall-run adults. shift in hydrologic regime (rain-dominated TER and CM21 could all contribute to reducing El losses of juvenile Chinook salmon and TuNN D WA steelhead at existing localized areas where predation is intense and at future potential high predation area. POSE Floodplain Habitat NCE CM2 will increase floodplain available in the Yolo VEYA n PRO ea Bypass to improve conditions for migrating juvenile oc and adult Chinook salmon and steelhead. to w CON o utf lo CM5 will expand floodplain habitat in the ura Natural outfow to o ce a Nat San Joaquin River system to benefit juvenile spring- n run and San Joaquin River fall-run Chinook salmon. n Nat cea ura Natural outfow to o l ou tf o w to Spring-run o ce Fall-run and Late Fall-run Food Benefits an Winter-run CM2, CM4, CM5, CM6, and CM7 have Steelhead considerable potential to increase the quantity of food available for juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead. Reduced Entrainment CM1 will reduce entrainment of juvenile Reduced Illegal Harvest Chinook salmon and steelhead due to reduced reliance on the south Delta export facilities. State CM17 will help reduce illegal harvest of It is estimated that entrainment would be Pumping Federal adult Chinook salmon and steelhead. Plant Na reduced by 40 to 70 percent (depending on Pumping tu Plant r race and water-year type) compared to existing al outf conditions. ow CM1 and CM16 operations under BDCP have to potential to reduce juvenile Chinook salmon oc n ea and steelhead entry into the interior Delta where they can become trapped or subject to predation. SA N Reduced south Delta pumping will also JO improve migration cues for San Joaquin River AQ BDCP has the potential to complement San Joaquin River UI fall-run adult Chinook salmon and reduce Restoration Program activities by improving Plan Area N R. straying into the Sacramento River region. habitat for San Joaquin River Chinook salmon and steelhead. 70 Expected Outcomes Chinook Salmon Expected Outcomes 71 (CDFW) December 2013 BDCP Benefits to Green and White Sturgeon SA C R AM BDCP Effects on Green and White Sturgeon EN TO R . Green and white sturgeon are long-lived species that use Reduced Illegal Harvest Sacramento Flows Conditions the Plan Area as a migration corridor, feeding area, and CM17 is expected to decrease Under the BDCP CM1, Feather River operations are poaching of white and green sturgeon juvenile rearing area. Both species have been observed and other covered fish. This expected expected to result in higher flows during the spring decrease is especially important months, which will improve conditions for white and throughout the region, including Suisun Bay and the Yolo for white and green sturgeon green sturgeon. These flows are expected to have because harvest is thought to have the following benefits: Bypass. a substantial adverse effect on the • Provide increased freshwater rearing habitat population, particularly through the Yolo Green and white sturgeon are two of the largest fresh Green Sturgeon illegal harvest of spawning females. Bypass • Increase spawning activity cued by higher upstream flows water fish in North America and are often sought by fow to ocean Because of their longevity, late maturation and low populations, white • Increase nutrient loading into nursing areas, or anglers for their impressive size. Green sturgeon can grow and green sturgeon are particularly increase downstream migration rate and survival susceptible to threats from overfishing. through reduced exposure time to predators up to 7 feet and weigh more than 300 pounds. White • Benefit incubating eggs ral out sturgeon can grow up to 19 feet and weigh more than • Improve upstream passage conditions 1,000 pounds. Green sturgeon typically spawn in the Natu Sacramento and Feather rivers from January through May. White sturgeon typically spawn in the Sacramento, Feather, Improved Passage and San Joaquin rivers during late winter and spring. Both CM2 and CM14 are expected to improve passage species spawn multiple times during their lives. Most White Sturgeon for white and green sturgeon. Improving fish passage at Fremont Weir is expected to sturgeon spend the majority of their lives in the brackish substantially reduce stranding and poaching of El sturgeon in the stilling basin below the weir after and deep waters of the estuary. TER TuNN water recedes. D WA The positive effects of the BDCP on the sturgeon The BDCP is expected to improve dissolved oxygen NCE populations include increased suitable habitat, greater levels near Stockton with implementation of CM14, POSE which may improve conditions for migrating food production, improved passage, reduced entrainment VEYA sturgeon. in the south Delta, and reduced illegal harvest. PRO n ea CON oc to o w utf lo Improved Habitat Conditions ura Natural outfow to o ce a Nat n Overall, restoration is expected n Nat to have a high positive effect on cea ura Natural outfow to o l ou tf o white and green sturgeon. w to o CM4 will increase the amount of freshwater and brackish marsh ce an habitat that supports production and movement of food sources for juvenile and adult sturgeon that use this habitat as migration pathways through the estuary and Plan. Green Sturgeon White Sturgeon CM5 may provide a small benefit to sturgeon in the form of habitat and food benefits. CM6 may increase the availability State Pumping and quality of resting habitat for Federal Na Plant Pumping tu migrating adults. Plant r al CM2 is predicted to provide food outf downstream in the Delta because ow of increased flooding frequency and duration. to oc Reduced Entrainment n ea Reduced juvenile sturgeon entrainment risk is expected under the BDCP as a result of the SA north Delta intakes and reduced reliance on N JO the south Delta pumps. AQ UI N R. 72 Expected Outcomes (USFWS) Expected Outcomes 73 December 2013 BDCP Benefits to Delta and Longfin Smelt SA C R AM Delta Smelt Longfin Smelt EN TO R Sacramento The delta smelt is a small, translucent fish Longfin smelt is an anadromous fish endemic . endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin to the west coast of North America. The Delta Bay Delta estuary. The delta smelt life history is an important migratory corridor for adult includes spawning during spring in freshwater longfin smelt moving upstream to spawn and a Tidal Habitat Reduced Entrainment areas followed by juvenile migration to the rearing habitat for young longfin smelt on their CM4 would substantially increase the amount of Decommissioning of agricultural diversions suitable habitat for delta and longfin smelt with under CM21 in the ROAs may also reduce Yolo low-salinity zone and other turbid, open-water, way back to the San Francisco Bay. Adult longfin the potential to increase accessible food supplies Bypass entrainment for delta and longfin smelt. in the Plan Area. low-salinity areas of the Plan Area to feed and smelt are typically present in the Delta portions fow to ocean mature in the summer and fall. of the Plan Area from November through March. Young longfin smelt can be found in the Delta ral out between late winter months and June. Natu BDCP Effects on Delta Smelt BDCP Effects on Longfin Smelt Flow Conditions The BDCP’s main beneficial effect for delta Overall, the BDCP is expected to have a positive The new north Delta facilities would be outside smelt is potentially greater food production effect on longfin smelt, including reduced of the delta and longfin smelt’s primary habitat range; therefore, minimal impingement or from habitat restoration, with some minor entrainment and increased food. El entrainment is expected. TER benefits related to reduced entrainment, and TuNN Adaptive Management Fall outflow operations necessary for delta smelt D WA an adaptively managed level of fall outflow rearing habitat will be determined through the decision tree process NCE as determined prior to tunnel operation. The Habitat restoration design and adaptive POSE BDCP is expected to have at least a minor management will increase the magnitude of Spring outflow operations necessary for longfin VEYA smelt will be determined through the decision beneficial effect on the species, but a potential benefits for delta and longfin smelt through PRO tree process n ea CON for larger benefits depending on actual food efforts such as careful siting and sizing of oc to o w production and use of restored habitats by the restoration areas and flow management. The lo utf ura delta smelt population. monitoring and adaptive management program Natural outfow to o ce a Nat n will provide the opportunity to address existing n Nat cea ura uncertainties and alter the BDCP to maximize its Natural outfow to o l ou tf o w to Delta smelt Delta and longfin smelt are the two species to long-term benefits. The Adaptive Management o Longfin Smelt ce which to decision trees will be applied in the Team will provide the ability to respond in the an BDCP prior to the implementation of CM1 (See event that the conservation measures do not Chapter 3, Section 3.3, of the public Draft BDCP achieve plan biological objectives, or if potential for additional information.) For delta smelt, a threats to the species occur as a result of project decision tree will develop fall outflow operations operations, changes in species distributions or by including the evaluation of fall outflow abundance, or other factors. conditions per the USFWS Biological Opinion Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (2008). For State Pumping Federal longfin smelt, a decision tree will develop spring Plant Pumping Na tu Plant r outflow operations by evaluating a range of al outf Reduced Entrainment effects of spring outflow operations within the ow Under CM1, the north Delta intakes would capabilities of the CVP/SWP. to reduce reliance on south Delta pumping, oc which is expected to maintain delta and n ea longfin smelt entrainment at current low levels (due to regulatory requirements) or reduce entrainment even further. SA N Delta Smelt JO AQ UI N R. 74 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 75 December 2013 December 2013 Pacific and River Lamprey BDCP Effects on Pacific and River Lamprey Sacramento Splittail BDCP Effects on Sacramento Splittail Knowledge of the relative effects of different Overall, despite high uncertainty based on a Sacramento splittail is a freshwater fish native Sacramento splittail abundance has been stressors on Pacific lamprey is very limited, deficiency of available scientific knowledge of to the San Francisco estuary and its associated highly variable, which has produced and even less is known about river lamprey. lamprey, the EA concluded that the BDCP will watershed. inconsistent findings concerning its regulatory Pacific lamprey spend the majority of their provide a small net benefit to both Pacific and status. The BDCP is expected to have a positive river lamprey. There will be small net positive Splittail abundance is strongly related effect on the abundance, productivity, and 9- to 12-year lifespan upstream. Except effects on Pacific and river lamprey juveniles to hydrologic conditions, with wet years diversity of splittail populations and reduce during the periods when they migrate and adults and negligible effects on their eggs producing much stronger year classes than dry risk to its survival. The BDCP would greatly upstream to spawn and downstream and larva. years. Consequently, splittail abundance varies increase available spawning habitat through toward the ocean after rearing upstream, greatly from year to year. CMs 2, 4, 5, and 6. In particular, increases in river lamprey spend 3 to 5 years of their Benefits of the BDCP will be similar in 6- to 7-year lifespan upstream, with the Splittail can live 5 to 7 years and tolerate a wide dry-year floodplain habitat in the Yolo Bypass magnitude between Pacific and river lamprey, remainder of their lifespan spent in the range of water quality conditions, including are expected to substantially benefit splittail. although benefits to Pacific lamprey would ocean. A number of stressors affect upstream salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen These increased spawning habitats will result be somewhat greater than those to river life stages of both species. Passage barriers levels. In spring, when California’s Central in an enlarged spawning stock, especially lamprey because of improved flows during the include dams, culverts, water diversions, and Valley experiences large amounts of snowmelt if restoration actions increase availability of migration period. If monitoring during BDCP tidal gates. and/or rain runoff, adult splittail will move rearing and foraging habitat for juveniles and implementation indicates additional methods to inundated floodplains or margins of the adults. to improve conservation, conservation measures will be adaptively managed to rivers in the valley to spawn. The Yolo Bypass