Docstoc

LIS703PowerPointSlides.ppt

Document Sample
LIS703PowerPointSlides.ppt Powered By Docstoc
					Organization of Knowledge
        (LIS 703)




   Taverekere (Kanti) Srikantaiah
       Director and Professor
 Center For Knowledge Management
        Dominican University
       River Forest, IL 60305       Revised 1/22/08

      Email: srikant@dom.edu             1
            Organization of Knowledge


Information Management is:
n   Identifying information needs
n   Locating information sources
n   Selecting information sources
n   Organizing information
n   Disseminating information



                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   2
                Organization of Knowledge


S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws
n   Books are for use
n   Every reader his book
n   Every book its reader
n   Save the time of the reader
n   A library is a growing organization
(From Jesse H. Shera. Libraries and the Organization of
   Information. Hamdon, CT: Archon Books, 1965)


                          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah           3
          Organization of Knowledge


    Information Context
                  Users




Sources/Tools T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Contents   4
            Organization of Knowledge


       Information Context
n   Information systems have collections
    and policies. Their effectiveness is
    based on:
     –Response time              – Reliability
     –Accuracy                   – Efficiency
     –Through put                – Security
     –Relevancy                  – Quality
     –Economy                    – Etc.
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah         5
             Organization of Knowledge


              Information
n   Categories of Information
    – Are they external or internal?
    – What do contents reflect?
    – What are the available formats?
    – Are there any specific terms and conditions to
      access?
    – How are the systems regarding speed, accuracy,
      consistency, and accountability?
    – What about costs?

                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             6
              Organization of Knowledge


                Standards
n   Internal and External Standards
    – Are there any standards?
    – Are those standards internal, external, or
      both?
    – Do they comply with the stated standards?
    – Who (or unit) has the responsibility in
      implementation, monitoring and evaluation
      of standards?
                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah         7
            Organization of Knowledge


Defining Information Needs
n   Users of Information
    – Do they belong to different groups?
    – Who are they?
    – What are their information needs?
    – How would information help?




                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    8
           Organization of Knowledge


      Bibliographical Record
n   Serves users and also information
    providers
n   Data elements relevant to a document
n   Controlled vocabulary
n   House-keeping aspects



                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    9
            Organization of Knowledge


    Level of Description (1.0D)
n   “Base the choice of a level of
    description on the purpose of the
    catalogue or catalogues for which the
    entry is constructed”
n   First Level of Description (1.0D1)
n   Second Level of Description (1.0D2)
n   Third Level of Description (1.0D3)

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    10
                    Organization of Knowledge




                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   11
Source: Manheimer          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                    Organization of Knowledge




                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   12
Source: Manheimer          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                    Organization of Knowledge




                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   13
Source: Manheimer          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
            Organization of Knowledge


Chief Source of Information (CSOI)

Type of Material              CSOI
§Atlases                      §Title Page
§Other Cartographic           §Item; Container/Case
Items                         §Manuscript/Other Sources
§Manuscript                   §List Title Page, Cover,
§Published Music              Caption, Colophon, Other
                              Sources


                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah          14
           Organization of Knowledge


Chief Source of Information (CSOI)
Type of Material        CSOI
§Sound Recordings
   -Disc                  -Disc and Label
   -Tape (Reel to Reel)   -Reel and Label
   -Tape Cassette         -Cassette and Label
   -Tape Cartridge        -Cartridge and Label
   -Roll                  -Label
   -Sound Recording       -Container and Label
   on Film
                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     15
            Organization of Knowledge


Chief Source of Information (CSOI)
Type of Material                CSOI
§Motion Pictures and            §Film, Cartridge,
Video recordings                Container and Label,
                                Other Sources
§Graphic Materials              §Items, Labels,
                                Containers
§Computer Files                 §Title Screen, Other
                                Internal Sources
§Three-Dimensional              (Menus/Programs)

                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             16
                  Organization of Knowledge


      Development of Catalog Codes
n   Ad-hoc rules all over
n   Anthony Panizzi -BM (91 rules) 1841
n   Charles Cutter (Rules for Dictionary Catalog) 1876
n   Prussian Instructions (Basis for German Union
    Catalog) 1898
n   Anglo-American Code (AA Code) 1908
n   1949 rules for descriptive cataloging in LC
n   ALA Code        1949
n   Lubetzky’s Revisions 1949-1967
                         T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       17
               Organization of Knowledge


         Bibliographic Record

n   1961 Paris principles
n   1966 international meeting of cataloging experts
    of IFLA and initiation of ISBD
n   1977 ISBD’s general eight specific areas: each
    area divided into a number of elements later
    fully expanded to cover M, A, MRF, NBM, PM,
    and S

                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       18
             Organization of Knowledge


    Development of Catalog Codes
n   AACR1                                   1967
n   AACR2                                   1978
n   AACR2R                                  1988
    – with Amendments                       2002+
n   The Future                              ????