improve conditions for both species of provides the largest spawning area. Lack of lamprey to the extent practicable. However, spawning habitat, especially in dry the effects of climate change on upstream years and during prolonged flows and water temperatures are expected to droughts, is a be mostly adverse and likely will offset some of primary stressor the predicted benefits of the BDCP. of splittail and their floodplain habitat has been diminished over the last Sacramento Splitail Pacific Lamprey several decades. River Lamprey (Reclamation) 76 Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes 77 December 2013 December 2013 IMPLEMENTATION Implementation Adaptive Management The adaptive management program would: The following elements are included in the adaptive management program: Implementation of a large-scale HCP/NCCP, and Monitoring • Identify questions that need to be such as the BDCP, is no small effort. The BDCP answered to improve our knowledge base Process Framework includes specific plans, processes, and policies The BDCP biological goals and objectives and inform ongoing BDCP implementation The process by which the adaptive aimed at effective implementation of the Plan. would be advanced through an adaptive management program will be • Apply improved knowledge to identify The following section provides an overview of management program. The program would implemented, including gathering alternative approaches to BDCP the BDCP implementation components: provide mechanisms to make adjustments to data through monitoring and research, implementation and determine which BDCP conservation measures based on new analyzing data, assimilating new • Adaptive Management, Monitoring approaches to implement scientific information and insight gained from knowledge, and making adjustments to • Governance monitoring and targeted research. The program • Adjust the monitoring and research the strategy. • Schedule also would demonstrate progress towards program so that it evaluates the efficacy • Cost and Funding Research attaining program goals. The dynamic nature of of new and existing approaches and Experiments and pilot studies specifically the Delta ecosystems, expected changes over addresses questions that arise from designed to test uncertainties and the time, and uncertainties associated with these changing environmental conditions hypotheses underlying conservation changes make adaptive management critical to Adaptive measures, and to rapidly gain knowledge the success of the BDCP. Management that could improve conservation measure Process The adaptive management program would performance. Pl address gaps in knowledge regarding a nd Characterize the problem Status Reviews Delta ecological processes and species n Required periodic reviews of the o biology. It would provide flexibility sp Identify monitoring program, overall BDCP Re Adapt biological goals in BDCP implementation and and objectives performance, achievement of goals and ensure that the BDCP becomes Evaluate and objectives, and status of covered species. increasingly more effective Model linkages between Communicate objectives and proposed and responsive to changing implementation actions current ecological conditions in the Delta. understanding Integration with the Delta Science Plan Plan and design Multiple points of coordination and integration would exist between the BDCP adaptive Analyze, implementation The BDCP adaptive management management and monitoring program and the Delta Stewardship Council’s Delta Science Plan. synthesize, actions and evaluate framework is based on the recom- Integration of BDCP with the Delta Science Plan would include extensive reliance on the Delta mendations of the independent Science Program for independent science advice and review, collaboration on a shared tracking science advisors. For more system for adaptive management programs throughout the Delta, and close collaboration Design and implement performance measures Perform information on the independent and monitoring and implementation science review process, see pages 18-19. on establishment of research priorities, implementation of monitoring and research, model actions research plans development, and other areas. Do 78 Implementation Implementation 79 December 2013 December 2013 BDCP Implementation Office Authorized Entity Governance Group The assignment of responsibility to the program manager and The BDCP proposes to house primary The proposed governance and implementation structure of the BDCP is envisioned as a collaborative The Authorized Entity the Implementation Office will responsibility for implementation with the effort with defined roles and responsibilities, and a clear process for addressing issues and conflicts as Group would be not alter or modify existing BDCP Implementation Office, led by a BDCP they arise. The implementation structure is designed to ensure that: authorities, mandates, and program manager and governed by the established to provide obligations of the authorized Authorized Entity Group. This office would program oversight and • Sufficient institutional expertise, capacity, The implementation structure includes these entities or any other manage day-to-day implementation, including general guidance to resources, and focus are brought to bear to components: participating state and federal planning, budgeting, sequencing, scheduling, the program manager agency participating in BDCP accomplish the BDCP goals and objectives • Implementation Office coordination, and public outreach. Specific regarding BDCP implementation. • The entities receiving regulatory • Authorized Entity Group responsibilities would include: implementation. The authorizations are accountable to • Permit Oversight Group Authorized Entity Group those agencies granting the regulatory • Preparing annual work plans and budgets, • Adaptive Management Team would also: authorizations and managing expenditures • Stakeholder Council • The decision-making process regarding • Contracting for implementation services • Provide input and guidance on general BDCP implementation is transparent and • Securing, holding, and managing funds to policy and program-related matters understandable to the public support implementation actions • Monitor and assess the effectiveness of the • Coordinating with the authorized entities, Implementation Office in implementing the Authorized Entity Group, supporting the Plan entities*, and adaptive management team • Foster and maintain collaborative and • Coordinating with regulatory agencies, constructive relationships with fish and Delta Stewardship Council, Delta Science wildlife agencies, other public agencies, Program, Delta Conservancy, local stakeholders, local governments, and governments, Delta Protection Commission, interested parties Authorized Entity Group Permit Oversight Group flood control agencies, and other public The Authorized Entity Group would consist agencies of the Director of DWR, the Regional Director • Identifying legal matters for Reclamation, and representatives of the IMPLEMENTATION OFFICE • Overseeing Plan amendments participating state and federal contractors. • Implementing NEPA and CEQA mitigation Stakeholder Council measures Program Manager Supporting Entities • Overseeing, acquiring and/or leasing Adaptive Management Team property Science Manager * Supporting entities are other entities that would ensure • Managing land General Public specific tasks are carried out properly. These entities • Planning, design, permitting, and may include the Delta Conservancy, sponsors of regional Implementation Office Staff Delta Stewardship Council construction of all conservation measures conservation planning programs, and other public • Annual planning and reporting for agencies and private entities. water operations • Maintaining permits and authorizations and obtaining amendments Contractors and Consultants • Maintenance of facilities and improvements DWR and Reclamation would continue to be responsible • Public outreach for day-to-day water facility operations. 80 Implementation Implementation 81 December 2013 December 2013 Permit Oversight Group Adaptive Management Team Stakeholder Council Dispute Resolution The Permit Oversight Group, composed of state and federal The Adaptive Management Team will have The Stakeholder Council will be a forum If the Authorized Entity Group and Permit fish and wildlife agencies (USFWS, NMFS, and CDFW), will primary responsibility for administration of the for interested parties to assess BDCP Oversight Group are unable to reach ensure that the BDCP is being properly implemented by adaptive management program. implementation and to propose ways in which agreement on matters, the dispute would coordinating agency review of BDCP actions and necessary it may be improved. The Council will include be resolved by taking the following steps: The Adaptive Management Team will be compliance, the BDCP Implementing Agreement, and broad representation by local governments chaired by a science manager, and will consist associated regulatory authorizations. The Permit Oversight and agencies; reclamation districts; fishing, 1. Enlist the assistance of the program of representatives of DWR, Reclamation, a Group will have the following responsibilities, among others: hunting, and recreation interests; agricultural manager, science manager, or others as CVP contractor-Permittee, a SWP contractor- interests; conservation groups; natural • Jointly consider minor modifications and revisions to Permittee, CDFW, USFWS, and NMFS as voting appropriate. resource scientists; water purveyors; labor; and conservation measures or biological objectives with the members; and the Interagency Ecological 2. If the matter remains unresolved, the others. Authorized Entity Group Program lead scientist, and the Director entity with decision-making authority • Jointly decide adaptive management matters elevated of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric The Stakeholder Council will develop its own will make a decision. by the Adaptive Management Team with the Authorized Administration Southwest Fisheries Science internal organization and process to consider 3. Any member entity of the Authorized Entity Group Center, as non-voting members. and provide input on: Entity Group or the Permit Oversight • Participate in decision-making about real-time operations Group may initiate a nonbinding The team will decide when and on what • BDCP implementation, including matters • Have final decision-making authority for adaptive review process concerning the matter terms to seek independent science review related to work plans, budgets, and water management and real-time operations decisions within in dispute by a three-member panel of to evaluate technical issues. The Adaptive operations plans the scope of the BDCP Management Team will have primary • Implementation of conservation measures experts. • Provide input into the selection of the program manager responsibility for: • Adaptive management, monitoring, and and science manager The Stakeholder Council, being an reporting activities • Provide input to ensure that certain sections of the annual • Overseeing the functional steps of advisory body, would make reasonable • Scientific research and review processes work plan and budget are consistent with the BDCP and adaptive management, from problem efforts to provide input that reflects the • Annual reports with agency decisions formulation to proposals to alter general agreement of the members. • Provide input to ensure the Annual Delta Water conservation measures However, all members would have the Operations Plan is consistent with the BDCP • Proposed changes to conservation right to lodge a dissenting opinion. • Provide input on and accept annual reports measures or biological objectives • Provide input on and approve plan amendments • Integration of adaptive management and monitoring activities into one cohesive program 82 Implementation Implementation 83 December 2013 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years 25 years 30 years 35 years 40 years 45 years 50 years Water Flow and Year 11: Implementation Conveyance (CM1) CM1 Operational Schedule The BDCP seeks to restore and Year 13: protect more than 150,000 acres Habitat (CM2) CM2 Modifications Complete and Operational of habitat over its 50-year permit duration. This graph demonstrates Habitat (CM3-CM10) the proposed sequencing of the implementation of habitat 160,000 Habitat (CM3-CM10) 160,000 protection and restoration in the BDCP. As required in NCCPs, the CM3 : Natural Communities Protection and Restoration schedule has been developed CM4: Tidal Natural Communities Restoration to ensure that conservation CM5: Seasonally Inundated Floodplain Restoration measures are implemented 140,000 140,000 CM6: Channel Margin Enhancement (miles) roughly proportional in time and CM7: Riparian Natural Community Restoration extent to covered species impacts. The graph shows restoration and CM8: Grassland Natural Community Restoration protection occurring gradually. 