                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     19
                 Organization of Knowledge


                    AACR2R
n   General Rules for Description        Chapter 1
n   Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets Chapter 2
n   Cartographic Materials               Chapter 3
n   Manuscripts                          Chapter 4
n   Published Music                      Chapter 5
n   Sound Recordings                     Chapter 6



                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        20
                 Organization of Knowledge


                    AACR2R
n   Motion Pictures and Video recordings         Chapter 7
n   Graphic Materials                            Chapter 8
n   Electronic Resources                         Chapter 9
n   Three-Dimensional Artifacts and Realia      Chapter 10
n   Microforms                                  Chapter 11
n   Continuing Resources                        Chapter 12
n   Analysis                                    Chapter 13



                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        21
          Organization of Knowledge


Rules for Descriptive Cataloging
Appendix A: Capitalization (563-599)
Appendix B: Abbreviations (600-610)
Appendix C: Numerals (611-614)
Appendix D: Glossary (615-624)
Appendix E: Initial Articles



                 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   22
            Organization of Knowledge


 Rules for Descriptive Cataloging
                                 (Print Materials)
REFER:
n Anglo American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed.,
  revised 1988, 2002.
n Chapter 1: General Rules for Description
n Chapter 2: Books, Pamphlets, and Printed
  Sheets

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             23
           Organization of Knowledge


           The Catalog
Parts of the catalogs
  – Public catalog
  – Shelf list
  – Authority file




                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   24
                    Organization of Knowledge




                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   25
Source: Manheimer          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                    Organization of Knowledge




                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   26
Source: Manheimer          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
            Organization of Knowledge


       Bibliographic Record
n   Call number
n   Main entry
n   Title proper : other title information
n   Statement of responsibility; subsequent
    statements of responsibility.
n   Edition statement/statement of
    responsibility relating to the edition
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   27
              Organization of Knowledge


       Bibliographic Record
n   Imprint Place: publisher, date (Place: printer)
n   Physical description, Number of pages,
    Number of plates: illustration statement; size
    + accompanying material.
n   Series; number
n   Notes
n   Standard Number (ISBN)
n   Subject heading
n   Added entry
                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        28
            Organization of Knowledge


         Authority Control
n   Interchangeable with vocabulary control
n   Consistency in description of any
    element
n   Enhances information retrieval
n   Shows relationships
    – Persons
    – Titles
    – Subjects
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   29
            Organization of Knowledge


         Authority Control
n   Maintain consistency

n   Enhance information retrieval

n   Show relationships: persons, titles, and
    subjects

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       30
               Organization of Knowledge


MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  n   1960's - publisher, printers, editors started
      experimenting with computers to produce books
  n   1964 - The recording of library of congress
      bibliographical data in machine readable form
  n   1965 - LC/CLR/ARL sponsored a conference to
      determine requirements for a machine readable
      record


                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    31
                Organization of Knowledge


MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  n   1966(Nov) to 1968(Jun) - LC distributed
      50,000 records for English language
      monographs on magnetic tape to 16
      participating libraries
  n   1968 - The MARC pilot project. Final report
      on a project sponsored by the Council on
      Library Resources, Inc (includes description of
      work and reports of the participating libraries)

                       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        32
             Organization of Knowledge


MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  1969 - Implementation of MARC
    distribution service to participating
    libraries and institutions




                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   33
            Organization of Knowledge


                 MARC
n   Each USMARC has three elements:
    – Record Structure
    – Content Designation
    – Data Content of the Record




                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   34
             Organization of Knowledge


     MARC: Record Structure
n   Implementation of ANSI Z39.2
n   Bibliographic Information Interchange on
    magnetic tape (adopted in 1971)
n   ISO 2709 (1981 & Revisions)
n   Documentation format for Bibliographic
    Information Interchange on magnetic tape
    (1973) (international equivalent of ANSI)

                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   35
             Organization of Knowledge


MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging)
  n   MARC I became MARC II
  n   MARC was later called LCMARC
  n   LCMARC eventually became USMARC
  n   MARC 21 (current)




                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   36
            Organization of Knowledge


        LC Responsibilities
(MARC and standardization are complimentary
  activities)
  – Make necessary changes to established formats
  – Design new formats collaborating with the
    library community
  – Compile and distribute MARC documentation
  – Maintain liaison with the ALA (MARBI)
  – Represent the U.S. library community in
    international MARC activities
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     37
           Organization of Knowledge


MARC Display (sample tags)
008   Coded control information
010   LC Control Number
020   ISBN
040   Cataloging Source
043   Geographic Area Code
050   LC Call Number
082   Dewey Call Number
090   Local Call Numbers
100   Main Entry--Personal Name
                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   38
           Organization of Knowledge