120,000 CM9: Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal Wetland 120,000 Actual restoration and protection Complex Restoration CM10: Nontidal Marsh Restoration will occur more stepwise as large restoration projects are implemented or large blocks of 100,000 100,000 land acquired. Cumulative Restored Conservation measures that and Protected Acreage* address water operations 80,000 80,000 and other stressors will be implemented beginning soon after permit issuance. Construction of the proposed conveyance facilities 60,000 60,000 would begin approximately 2 years after permit issuance and continue for an estimated 9 to 10 years. Operations could begin as early as year 11. 40,000 40,000 In many cases, habitat restoration 20,000 20,000 will be implemented on existing public land and will not require 10,000 10,000 the acquisition of property. Where this is not practicable, land will be 0 0 acquired in fee or by conservation Year 4: easement through voluntary Other Stressors CM12-CM21 Implementation will begin * These acreage targets estimate implementation of between years 2 and 4. Some activities acquisition efforts first. (CM12-CM21) will be ongoing, while others will be habitat conservation measures over the life of the plan. performed on an as-needed basis. 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years 25 years 30 years 35 years 40 years 45 years 50 years 84 Implementation Implementation 85 December 2013 December 2013 Swainson’s Hawk Cost and Funding estimates Cost and Funding Cost and Funding Summary detailed here are reported in undiscounted 2012 dollars Costs and potential funding sources for The total estimated cost of implementing the BDCP with Plan administration, monitoring and research, and implementation of after adjusting for inflation. implementing the BDCP are outlined in over the 50-year permit term is $24.75 billion (in Chapter 8 of the public Draft conservation measures other than water conveyance. BDCP also presents costs in Chapter 8, Implementation Costs and Funding undiscounted 2012 dollars). Capital costs over the discounted, or present value, Sources of the public Draft BDCP. The purpose The total estimated funding available to implement the BDCP is 50-year permit term total $19.85 billion. The majority of dollars. For comparison of Chapter 8 is to: $24.75 billion over 50 years. This amount would cover the full cost of the purposes, the cost of the these costs (73 percent of capital costs) are associated with construction of water intake and conveyance Plan. Participating state and federal water contractors would contribute BDCP in discounted dollars is • Quantify the cost of the Plan overall and approximately 68 percent of the total funding, while state and federal funds* estimated at $18.9 billion. facilities and will be incurred by year 10 of BDCP its specific components would make up approximately 31 percent of the funding. A small portion of implementation. Operations and maintenance (O&M) • Establish funding needs for BDCP funding is expected to be generated from interest earnings. * Subject to future federal costs are estimated to be $110 million per year near the implementation over the 50-year permit appropriations. end of the 50-year permit term ($4.9 billion over 50 years). Totals in the pie charts below may not sum directly due to rounding. term and beyond Approximately 70 percent of O&M costs are associated • Help guide decisions regarding allocation of funding responsibilities among Plan Estimated Capital Costs Estimated Operations and Estimated Funding participants Total = $19.85 billion Maintenance Costs Total = $ 24.75 billion • Demonstrate to permitting agencies that Total = $ 4.9 billion the Plan ensures that adequate funding Water Facilities will be provided based on reasonable Natural Operation Community Monitoring, $1.5 billion assumptions Protection Research, Plan (30%) Federal and Administration, Funding Restoration Water and Other Costs $3.55 billion $4.17 billion Facilities $1.5 billion (14%) Water Cost Analysis Assumptions (21%) Construction $14.57 billion (30%) Contractor Funding (73%) $16.93 billion Several common assumptions were made (68%) in developing the cost analysis, which are State Other Stressors Funding described in detail in the chapter. These Other $4.12 billion Conservation Stressors (17%) assumptions involve: $927 million (5%) Operation Monitoring, Natural Community $1.74 billion Research, Plan Management (35%) • Cost time periods Administration, $237 million (5%) and Other Costs Interest • Cost contingencies $184 million (1%) Income $165 million (1%) • Financial assumptions • Delta real estate values for acquisition • Transaction costs for land acquisition • Staff salaries and benefits The costs analyzed in Chapter 8 of the public Draft BDCP represent planning estimates that are intended to demonstrate that the BDCP meets the standard of assured funding. The chapter does not present a project “budget.” The BDCP Implementation Office would develop annual budgets and work plans based on these cost estimates. 86 Implementation Implementation 87 December 2013 December 2013 Different approaches were used to estimate the costs of different conservation measures. The table to the Estimated Capital and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Costs by Plan Element (Millions)* The totals in tables may not sum directly from their components due to rounding. right is a summary of overall costs. Chapter 8 details related to these estimates. The totals in this table and the following tables may not sum directly from their components due to rounding. Capital O&M Total Water Facilities and Operation (65%) Estimated Costs for EIR/EIS Mitigation Costs CM1 Water Facilities and Operation $14,570.9 $1,456.0 $16,026.9 Figures are shown Natural Community Protection and Restoration (18%) Conservation Measures Mitigation measures necessary to avoid, in undiscounted CM2 Yolo Bypass Fisheries Enhancement $715.0 - $715.0 2012 dollars. The capital and O&M costs for each reduce, minimize, or compensate for adverse CM3 Natural Communities Protection and Restoration $460.1 - $460.1 conservation measure are shown. The cost environmental effects of BDCP implementation CM4 Tidal Natural Communities Restoration $1,909.7 - $1,909.7 of CM1 is approximately 65 percent of the are documented in the EIR/EIS. Most of the CM5 Seasonally Inundated Floodplain Restoration $706.5 - $706.50 costs of these mitigation measures are already CM6 Channel Margin Enhancement $120.2 - $120.2 total cost (capital and O&M) of implementation. CM7 Riparian Natural Community Restoration $47.6 - $47.6 The remaining conservation measures subsumed within the costs of BDCP conservation CM8 Grassland Natural Community Restoration $18.4 - $18.4 account for approximately 30 percent of the measures. However, some EIR/EIS mitigation CM9 Vernal Pool and Alkali Seasonal Wetland Complex Restoration $1.7 - $1.7 total cost. Other costs associated with BDCP costs remain. These activities are estimated to CM10 Nontidal Marsh Restoration $52.7 - $52.7 implementation, monitoring, research, and cost $141.8 million. These costs are not included CM11 Natural Communities Enhancement and Management $138.1 $236.6 $374.7 contingencies make up the remaining fraction. in the total estimated costs for the BDCP, but are SUBTOTAL $4,170.0 $236.6 $4,406.6 included in Chapter 8 (Appendix 8.A) to provide Other Stressors Conservation (11%) Debt Financing a more complete accounting of all Plan costs. CM12 Methylmercury Management $2.2 - $2.2 Mitigation costs will be paid for by state and CM13 Invasive Aquatic Vegetation Control - $270.3 $270.3 BDCP cost and funding estimates do not need CM14 Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel Dissolved Oxygen Levels $14.1 $9.5 $23.6 to include the interest costs associated with federal water contractors. CM15 Localized Reduction of Predatory Fishes $2.8 $102.2 $105.0 debt financing. Financing the project with debt CM16 Nonphysical Fish Barriers $763.0 $508.7 $1,271.7 does not add appreciably to the cost of the CM17 Illegal Harvest Reduction $5.8 $280.8 $286.6 project provided the cost of financing is close CM18 Conservation Hatcheries $32.9 $313.7 $346.6 to the discount rate and debt issuance occurs Counties, cities, and other local governments CM19 Urban Stormwater Treatment $50.0 - $50.0 when the funds are needed, both of which are CM20 Recreational Users Invasive Species Program $5.1 $206.3 $211.4 depend, in part, on property taxes paid by CM21 Nonproject Diversions $50.0 $6.7 $56.7 expected to be the case for BDCP. The primary private property owners. Typically, when land CM22 Avoidance and Minimization Measures - $36.3 $36.3 cost of debt financing is associated with the is acquired by a public agency, those payments SUBTOTAL $926.7 $1,734.5 $2,661.2 transaction costs of selling bonds. These costs stop. To ensure that these important revenues Monitoring, Research, Plan Administration, and Other Costs (7%) tend to average less than 1% of the face value remain, BDCP will pay the replacement cost of Monitoring - $506.2 $506.2 of the debt for large projects. those property taxes to local governments. Plan Administration - $336.4 $336.4 Property Tax Revenue Replacement - $226.0 $226.0 * Does not include estimated Changed Circumstances $183.9 - $183.9 costs of $141.8 million Potential Research $406.6 - $406.6 for EIR/EIS mitigation SUBTOTAL $183.9 $1,475.2 $1,659.1 and responsibilities by TOTAL $19,851.4 $4,902.3 $24,753.7 conservation measure. 88 Implementation Implementation 89 December 2013 December 2013 Costs of Implementing Conservation Measures over the 50-year Permit Term Cost Estimate for Water Facility Construction Due to the capital costs associated with the construction of new water intake and conveyance facilities, implementation costs are estimated to peak during the first 10 years and then level CM1, Water Facilities and 50-Year Permit Term Total Expenditure out over the remaining 40-year period. Operation Costs (Millions) Capital Costs Cost estimates for CM1 are Land Acquisition Implementation Expenditure of the 50-Year Permit Term (Capital and O&M Costs) presented for the design, project Surface footprint, staging, borrow sites $85.5 management, and construction Subsurface easements $4.3 $9,000 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years 25 years 30 years 35 years 40 years 45 years 50 years management of the water Mineral rights and gas well relocation $32.3 intake and conveyance facilities; Due diligence and transaction costs $12.2 the intake and conveyance Subtotal Land Acquisition $134.3 $8,000 construction costs; the Contingency (20%) $26.9 construction cost contingency; Plan Elements Total Land Acquisition $161.2 land acquisition; and annual Other Costs Construction $7,000 Other Stressors (CM12-CM22) operation, maintenance, power, River intake #2 with pumping plant $348.8 Habitat (CM2-CM11) and capital replacement. Water Conveyance (CM1) River intake #3 with pumping plant $270.7 Estimated Cost in 2012 Dollars (millions) $6,000 River intake #5 with pumping plant $303.2 Intermediate forebay and flow control structures $70.9 Byron Tract Forebay and flow control structures $619.4 $5,000 North tunnels and shafts $1,017.9 Main tunnels and shafts $6,219.6 Access, power delivery and utility relocations $316.5 $4,000 Communications and control $23.4 Subtotal Direct Construction $9,190.4 Tunneling contingency $2,641.7 $3,000 All other contingency $657.7 Construction w/ Contingency Subtotal $12,489.8 Project management, construction management, and final design $1,919.9 $2,000 Total Construction $14,409.7 Total Capital $14,570.9 Operations &Maintenance (O&M) Costs $1,000 Conveyance Facility Power $250.0 Facility O&M $754.0 0 Chapter 8 of the public Draft BDCP provides 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years 25 years 30 years 35 years 40 years 45 years 50 years Capital replacement $452.0 detailed cost estimates, including assumptions for each conservation measure. Total O&M $1,456.0 Chapter 8 of the public Draft BDCP provides details regarding the assumptions Total CM1 Capital and O&M $16,026.9 and methods for estimating the costs for each conservation measure. 