 MARC Display (sample tags)
110 Main Entry--Corporate Name
111 Main Entry--Meeting Name
130 Main Entry--Uniform Title
245 Title Statement
250 Edition Statement
260 Imprint
300 Physical Description
400 Series Statement/Added Entry--Personal Name
410 Series Statement/Added Entry--Corporate
  Name             T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    39
            Organization of Knowledge


 MARC Display (sample tags)
440   Series Statement/Added Entry--Title
500   General Note
504   Bibliography Note
505   Contents Note
600   Subject Added Entry--Personal Name
610   Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name
611   Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name
650   Subject Added Entry--Topical Term
651   Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     40
            Organization of Knowledge


 MARC Display (sample tags)
700   Added Entry--Personal Name
710   Added Entry--Corporate Name
730   Added Entry--Uniform Title
740   Added Entry--Variant Title
800   Series Added Entry--Personal Name
810   Series Added Entry--Corporate Name
811   Series Added Entry--Meeting Name

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   41
             Organization of Knowledge


             The Catalog
n   Identification of information in a
    traditional bibliographic record
    – Call numbers
    – Main entry
    – Bibliographic description (areas and
      elements)
    – Tracing
    – LC control number/others
                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    42
            Organization of Knowledge


            The Catalog
n   What is a catalog?
n   Functions of the catalog
n   Objectives of the catalog
n   Bibliographic record formats and
    elements (identification and
    terminology)


                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   43
         Organization of Knowledge


         The Catalog
Access points: headings and entries
– Main entry: personal name, corporate
  name, title
– Added entries: personal name, corporate
  name, title, series, subject
– Non-traditional access points: classification,
  standard numbers, other elements
– The unit record and the complete card set

                 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        44
           Organization of Knowledge


           The Catalog
Identification of information in a MARC
  bibliographic record
  – All of above+
  – Fixed-length data fields (fixed fields)
  – Variable-length data fields (variable fields)
    and subfields
  – Record directory and data field tags
  – Data field indicators
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah            45
            Organization of Knowledge
Card Cataloging Rules Adequate for
      Electronic Processing?

n   Rules should serve both manual and on-
    line
n   AAACR2 rules applicable to computer
    processing?
n   Bibliographical syntax and complexity



                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   46
             Organization of Knowledge


Computerized Record Formats
n   Fixed length field
    – # of characters fixed
    – No computer instruction on ending of field
    – Economical on data storage
    – Easy to code




                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah          47
              Organization of Knowledge


Computerized Record Formats
n   Variable length field
    – Length varies within fields and subfields
    – Computerized records operated by separators
      (delimiters)
    – Content designators
    – Fields and subfields
    – Repeatable fields and subfields
    – Indicators
    – Directory
    – Label (leader)

                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah          48
            Organization of Knowledge


OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML
n   Traditional mark up deal with physical
    format
n   Electronic systems have built in procedure
    for formatting
n   When system software (sometimes
    hardware) changes data conversion is
    necessary (time-consuming and costly)

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   49
            Organization of Knowledge


OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML
n   In descriptive (text) mark up contents of
    a document is structured not the physical
    format
n   Document contents (chapter, paragraph,
    footnote, bibliography) are categorized
    using codes for effective retrieval to meet
    different needs

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    50
           Organization of Knowledge


                SGML
n   Standard Generalized Mark Up
    Language (SGML) is referred to as
    Metalanguage
n   Developed in 1970 as GML (General
    Mark Up Language) meets national and
    international standards (ISO 8879)


                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   51
             Organization of Knowledge


                   SGML
n   Permits description of structured information
    through syntax (classes of documents) called
    DTDs (Document Type Definitions) written
    with specific applications
n   3 projects: TEI (The Text Encoding Initiative);
    BFAP (Berkeley Finding Aid Project); and
    DIAP (Columbia University Digital Image
    Access Project)

                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       52
            Organization of Knowledge


                 HTML
n   Hypertext Mark Up Language
n   Since 1990: WWW Browsers --
    Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet
    Explorer. Etc.