90 Implementation Implementation 91 December 2013 December 2013 Funding While BDCP cannot guarantee public funding from future state and federal actions, Chapter 8 describes the history of state and federal government for programs and actions similar to BDCP The purpose of this section in Chapter 8 is to Both the ESA and the NCCPA require the funding to indicate the likelihood and feasibility of public funding for BDCP. This approach is estimate the funding sources to pay for the assurance of adequate funding. The funding consistent with other similar and approved HCPs and NCCPs that rely on public funding. costs of BDCP. This chapter is not a financing amounts identified in the plan are expected plan to support the issuance of bonds or to be sufficient to meet all anticipated costs provide a basis for the establishment of new of the BDCP, which have been estimated funding mechanisms, nor does it establish conservatively. For example, numerous State and Federal Water Contractor Funding the final allocation of cost or repayment cost contingencies have been identified to The BDCP would be funded through a facilities (CM1), as well as for mitigation responsibility. Financing plans will be address uncertainties in actual costs. “beneficiaries pay” principle, meaning the necessary to address impacts to terrestrial and prepared separately by various funding cost will be borne by those who receive the aquatic species associated with construction agencies and through ongoing discussions To achieve these important goals: benefit. The beneficiaries of the BDCP water and operation. Chapter 8 assumes that the between the state and federal governments, conveyance facilities include certain municipal, costs of constructing and operating the water • The Plan will be funded in part through the state and federal water contractors, industrial, and agricultural water users served facilities will be shared by the state and federal state and federal* agencies and other and other interests. The final financial by the SWP and CVP. water contractors. public funding sources. arrangements will require appropriate • Substantial funding will be provided by In recognition of that benefit, substantial The current estimate for state and federal approvals, contractual arrangements, and participating state and federal water funding would be provided by participating water contractor funding of BDCP over additional authorities. contractors for the construction and state and federal water contractors for the 50-year permit term is $16.9 billion, or Chapter 8 also: operation of the new water facilities, construction and operation of the new water approximately 68% of total BDCP funding. as well as for mitigation necessary to • Establishes funding needs for BDCP address impacts to terrestrial and aquatic implementation over the 50-year permit species associated with construction and term and beyond operation. State Funding • Helps guide decisions regarding allocation of funding responsibilities * Subject to future federal appropriations. Habitat restoration provides a broad public ballot. The Legislature is currently considering among plan participants value. Accordingly, it is expected to be partially amendments to this bond. Subsequent water • Establishes a “beneficiary pays” principle, funded by a variety of state and federal bonds that would partially fund the habitat whereby the costs of the plan are paid sources. restoration and other stressors reduction by those who benefit from the plan, actions are also expected to occur during the Initial state funding is anticipated to come 50-year permit term. including the state and general public The following pages describe the estimated from two future water bonds, including the funding from participating state and federal Chapter 8 describes the types of sources water bond approved by the California State The current estimate for state funding water contractors, state and federal agencies, that are expected to be available to Legislature in 2009 for the statewide ballot. of BDCP over the 50-year permit term is and other sources. For details, see Chapter 8 of support the implementation actions This bond was postponed until the 2014 $4.1 billion, or 17% of total BDCP funding. the public Draft BDCP. The totals in the following identified in the Plan. tables may not sum directly due to rounding. 92 Implementation Implementation 93 December 2013 December 2013 Ongoing Cost and Funding Analysis Analysis of other financial aspects of the BDCP The socioeconomic analysis satisfies NEPA’s Federal Funding continues. The purpose of these analyses, in requirements regarding socioeconomic The BDCP proponents anticipate that federal funding would be expected to come from the same addition to those included in Chapter 8, are impacts. It should be noted that CEQA does authorities used in the past to support Delta restoration and monitoring as well as new authorities to provide detailed information and solicit not require a discussion of socioeconomic expected to be needed. Annual appropriations have historically been provided to seven federal input from stakeholders, permitting agencies, effects, except where they would result in agencies for tasks and staffing that are similar in nature to certain BDCP conservation measures: and the public. While Chapter 8 evaluates the reasonably foreseeable adverse physical estimated costs and potential funding sources changes to the environment. • U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for the proposed project, the environmental • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Statewide Economic Impact Study review evaluates socioeconomic impacts of • National Marine Fisheries Service multiple alternatives. A statewide economic impact study is being • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers prepared to examine the economic impacts of • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Evaluation of Socioeconomic Impacts the BDCP on various interest groups, including • Natural Resource Conservation Service The BDCP environmental analysis includes an Delta farmers, commercial fishing interests, • U.S. Geological Survey extensive evaluation of the socioeconomic recreational users of the Delta, and others. The impacts anticipated from implementation of study also examines whether the project is a The current estimate for federal funding of BDCP over the 50-year permit term is $3.5 billion, the BDCP. Chapter 16 of the EIR/EIS evaluates worthwhile investment for the participating or 14% of total BDCP funding. New federal legislation is needed to provide for continued funding the BDCP-proposed project and a variety of state and federal water contractors and for under existing and new authorities that allow additional federal appropriations to support BDCP. different alternatives including through-Delta, state as a whole. This assessment is needed to Competitive federal grants are expected to provide additional federal funding. isolated conveyance, varying levels of habitat understand the broader social and economic Other Funding Sources restoration, and a no action alternative. This impacts of the proposed project. The Draft analysis discloses the socioeconomic impacts Statewide Economic Study, released in August While future interest rates are uncertain, BDCP is expected to gain limited income from interest on of alternative ways to improve water supply 2013, indicated that the BDCP would result in a revenue not yet spent under even the most conservative assumptions. Estimated funding from reliability of state and federal water projects significant net economic benefit to the state of interest income totals $165 million over the 50-year permit term, or approximately 1% of total and restoration of the Delta ecosystem. Every California and to Delta counties and residents. funding. Chapter 8 also discusses potential funding sources such as endowments and leveraging alternative is evaluated in an equal level state tax credit for donated conservation lands. The final study is expected to be completed of detail, and socioeconomic impacts are during the public review period for the Draft described quantitatively and qualitatively. BDCP and Draft EIR/EIS and will be available The analysis focuses on impacts to community online at: character, social and economic characteristics, www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com. population, housing, employment, and income. Chapter 28, Environmental Justice, of the EIR/EIS presents additional information on individual racial/ethnic groups, low-income populations, and poverty levels. 94 Implementation Implementation 95 December 2013 December 2013 ALTERNATIVE BDCP APPROACHES How Cost and Economic Benefit are What is “Take”? BDCP Alternatives to Take How Take Alternatives Compare Determined “Take” is defined The ESA requires analysis of alternatives in a habitat conservation plan Four primary criteria were applied to BDCP take alternatives in As a part of the practicability assessment, by the federal ESA that may avoid or reduce the “take” of various species covered by the Chapter 9 to assess how take alternatives compare to the BDCP Chapter 9 describes the economic benefits as harass, harm, BDCP. Chapter 9 of the public Draft BDCP describes these alternatives, proposed actions: to water agencies in three categories: pursue, hunt, shoot, called “take alternatives.” These take alternatives were developed based, water supply, water quality, and seismic 1. Incidental take relative to the BDCP proposed actions risk reduction. The cost practicability test wound, kill, trap, in part, on the alternatives in the Administrative Draft EIR/EIS. However, the take alternatives are different from the alternatives to the proposed A comparison of the likely effects of take alternatives on covered compares the incremental benefits of an capture, or collect species, including levels of incidental take and conservation alternative to its incremental costs—from any threatened action in the EIR/EIS because they serve a different purpose. In Chapter 9, benefits during construction, operation, and maintenance. 2015 through 2075*—to determine whether or endangered the take alternatives are used to evaluate the feasibility of reducing it is economically feasible. species. Permits take of the covered species. An important criterion for assessing take 2. Consistency with BDCP goals alternatives is known as “practicability.” This test involves, among other An evaluation of whether alternatives to take are consistent, The cost of the BDCP and each take alternative may be issued for or inconsistent, with the overall goal of the BDCP. are also compared to two reasonable scenarios the “incidental take” things, determining whether the project would be economically feasible. without the BDCP. For example, without the of endangered and 3. Practicability of Take Alternatives Chapter 9 describes take alternatives considered during the BDCP, the existing water conveyance (i.e., threatened wildlife An analysis of the cost, logistics, and technology of each take south Delta facilities) would remain in place development of the BDCP that may result in less incidental take or more species allowing alternative: and continue to operate as a part of the SWP conservation benefit. Chapter 9 fulfills a specific and narrow regulatory permit holders to and CVP. Covered fish populations would be purpose under the federal ESA. This chapter should be viewed as a tool a. For a take alternative to pass the cost practicability test, it proceed with an expected to continue to decline. To arrest those to help understand the process for selecting the proposed project. must be economically feasible, generating economic benefits activity, such as declines, operational constraints similar to to the funding entities that are larger than its costs. construction or those of BDCP could be imposed on the existing other economic b. Logistical considerations include accessibility and availability infrastructure. It is also reasonable to assume development, that Chapter 9 Fulfills ESA Regulatory Requirement of resources and sufficient suitable lands necessary for that some level of habitat restoration would may result in the construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyance be required without BDCP to comply with the The federal ESA requires DWR, as the applicant for an “incidental take” facilities and habitat restoration. current Biological Opinions. “incidental” taking permit, to evaluate in an HCP what alternative actions to the “take” of of a listed species. c. Technology considerations rendered take alternatives These scenarios, called the Existing Conveyance federally listed species were considered and why those alternatives were High-Outflow Scenario and the Existing impracticable in cases when the alternative would require not selected. Conveyance Low-Outflow Scenario, are used to the use of untested or unproven technology. provide a reasonable comparison point for the 4. Additional adverse and unavoidable effects cost practicability analysis and the evaluation Identification of resource areas where significant and for consistency with BDCP goals. unavoidable adverse effects would result from a take alternative, such as air quality, water quality, land use, and *2075 was used as the end point of the economic analysis to account for the 50-year life of the water facility. The additional effect, on other species. 10 years assumes that a permit extension would be granted to continue operations. 96 Alternative BDCP Approaches Alternative BDCP Approaches 97 December 2013 December 2013 Summary of Take Take Take Alternative Description Operational Criteria 1 Average Annual Primary Differences between Take Alternative Alternative Water Deliveries 2 and BDCP Proposed Action Alternatives Evaluated BDCP Dual-conveyance with Intakes at Decision tree for Fall X2 and 4.71–5.59 MAF 3 Proposed locations 2, 3, and 5, and up to spring outflow, Scenario 6 OMR, North Delta: 49% N/A Chapter 9 of the public Draft Action 9,000 cfs diversion capacity without San Joaquin River I/E ratio South Delta: 51% Scenario 6: BDCP studies these alternatives CM1 components: State and federal regulatory agencies developed Dual-conveyance with to take. A: West Canal west canal alignment, Modified spring outflow, Fall X2, 5.01 MAF • Location and type of primary conveyance facility Scenario 6 to identify alternative operating criteria to OMR criteria same as BiOp RPAs, North Delta: 52% • Location of intakes and associated intake facilities 15,000 cfs Intakes W1 through W5, and without San Joaquin River I/E ratio South Delta: 48% • Number of pumping plants address Sacramento River flows downstream of the up to 15,000 cfs diversion capacity • Water facility components intakes, San Joaquin River migratory fish survival, CM1 components: April through May Old River and Middle River flows, • Number and location of intakes and associated intake facilities • Number of pumping plants spring Delta outflow for longfin smelt, and Fall X2. Dual-conveyance with Intakes at 4.49 MAF B: Tunnels Modified spring outflow, Fall X2, • Location of conveyances pipelines and initial tunnel between Appendix 5.J of the public Draft BDCP provides locations 1 and 2 and up to 6,000 cfs North Delta: 41% 6,000 cfs Scenario 6 OMR criteria, without San Joaquin River I/E ratio intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay north Delta diversion capacity South Delta: 59% additional information on Scenario 6. • Number of forebays • North Delta diversion capacity • South Delta diversions CM1 components: • Number and location of intakes and associated intake facilities Why Are the Take Alternatives Different Dual-conveyance with tunnel/ 5.01 MAF • Number of pumping plants C: Tunnels • Location of conveyances pipelines and initial tunnel between from the EIR/EIS Alternatives? 15,000 cfs pipeline, five intakes, and up to Same as Take Alternative A North Delta: 52% intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay Notes: 15,000 cfs diversion capacity South Delta: 48% • Number of forebays 1 Reverse flow criteria improved from NMFS 2009 BiOp Alternatives to reduce or avoid the take • North Delta diversion capacity reasonable and prudent alternative. of covered species are often distinct from • South Delta diversions 2 Values are for the early long-term (2025). Entries with the alternatives developed to satisfy CM1 components: ranges represent take alternatives with the decision • Number and location of intakes and associated intake facilities tree. Proportions associated with north Delta and CEQA and NEPA regulatory requirements. Dual-conveyance with • Number of pumping plants south Delta represent the average fraction of water Alternatives to satisfy CEQA must avoid Intake in location 1 with up to • Location of conveyances pipelines and initial tunnel deliveries from each point of diversion based on the Modified spring outflow, Fall X2, 4.19 MAF historic frequency of water year types. D: Tunnels 3,000 cfs north Delta diversion between intake pumping plants and intermediate forebay or substantially lessen impacts to the Scenario 6 OMR criteria, without North Delta: 28% 3,000 cfs capacity; reduce tidal natural • Number of forebays 3 Take Alternatives G and H include the same CM1 San Joaquin River I/E ratio South Delta: 72% human environment on a wide variety communities restoration to • North Delta diversion capacity operating criteria as is included in the BDCP proposed 40,000 acres • South Delta diversions action. Take Alternatives G and H include different of issue areas. In contrast, alternative CM4 Components restoration configurations for CMs 4, 5 and 6 than actions evaluated in an HCP are only • Amount/location of tidal natural communities restored the BDCP proposed action. These differences in CM1 components: tidal wetland restoration may affect the outflow required to avoid or lessen impacts to Isolated conveyance with pipeline Modified spring outflow and Fall X2; 3.40 MAF • Operation of existing SWP and CVP south Delta export facilities requirements and, therefore, may result in different covered fish and wildlife species. E: Isolated water supply than that shown in this table. No and five intakes, with up to 15,000 cfs no south Delta criteria because North Delta: 100% for Clifton Court Forebay and Jones Pumping Plant 15,000 cfs information exists to more specifically estimate water north Delta diversion capacity south Delta diversion is not operating South Delta: 0% • Number and location of intakes and associated intake facilities • Number of forebays supply for these take alternatives. Therefore, the water supply shown in this table is a reasonable estimate. CM1 components: The March through May average outflow criteria for Modified spring outflow and Fall X2, the high-outflow outcome of the spring outflow Through-Delta conveyance with Delta 4.17 MAF • Location and type of primary conveyance facility F: Through- OMR criteria same as BiOp RPAs, without San Joaquin River decisions tree are noted in Chapter 9, Table 9-3. How Are Take Alternatives Different? channel modifications and different North Delta: 0% • Number of intake pumping plants Delta I/E ratio except when flows at Vernalis are greater than intake locations South Delta: 100% • Number of diversion pumping plants 10,000 cfs The take alternatives vary in as few • Number of intermediate pumping plants components as possible to allow G: Less Tidal Reduce tidal natural communities 4.71–5.59 MAF 3 CM4 components: Same as BDCP Proposed Action North Delta: 49% comparisons. They vary along three basic Restoration restoration to 50,000 acres 3 South Delta: 51% • Amount/location of tidal natural communities restoration BiOp = biological opinion cfs = cubic feet per second dimensions: (1) the location, type, and CM4 components: CM = conservation measure Increase tidal natural communities scale of the water conveyance facility, restoration to 75,000 acres, seasonally 4.71–5.59 MAF 3 • Amount/location of tidal natural communities restoration CVP = Central Valley Project H: More CM5 components: I/E ratio = inflow/export ratio (2) the amount of natural community inundated floodplain restoration to Same as BDCP Proposed Action North Delta: 49% Restoration • Amount/location of seasonally inundated floodplain restoration MAF = million acre-feet 20,000 acres, and channel margin South Delta: 51% restoration, and (3) water operations. CM6 components: N/A = not applicable enhancement to 40 linear miles 3 • Amount/location of channel margin enhancement NMFS = National Marine Fisheries Service OMR = Old and Middle River Same as BDCP Proposed Action but modified spring outflow I: Modified 4.34 MAF RPA = reasonable and prudent alternative criteria (44,500 cfs in 50% of years instead of average CM1 component: Spring Spring outflow at 44,500 cfs North Delta: 51% SWP = State Water Project monthly outflow scaled to the 90% forecast for the water • Rate of flow for spring outflow operating criteria Outflow South Delta: 49% X2 = measure of western Delta salinity year, with scaling3) 98 Alternative BDCP Approaches Alternative BDCP Approaches 99 December 2013 December 2013 Chapter 9 Summary of Conclusions Annual Water Deliveries Years of study and analysis have shown that the actions proposed in the BDCP are those that not only Per the Chapter 9 analysis of the BDCP proposed action, average annual water deliveries under BDCP meet the goals of the BDCP, but also do the best at balancing those goals with levels of take for all fish proposed water conveyance is estimated to fall between 4.7 and 5.6 million acre-feet depending on and wildlife species, with economic, technical, and logistical viability, and with other environmental hydrology and other factors. The following graphic compares the estimated water supplies that would effects. There are alternatives to take that meet some, or even most, of the criteria. However, none of result from continued operations of the existing system under projected regulatory restrictions in the the take alternatives to the proposed BDCP meet all of the criteria required of a successful project. future, compared to estimated water deliveries under BDCP actions. The table below shows whether the take alternatives meet each of the criteria. A “No” in any criteria eliminates that take alternative from viability. For example, Take Alternative B would convey less Actual and Projected Water Deliveries with and without BDCP water from the north Delta than the proposed actions, provides a similar level of conservation benefit, 6 and does not add unavoidable adverse effects. However, Take Alternative B does not pass the cost practicability test because Water Contractor benefits would not exceed costs by a 20% margin* and High Project it would result in greater take than the proposed action from an operational perspective due to an WITH BDCP: Ecosystem Deliveries: 5.6 5 Improvements and Climate increased reliance on south Delta intakes, therefore eliminating it as a viable alternative. 20-Year Change Adaptations Average * 20% is a typical value used in economic cost benefit test. Deliveries: Low Project 5.2 Ecosystem Current Deliveries: 4.7 Increases 4 Decline Project Reduces Conservation Deliveries: Take of Some Benefit Practicability Assessment Covered to Some No Additional 4.7 Consistent High Project Million-Acre Feet Take Species Covered Unavoidable with BDCP Deliveries: 3.9 Alternative 1 Without Species Adverse Dual Goals? Do Water Increasing Without Effects? Take of Decreasing Contractor Logistically Technically 3 Low Project Others? 3 Take of Benefits Feasible? Feasible? WITHOUT BDCP: Deliveries: 3.4 Others? 2,3 Exceed Costs? Continued Ecosystem BDCP Proposed Decline Action Tunnels - - Yes Yes Yes Yes - 9,000 cfs 2 A: West Canal, 15,000 cfs No N/C Yes Yes Yes Yes No B: Tunnels, 6,000 cfs No N/C Yes No Yes Yes Yes 1 C: Tunnels, 15,000 cfs No N/C Yes Yes Yes Yes No D: Tunnel, 3,000 cfs No No No No Yes Yes Yes 0 E: Isolated, 15,000 cfs No N/C No No Yes Yes No 1992 TODAY 2025 F: Through-Delta No N/C No Yes Yes No No G: Less Tidal Restoration Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes H: More Restoration No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No I: Modified Spring Outflow Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No 1 Take Alternatives fail if answer is “No” to one or more questions. 2 In some cases, take alternatives also increase or reduce benefits to some covered species. For example, Take Alternative G reduces benefits to covered fish due to less tidal natural community restoration. Take Alternative H increases benefits to some covered fish due to more restoration of several aquatic natural communities, but increases take on some covered terrestrial species. 3 Measured against the BDCP. N/C = No measurable change in benefits compared to the BDCP. 100 Alternative BDCP Approaches Alternative BDCP Approaches 101 December 2013 December 2013 Economic Benefits of Take Alternatives Summary of BDCP Benefits Appendix 9.A of the public Draft BDCP provides a detailed The costs and economic benefits of the BDCP The table below summarizes the economic analysis of the direct economic benefits to the state’s urban and The BDCP would be implemented and the various take alternatives described benefits and costs to the state’s urban and agricultural water agencies receiving water supplies from the CVP over 50 years, and many important below are calculated using the following agricultural water agencies receiving water and the SWP. These water agencies will fund the construction factors such as the underlying common assumptions: supplies from the CVP and SWP under and operation of the new water conveyance facility. To make demand for water and the nature each take alternative. Economic benefits this investment economically feasible, the economic benefits of of environmental regulations in • Construction begins in 2015 and lasts are calculated in comparison to “Existing the facility must exceed the costs. Appendix 9.A evaluates these the Delta will continue to evolve. 10 years. Conveyance,” without BDCP, for high- and costs and economic benefits. This information is used in Chapter Nonetheless, two conclusions • BDCP operations begin in 2025 and extend low-outflow scenarios (see box at right for 9 to evaluate the cost practicability of each take alternative. emerge from Appendix 9.A: to 2075 to include a 50-year operating explanation). As a result, some benefits are period. 1. As proposed, the BDCP would negative, meaning it would be worse to • All values are in 2012 dollars (millions), and result in substantial economic implement the alternative than to do nothing. are discounted to present value using a benefits to the urban and 3 percent real discount rate. agricultural water agencies As is standard in economics, Appendix 9.A compares economic outcomes that rely on the Delta for at least of the BDCP proposed action to the conditions assuming the BDCP is not a portion of their water supplies. Alternative or Scenario Description Total Economic Benefits and Costs implemented. For the purposes of this analysis, “Existing Conveyance” Chapter 9 High-Outflow 2. Implementing the BDCP Alternative or Facility Size Deliveries 1 Total Total Net and Low-Outflow Scenarios represents the existing water delivery infrastructure without BDCP. BDCP Scenario (cfs) (MAF) Benefits Costs Benefits would help reduce a range BDCP proposed action 9,000 4.705 $18,011 $13,472 $4,540 proposed action is compared to existing conveyance with the water Existing conveyance with high-outflow of risks that are of great high-outflow scenario operations restrictions that are proposed in the Plan. and low-outflow scenarios were used consequence to the public, BDCP proposed action 9,000 5.591 $18,826 $13,487 $5,339 low-outflow scenario to provide a reasonable comparison including uncertainty pertaining point for the cost practicability to water supplies, vulnerability A: W Canal 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $23,187 $11,110 $12,076 Values analyzed in this section (Appendix 9.A) are reported in analysis. In both scenarios, existing to earthquakes in the Delta B: Tunnels 6,000 cfs 6,000 4.487 $14,445 $12,345 $2,089 discounted 2012 dollars. Chapter 8 presents cost and funding conveyance is assumed in the future. region that can threaten levee C: Tunnels 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $23,187 $15,641 $7,545 estimated in undiscounted 2012 dollars after adjusting for stability, disrupt water exports, D: Tunnel: 3,000 cfs 3,000 4.188 $8,923 $10,240 -$1,317 inflation. For comparison purposes, the cost of the BDCP in and restrictions on Delta water High-Outflow Scenario E: Isolated 15,000 cfs 15,000 3.399 -$8,697 $15,711 -$24,407 discounted dollars is estimated at $18.9 billion. exports as a result of future sea Assumes: F: Through-Delta 15,000 2 4.172 $12,060 $5,233 $6,826 level rise and other effects of G: Less Tidal Restoration 9,000 4.705 $18,011 $13,432 $4,579 • Operations of existing south Delta water climate change. conveyance facilities H: More Restoration 9,000 4.705 $18,011 $13,505 $4,506 • Fall X2 and enhanced spring outflow I: Modified Spring Outflow 9,000 4.338 $13,417 $13,472 -$55 • South Delta operating restriction (Scenario 6) Existing Conveyance N/A 3.446 • Implementation of some floodplain High-Outflow Scenario restoration in the Yolo Bypass Existing Conveyance N/A 3.889 • Installation of one nonphysical barrier Low-Outflow Scenario Low-Outflow Scenario Notes: Assumes costs similar to the high-outflow 1 Total average annual water deliveries. scenario, but without Fall X2 and additional 2 Two 7,500 cfs intakes would be constructed: one each at the Delta Cross Channel spring outflow and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta. cfs = cubic feet per second MAF = million acre-feet 102 Alternative BDCP Approaches Alternative BDCP Approaches 103 December 2013 December 2013 The BDCP would reduce risks to statewide water supplies by addressing uncertainty associated with Benefit of Reduced Seismic Risk water deliveries, vulnerability of the water supplies to earthquakes in the Delta region, and restrictions An important benefit of an isolated Expected Present Value Benefits of on Delta water exports as a result of future sea level rise and other effects of climate change. The Reduced Seismic Risk (millions) conveyance facility is that it reduces the associated benefits of reducing each of these risks are outlined in the following tables. vulnerability of the water export system to Benefits expected seismic events in the Delta region. As of Take Facility Deliveries 1 Water Supply Benefits Water Quality Benefits presently configured, large earthquakes in and Alternative Size (cfs) (MAF) Reduced Seismic Several take alternatives analyzed in Chapter 9 By diverting water directly from the Sacramento River around the Delta region may cause numerous Risk would result in significant net benefits to the through new intakes, the BDCP will reduce salinity levees to fail and flood some islands. When BDCP proposed action 9,000 4.705 $470 agencies participating in the development of levels in, and improve the quality of, Delta water these islands flood, seawater may be pulled high-outflow scenario the BDCP due to the value of increased water exports. Permit requirements will continue to protect into the Delta, potentially rendering its waters BDCP proposed action 9,000 5.591 $364 low-outflow scenario supply reliability. The expected present water quality for in-Delta users. The improved water unsuitable for export purposes for some A: W Canal 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $563 value benefits to water supply are $15.7 quality benefits to urban and agricultural users period of time. During this outage period, B: Tunnels 6,000 cfs 6,000 4.487 $313 billion for the BDCP under the high-outflow attributed to reduced salinity has a present value no SWP or CVP deliveries could be made, resulting in a potential shortage to consumers C: Tunnels 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $563 scenario and $16.6 billion for the BDCP of roughly $1.8 billion under the BDCP proposed throughout the Bay Area, San Joaquin Valley, D: Tunnel: 3,000 cfs 3,000 4.188 $55 under the low-outflow scenario. action high-outflow and low-outflow scenarios. Central Coast, and Southern California. E: Isolated 15,000 cfs 15,000 3.399 $665 F: Through-Delta 15,000 2 4.172 -$62 Expected Present Value Benefits of Expected Present Value Benefits of Water Supply Reliability (millions) Water Quality Improvements (millions) The expected welfare benefits of reduced G: Less Tidal Restoration 9,000 4.705 $470 seismic risks to urban and agricultural H: More Restoration 9,000 4.705 $470 Total Total agencies would be $0.5 billion under the Take Facility Deliveries 1 Water Take Facility Deliveries 1 Water I: Modified Spring Outflow 9,000 4.338 $470 Alternative Size (cfs) (MAF) Supply Alternative Size (cfs) (MAF) Quality BDCP high-outflow scenario and $0.4 billion Notes: Benefits Benefits under the BDCP low-outflow scenario. 1 Total average annual water deliveries. BDCP proposed action 9,000 4.705 $15,722 BDCP proposed action 9,000 4.705 $1,819 2 Two 7,500 cfs intakes would be constructed: one each at high-outflow scenario high-outflow scenario These benefits are relatively low due to a the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta. BDCP proposed action 9,000 5.591 $16,642 BDCP proposed action 9,000 5.591 $1,819 conservative estimate of a Delta outage. More cfs = cubic feet per second MAF = million acre-feet low-outflow scenario low-outflow scenario severe seismic events could lead to a longer A: W Canal 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $21,305 A: W Canal 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $1,319 outage, resulting in greater BDCP seismic risk B: Tunnels 6,000 cfs 6,000 4.487 $13,130 B: Tunnels 6,000 cfs 6,000 4.487 $1,002 reduction benefits. C: Tunnels 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $21,305 C: Tunnels 15,000 cfs 15,000 5.009 $1,319 D: Tunnel: 3,000 cfs 3,000 4.188 $7,799 D: Tunnel: 3,000 cfs 3,000 4.188 $1,068 E: Isolated 15,000 cfs 15,000 3.399 -$11,937 E: Isolated 15,000 cfs 15,000 3.399 $2,576 F: Through-Delta 15,000 2 4.172 $9,363 F: Through-Delta 15,000 2 4.172 $2,759 G: Less Tidal Restoration 9,000 4.705 $15,722 G: Less Tidal Restoration 9,000 4.705 $1,819 H: More Restoration 9,000 4.705 $15,722 H: More Restoration 9,000 4.705 $1,819 I: Modified Spring Outflow 9,000 4.338 $11,128 I: Modified Spring Outflow 9,000 4.338 $1,819 Notes: Notes: 1 Total average annual water deliveries. 1 Total average annual water deliveries. 2 Two 7,500 cfs intakes would be constructed: one each at 2 Two 7,500 cfs intakes would be constructed: one each at the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta. the Delta Cross Channel and Georgiana Slough in the South Delta. cfs = cubic feet per second MAF = million acre-feet cfs = cubic feet per second MAF = million acre-feet 104 Alternative BDCP Approaches Alternative BDCP Approaches 105 December 2013 December 2013 Step 1 Does the alternative meet the project’s ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW purpose and need? While conservation plans The environmental review will: The Alternatives Screening Process Step 2 The environmental like the BDCP are meant Does the • Identify environmental impacts Step 3 review process is being to be beneficial to the The 15 action alternatives analyzed in the alternative reduce Is the alternative • Evaluate reasonable alternatives that could or avoid significant conducted by four state environment, specific Draft EIR/EIS were developed over a 7-year feasible? avoid or minimize those impacts impacts? and federal agencies; actions in the Plan can period in collaboration with state and federal • Develop mitigation (ways to reduce or avoid DWR is the state lead have an impact on natural agencies, public water agencies, nongovernment environmental impacts) (biological) and human organizations, agricultural interests, and the agency under CEQA, • Provide information for public review and Screening Level Two Only those alternatives environments. These general public. To satisfy CEQA and NEPA that fulfilled all three while Reclamation, comment Focused on identification of impacts must be evaluated levels of screening USFWS, and NMFS serve • Disclose to decision-makers the project requirements, state and federal lead agencies those alternatives that would criteria were moved and actions identified to are required to study, and make available for forward for further as the joint federal co- impacts, mitigation, and public comments avoid or substantially reduce mitigate them. State and evaluation and study. public review and comment, a reasonable range potential adverse impacts. leads under NEPA. federal environmental The EIR/EIS will evaluate a reasonable range of of alternatives for consideration that meet the laws require a review of alternatives, including a no action alternative and Through the second screening process, project’s purpose and need. potential impacts of the an independent impact analysis for key resource 21 alternatives representing a synthesis of the BDCP before it can be approved, permitted, areas (such as water resources, air quality, and The BDCP alternatives were selected using a conveyance concepts and operational concepts and implemented. A combined EIR/EIS is being cultural resources). Mitigation is proposed in the multi-step screening selection process, including were developed. prepared in accordance with CEQA and NEPA. EIR/EIS to reduce impacts on the environment. consideration of the responsible and cooperating Screening Level Three agencies’ comments during scoping and on Focused on identification of those alternatives preliminary draft documents. Alternatives were that were technically feasible and practical in also screened to ensure compliance with the terms of design, construction, and cost. Because 2009 Delta Reform Act. CEQA and NEPA require only that a reasonable The public review Draft EIR/EIS is available for public review on the BDCP website: www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com. Screening Level One range of alternatives be considered, alternatives Focused on identification of alternatives were narrowed down to eliminate duplicative that would allow for the conservation and analyses. BDCP Environmental Review Process management of covered species; protection Ultimately, 15 action alternatives and the No and restoration of aquatic, riparian, and Action Alternative were carried forward for terrestrial habitats; and restoration and evaluation in the EIR/EIS. Each action alternative protection of SWP and CVP water supply CEQA EIR Lead Agencies reliability. includes conservation components such as Staff/Consultants creation and restoration of habitat, activities EIR/EIS Process Alternatives The first screening process resulted in the to reduce other stressors (e.g., water quality Draft EIR/EIS and development of initial conveyance concepts improvements), and reduction of predation. Conduct Final Environmental and operational considerations. Public Review EIR/EIS Analysis Public Input & Comment NEPA EIS BDCP Proposed Scoping Meetings Action 106 Environmental Review Environmental Review 107 EIR/EIS Alternatives Analysis The 15 action alternatives and the No Action hydrology, and the human environment. The stakeholder and agency involvement over the Alternative selected for review in the Draft EIR/EIS alternatives studied in the EIR/EIS include a variety last 7 years. Draft EIR/EIS Alternative 4 represents include various combinations of water conveyance of conveyance alignments and other specifications the BDCP Proposed Project outlined in this configurations, capacities, operations, and habitat resulting from public scoping sessions conducted Highlights of the BDCP document. restoration, and their effects on biological resources, in 2008 and 2009, the Delta Reform Act of 2009, and W1 EIR/EIS Alternatives Operational Scenarios W2 1 W3 NORTH DELTA ALTERNATIVE ALIGNMENT CONVEYANCE INTAkE DIVERSION OPERATIONAL HABITAT RESTORATION 3 Scenario A would include specific criteria guiding water supply 2 OPTION 1 TYPE 1 LOCATIONS 2 SCENARIO W4 CAPACITY (cfs) parameters at a variety of locations and facilities. This scenario includes criteria for: north Delta diversion bypass flows; south W5 3 No Action Through- Alternative N/A Delta N/A Current Operations N/A N/A Delta channel flows; Fremont Weir/Yolo Bypass operations; Intakes2 Delta inflow and outflow; Delta Cross Channel gate operations; 4 Alternative 1A Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 1 through 5 15,000 cfs A Rio Vista minimum instream flows; Delta water quality and residence time; and in-Delta agricultural, municipal, and Alternative 1B East Canal Dual 1 through 5 15,000 cfs A industrial water quality requirements. 5 Alternative 1C West Canal Dual West (W)1 through W5 15,000 cfs A 6 Scenario B includes additional south Delta modifications from Scenario A. This scenario would add an operable barrier at the Alternative 2A Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 1 to 3, 6 and 7, 15,000 cfs B Head of Old River, Fall X2, and additional south Delta protections. 7 or 1 through 5 Approximately 153,000 acres of restored and protected habitat 1 to 3, 6 and 7, Alternative 2B East Canal Dual 15,000 cfs B or 1 through 5 Scenario C would adopt the operational guidelines of Scenario A north of the Delta. South of the Delta, this scenario would be Alternative 2C West Canal Dual W1 through W5 15,000 cfs B consistent with the existing 2008-2009 Biological Opinions. Alternative 3 Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 1 and 2 6,000 cfs A Scenario D would be modified from Scenario A to eliminate use Modified of south Delta intakes and add criteria surrounding Fall X2. Alternative 4 * Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 2, 3, and 5 9,000 cfs H Approximately 113,000 acres of Alternative 5 Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 1 3,000 cfs C Scenario E would be modified from Scenario A to increase restored and protected habitat north Delta diversion bypass flow and would include other 15,000 cfs modifications to south Delta channel flow criteria, Fremont Weir Alternative 6A Pipeline/Tunnel Isolated 1 through 5 D (No South Delta Intakes) operations, Rio Vista minimum instream flow criteria, and Delta 15,000 cfs Approximately 153,000 acres of inflow and outflow criteria. Alternative 6B East Canal Isolated 1 through 5 D (No South Delta Intakes) restored and protected habitat 15,000 cfs Scenario F increases Delta outflow up to 1.5 million acre-feet Alternative 6C West Canal Isolated W1 through W5 D (No South Delta Intakes) annually, as requested by the SWRCB and other interest groups. Approximately 163,000 acres of restored and protected habitat Alternative 7 Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 2, 3, and 5 9,000 cfs E and an additional 20 miles of Scenario G would be similar to those described under Channel Margin Habitat Scenario B, but would be modified to conform to the conveyance Alternative 8 Pipeline/Tunnel Dual 2, 3, and 5 9,000 cfs F components of the separate corridors option. Approximately 153,000 acres of Through-Delta Delta Cross Channel Intake Through- restored and protected habitat Scenario H would be modified from Scenario A to include the Alternative 9 Separate and Georgiana Slough 15,000 cfs G Intake Line Delta Corridor channel modifications decision tree process and CM1 operations. This operational Pipeline/Tunnel Option scenario is included in the proposed BDCP project under CM1. Modified Pipeline/Tunnel Option East Option * (BDCP Proposed Project) West Option Forebay 1 Alignment and conveyance options may include a combination of isolated, pipeline/tunnel, or canal features that may be lined, unlined, More information on the Decision Tree process and adaptive management is and located east, west, through, or under the Delta. provided in the CM1: Water Facilities and Operations section beginning on Separate Corridor Option 2 Intake locations are analyzed for maximum impacts and may be refined. Appendix 3F of the public Draft BDCP provides additional information. page 26. Fish Movement Corridor All features shown are conceptual 3 The BDCP planning process is working with various stakeholders to define more specific habitat restoration measures. These individual restoration Water Supply Corridor and subject to change projects may be the subject of separate, site-specific environmental review processes as the BDCP or an alternative is approved and implemented. 108 Environmental Review Environmental Review 109 December 2013 December 2013 Public Participation and ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS Completing the BDCP BDCP Bay Delta Conservation Plan The availability of the public Draft BDCP and The Final BDCP and Final EIR/EIS will be CDFW California Department of Fish and Wildlife public Draft EIR/EIS is accompanied by a submitted to federal, state, and local regulatory CEQA California Environmental Quality Act 120-day public review and comment period agencies for approval and permit authorization. for both documents. During the formal public After the EIR/EIS is certified and permits have CESA California Endangered Species Act review period, copies of both documents will been issued, implementation of the actions cfs cubic feet per second be available online, in repositories throughout covered in the BDCP can begin. CM conservation measure the state, and by request. CVP Central Valley Project CZ conservation zone The state and federal lead agencies will also Delta Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta hold a series of public meetings in early 2014 to provide information about the project and DRERIP Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan accept formal comments. All formal public DSC Delta Stewardship Council comments received on the Draft EIR/EIS will be DWR Department of Water Resources considered in the development of the Final DWSC Deep Water Ship Channel EIR/EIS. Details on how to provide comments EA Effects Analysis are available at: EIR environmental impact report www.BayDeltaConservationPlan.com. EIS environmental impact statement ELT early long-term ESA Endangered Species Act GIS geographic information system HCP Habitat Conservation Plan Public Participation Process I/E ratio import/export ratio You Are LLT late long-term Here NCCP Natural Community Conservation Plan NCCPA Natural Community Conservation Planning Act NEPA National Environmental Policy Act Lead and Lead Public Lead Consultant NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service cooperating Administrative agencies Draft Public agencies Final agency review Draft EIR/EIS prepare EIR/EIS Comments prepare EIR/EIS NT near-term of Consultant released to Public for formal Received Final released Administrative Draft review and EIR/EIS to public O&M operations and maintenance public Draft EIR/EIS EIR/EIS comment OMR Old and Middle Rivers Reclamation U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Public Draft EIR/EIS process will include: ROA Restoration Opportunity Area RPA reasonable and prudent alternative • Public meetings • Documents available at local libraries and online SWP State Water Project • Online information available at BayDeltaConservationPlan.com SWRCB California State Water Resources Control Board • Public comment accepted via email, standard mail, USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hand delivery, and at public meetings X2 The area in the Delta where fresh and salt water meet that is used as a • Landowner liaison to answer questions tool to manage water quality and Delta outflows, particularly in the fall. • 120-day public review and comment period 110 Environmental Review Acronyms and Definitions 111 December 2013 December 2013 Acre-foot – The volume of water that would Central Valley Project (CVP) – A federal water project Delta – The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an Endangered Species Act (ESA) – First enacted in 1973, cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to operated by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation that irrigates expansive inland inverted river delta and estuary, the the purpose of this law is to provide a means whereby 1,233.5 cubic meters (43,560 cubic feet). more than 3 million acres of farmland and provides drinking largest on this half of the Pacific Rim and one of only the ecosystems upon which endangered species and water to nearly 2 million consumers. a few worldwide. The Delta is formed at the western threatened species depend, may be conserved and to Adaptive Management – A method for examining edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the provide a program for the conservation of these species. alternative strategies for meeting measurable Channel Margin Restoration – Habitat restoration aimed Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers which empty into ESA is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biological goals and objectives, and adjusting future at returning suitable sites along the waterside of levees to Suisun Bay, an upper arm of San Francisco Bay. and the Commerce Department’s NOAA Fisheries. The conservation management actions accordingly. a more natural condition for increased food production, USFWS has primary responsibility for terrestrial and rearing habitat, improved water temperature conditions, Delta Reform Act 2009 – Legislation that created freshwater organisms, while the responsibilities of NOAA and movement corridors for fish. the Delta Stewardship Council, established new Fisheries are mainly marine wildlife such as whales and Bay Delta Conservation Plan (BDCP) – anadromous fish such as salmon. A conservation plan prepared for the Sacramento- standards for groundwater monitoring, statewide San Joaquin River Delta region to meet ESA and Climate Change – Any significant change in the measures water conservation, enforcing Delta diversion, and NCCPA requirements. of climate lasting for an extended period of time. setting state policy that achieves water supply reliability Entrainment – The incidental diversion of fish and other Climate change includes major changes in temperature, and restoring the Delta’s ecosystem must be applied aquatic organisms that can occur when water is diverted precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur coequally. from streams, rivers, or reservoirs. Biological Goal – A guiding principle for conservation in the Plan Area, based on the conservation needs of over several decades or longer. the covered species and natural communities. Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Environmental Impact Report (EIR) – A detailed Co-Equal Goals – The goals of achieving water supply Implementation Plan (DRERIP) – One of four regional statement prepared under CEQA describing and reliability and restoration of the Delta’s ecosystem that must plans intended to guide the implementation of the analyzing the significant environmental effects of a Biological Objective – Measurable target that, if met, CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program element. project on the human and natural environment and will achieve or support a biological goal. be applied coequally as directed in the Delta Reform Act of 2009. The BDCP is aimed at contributing to the achievement DRERIP was developed to refine the planning foundation discussing ways to mitigate or avoid the effects. these two goals. specific to the Delta, refine existing and develop new Biological Opinion – Document that states the Delta-specific restoration actions and provide Delta- Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) – An opinion of either the USFWS or NMFS as to whether specific implementation guidance, program tracking, environmental impact document prepared pursuant a federal agency is likely to jeopardize the continued Conservation Measure – A suite of related actions performance evaluation, and adaptive management designed to achieve the biological goals and objectives to NEPA for a major federal action that will significantly existence of listed species or result in the destruction feedback. affect the quality of the human environment. or adverse modification of critical habitat. of the BDCP and to satisfy state and federal regulatory requirements. Delta Stewardship Council (DSC) – Created by the Environmental Justice (EJ) – The fair treatment and CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program – legislature in 2009, the Delta Stewardship Council is an meaningful involvement of all people regardless of A multi-agency effort aimed at improving and Conservation Zones – Geographic areas defined by the independent state agency tasked with developing a biological needs of the species covered in the BDCP. race, color, national origin, educational level, or income increasing aquatic and terrestrial habitats and plan for achieving the coequal goals of providing a more with respect to the development, implementation, ecological function in the Delta and its tributaries. reliable water supply and protecting, restoring, and and enforcement of environmental laws. EJ seeks to Covered Activities – Activities to be undertaken by non- enhancing the Delta ecosystem. ensure that minority and low-income communities California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) – A federal entities and proposed for coverage under incidental have access to public information relating to human California law enacted in 1970 intended to require take authorizations that are expected to be issued by Early Long-Term – BDCP conservation measures that health and environmental planning, regulations, and decision-makers to document and consider the the state and/or federal fish and wildlife agencies on the will be implemented in years 11 through 15 of the enforcement. EJ ensures that no population, especially environmental consequences of their actions and to basis of the BDCP. Covered activities are related primarily 50-year term of the BDCP. the elderly and children, are forced to shoulder a provide a vehicle for public input into governmental to water supply and power generation, including water disproportionate burden of the negative human health actions that have environmental consequences. CEQA conveyance (pipes, canals, and pumps), facility maintenance and environmental impacts of pollution or other and improvements, but also include ecosystem restoration Ecosystem – All of the living organisms of a natural requires the preparation of an environmental impact community together with their surrounding physical environmental hazard. report (EIR) for any project that may have significant actions found in conservation measures. environment (e.g., soil, climate, water, light) all environmental effects. CEQA applies to any project functioning as a unit. All the living organisms of an Expected Outcomes – The anticipated ecological that requires approval by a state or local government Covered Species – A special group of species, all native ecosystem are linked together and with the physical results of implementing the BDCP based on the Effects body. to the Delta, that have been imperiled by past human environment by physical, chemical, and biological Analysis. activities. The BDCP includes goals and objectives designed processes. California Endangered Species Act (CESA) – State to contribute to the protection and recovery of these species. Flow – The rate, direction, and volume of water law declaring it a policy of California to conserve, Effects Analysis – The systematic, scientific evaluation movement. protect, restore, and enhance endangered and of the potential beneficial, adverse and net effect of the threatened species and their habitat, and allowing Decision Tree – A tool developed to address areas of BDCP. The Effects Analysis is Chapter 5 of the BDCP. authorization of the take of state-listed threatened, scientific debate and uncertainty and adaptively manage Forebay – A reservoir, usually small, constructed endangered, or candidate species if certain conditions BDCP operations and flows to meet biological goals and immediately upstream of an intake structure to are met. objectives. Endangered – Any species in danger of extinction temporarily hold water. throughout all or a significant portion of its range. 112 Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms and Definitions 113 December 2013 December 2013 Habitat – An ecological or environmental area Natural Community – Distinct, identifiable, and Outflow – The amount of water passing a given Setback levee – A constructed embankment to inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, recurring assemblage of plants and animals that are point downstream of a structure. prevent flooding that is positioned some distance or other type of organism. Habitat is the natural ecologically interrelated. from the edge of the river or channel. environment in which an organism lives, or the Plan Area – The statutory Delta and all other areas physical environment that surrounds a species Natural Community Conservation Plan where conservation measures are expected to be Spawning Habitat – Aquatic habitat suitable for fish population. (NCCP) – A Plan prepared pursuant to a planning implemented to advance the goals and objectives reproduction (e.g., egg laying and incubation). agreement entered into in accordance with Fish and of the Plan. For example, the Suisun Marsh is located Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) – A plan prepared Game Code Section 2810 and that identifies and outside the statutory Delta, but it is part of the State Water Project (SWP) – A water project under Section 10(a)(1)(B) of the ESA that provides provides for the measures necessary to conserve Plan Area and will be the focus of extensive tidal operated and maintained by the California for partnerships between the USFWS and/or NOAA and manage biological diversity within the Plan Area restoration during the implementation of the BDCP. Department of Water Resources that provides water Fisheries and non-federal parties to conserve the while allowing compatible and appropriate economic supplies for 25 million Californians and 755,000 acres ecosystems upon which listed species depend, development, growth and other human uses. Rearing Habitat – Areas in Delta channels where of irrigated farmland. ultimately contributing to their recovery. HCPs are juvenile fish find food and shelter to live and grow. required as part of an application for an icidental take Natural Community Conservation Planning Take – Defined in the federal and state ESAs as to permit and can apply to listed and nonlisted species. Act (NCCPA) – A California law authorizing the Riparian Habitat – The green, vegetated areas on harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, Natural Community Conservation Plan program each side of streams and rivers. These areas serve capture, or collect a threatened or endangered Implementing Agreement – An agreement that to use an ecosystem approach to conserve many important functions, including purifying water species. defines the terms for implementing an HCP. natural communities at the ecosystem scale while by removing sediments and other contaminants; accommodating compatible land use. NCCPA reducing the risk of flooding and associated damage; Threatened Species – Any species that is likely Incidental Take Permit – A permit that allows for authorizes the CDFW to enter into a planning reducing stream channel and stream bank erosion; to become an endangered species within the the take of listed species incidental to, and not the agreement with any person or public agency to increasing available water and stream flow duration foreseeable future throughout all or a significant purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity. prepare a natural community conservation plan in by holding water in stream banks and aquifers; portion of its range. cooperation with a local agency that has land use supporting a diversity of plant and wildlife species; Independent Science Advisors – Those who permit authority over the activities proposed to be maintaining or enhancing habitat conditions for Vernal Pools – Isolated, seasonal bodies of standing provided input and advice, at the request of BDCP, to addressed in the plan, to provide comprehensive healthy fish populations in adjacent stream or river water that typically form in the spring and dry out ensure that the Plan has access to the best available management and conservation of multiple wildlife reaches; providing water, forage, and shade for completely in the hotter months of summer. Vernal science. species. wildlife and livestock; and creating opportunities for pools range from broad, heavily vegetated lowland recreationists to fish, camp, picnic, and enjoy other bodies to smaller, isolated upland bodies with little Intertidal – The zone between high and low tide. National Environmental Policy Act activities. permanent vegetation. They are devoid of fish and (NEPA) – A federal law adopted by Congress in 1969 provide important breeding habitat for invertebrates requiring federal agencies to consider the potential Restoration Opportunity Areas (ROAs) – like tadpole and fairy shrimp and many terrestrial or Invasive Species – Nonnative or native species environmental consequences of their proposed Areas identified by the BDCP as the most appropriate, semiaquatic species such as frogs, salamanders, and that adversely affect habitats and bioregions they action, and any reasonable alternatives, before most promising locations for the restoration of tidal turtles. invade economically, environmentally and/or deciding whether and in what form to take an action. habitat and associated upland natural communities. ecologically. Invasive species threaten the diversity The NEPA review (a process involving environmental Five ROAs have been identified. They are different or abundance of native species through competition X2 – X2 is the distance in kilometers from the Golden analyses and documentation) ensures that decisions from, but overlap with, the conservation zones of the for resources, predation, parasitism, interbreeding Gate Bridge to the location where tidally averaged are better informed and allows for greater public Plan Area. with native populations, transmitting diseases, bottom salinity is 2 parts per thousand (ppt), also involvement. NEPA applies to “proposals for or causing physical or chemical changes to the referred to as the mixing zone. It is a measure legislation and other major Federal actions.” Federal Riprap – Rock or other material used to line and invaded habitat. Through their impacts on natural of western Delta salinity. Upstream of X2 water actions include actions with the potential for stabilize shorelines. Riprap is an unnatural structure ecosystems, agricultural and other developed lands, becomes progressively fresher and downstream environmental impacts. Such actions may include that reduces habitat quality by preventing the water delivery and flood protection systems, invasive of X2 water becomes more brackish (saltier) until adoption and approval of official policy, formal plans, establishment and growth of vegetation. species may also negatively affect human health and/ reaching the ocean. The location of X2 is largely programs, and specific federal projects. NEPA also or the economy. controlled by the amount of water flowing out of the applies in cases where an agency is exercising its Salinity – The amount of dissolved salts in a given Delta (Delta outflow). The higher the volume of water discretion in deciding whether and how to exercise Late Long-Term – BDCP conservation measures that volume of water. flowing out of the Delta, the shorter the distance its authority over an otherwise non-federal project will be implemented in years 16 through 50 of the from the Golden Gate Bridge to the 2 ppt (X2) salinity (for example, issuing a permit or approving funding). 50-year term of the BDCP. Scenario 6 – State and federal regulatory agencies line. developed Scenario 6 to identify alternative Nonphysical fish barrier – A device placed in a Listed Species – Species designated as candidate, operating criteria to address Sacramento River waterway to deter and prevent fish from passing threatened, or endangered pursuant to CESA and/or flows downstream of the intakes, San Joaquin River without preventing the flow of water. Deterrents listed as threatened or endangered under ESA. migratory fish survival, April through May Old River such as lights, sounds, or bubbles may be used. and Middle River flows, Spring Delta outflow for longfin smelt, and Fall X2. 114 Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms and Definitions 115 BDCP BAYDELTA CONSERVATIONPLAN
"Draft BDCP Highlights 12-9-13"