                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   53
               Organization of Knowledge


    International Exchange of Data
n   UNIMARC initiation developed through IFLA
    (to resolve problems in exchanging data
n   UNIMARC has two conversion programs(1977)
    – To convert from national format to UNIMARC
    – To convert from UNIMARC to national format
n   IFLA’s UBCIM (Universal Bibliographic Control
    & International MARC Core Program) is
    responsible for all MARC related program
                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        54
              Organization of Knowledge


    International Exchange of Data
n   UBCIM continues to work on standards on
    books and non-books (ISBD etc.)
n   UNIMARC manual is available in many
    language
n   UNIMARC also assist in managing and using
    name authority files


                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   55
           Organization of Knowledge


Non-MARC/ISO 2709 Formats
n   Issue of history and economics
n   UNISIST reference manual
n   CCF (Common Communication Format)
n   Acceptance of bibliographic entitles
    (global)



                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    56
               Organization of Knowledge


    Bibliographical Record/ISBN
n   ISBN (International Standard Book Number)
n   Unique identification system for each monograph
    by a specific publisher
n   1967 Introduced in UK by Whitaker & Sons
n   1968 Introduced to USA by R.R. Bowker
n   International organization for standardization
    (ISO TC 46) has responsibility for standardization


                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        57
              Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
 n   Assigned to printed books, pamphlets
 n   Electronic publications
 n   Educational/instructional films
 n   Videos and transparencies
 n   Educational/instructional software
 n   Audio books on cassettes or CD or DVD
 n   Braille publications
 n   Microform publications
                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   58
             Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)

 n   ISBN is used by publishers, distributors,
     wholesalers, bookstores and libraries, in
     217 countries as ordering systems.
 n   To date, the U.S. ISBN Agency has
     more than 180,000 publishers.



                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    59
                      Organization of Knowledge


    Bibliographical Record/ISBN (cont.)
n   Formerly 10 digits is currently replaced by 13
    digits to identify:
    – National, geographic, language or other convenient
      group
    – Publisher or producer
       n   Publishers with existing ISBN-10s will need to convert
           their ISBNs to ISBN-13s by the addition of a prefix 978
           and recalculation of the new check digit.
    – Title identifier
    – Check digit
       n   Validates the ISBN-13 Srikantaiah
                             T. Kanti.                        60
               Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
 n   In the United States, a five-digit add-on-code
     is used for additional information.
 n   In the publishing industry, the code is used
     for price information.
 n   The lead digit of the five-digit add-on-code is
     a currency identifier: 5 for the U.S. dollar, 6
     for the Canadian dollar, 1 for the British
     pound, 3 for the Australian dollar, 4 for the
     New Zealand dollar, etc.
 n   If publishers do not want to indicate the price
     add-on should be the code 90000.
                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah        61
             Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISBN (cont.)
n   Administered at three levels:
    – ISBN Agency in UK
    – National agencies
    – Publishing houses
n   ISBN Agency website: http://www.isbn.org




                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   62
            Organization of Knowledge


    Bibliographic Record/ISSN
n   Serials are known and cited by title.
n   ISSN is limited to the key title.
n   Only one ISSN for each title and a
    particular medium (separate ISSNs are
    assigned to each medium version).
n   If title changes, new ISSN is required.


                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah      63
             Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
 n   In the U.S., the National Serials Data
     Program at the Library of Congress has
     the responsibility to assign and maintain
     ISSNs for all U.S. serial titles.
 n   Application form is required.
 n   Assignment of ISSN is free (no charge).
 n   ISSN instructions:
     http://lcweb.loc.gov/issn.
                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    64
              Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
n   ISSN (International Standard Serial
    Number)
    – Product of 1970s
n   ISO 3297/ANSI/ NISO Z 39.9
n   Number appear as two groups of four
    digits separated by a hyphen
    EX: 1234-5678
n   Not assigned by publishers

                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   65
              Organization of Knowledge


Bibliographic Record/ISSN (cont.)
n   Administered by ISSN Network
    (International Organization) with the
    UNESCO/UNISIST Program
n   ISSN International Centre located in Paris
    (Network consists of national and regional
    centers)
n   Centers have the responsibility to register
    serials in their countries
                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   66
             Organization of Knowledge




Source: LC          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   67
               Organization of Knowledge


                     ISBD
Area      Punctuation                         Element
• Title and           1.1 Title proper
statement of []       1.2 General material designation
responsibility =      1.3 Parallel title
area           :      1.4 Other title information
                      1.5 Statements of responsibility
              /             First statement
              ;             Subsequent statement
                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             68
               Organization of Knowledge


                     ISBD
Area         Punctuation                      Element
2. Edition              2.1 Edition statement
area             =      2.2 Parallel edition statement
                        2.3 Statements of responsibility
                               relating to the edition
                 /             First statement
                 ;             Subsequent statement
                 ,      2.4 Additional edition statement
                        2.5 Statements of responsibility
                               following an additional edition
                               statement
                 /             First statement
                 ;             Subsequent statement
                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             69
                Organization of Knowledge


                        ISBD
Area        Punctuation                         Element
3. Material (or type)
of publication)
specific area




                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             70
                   Organization of Knowledge


                         ISBD
Area       Punctuation                            Element
4. Publication,     4.1 Place of publication, distribution, etc.
distribution,              First place
etc., area ;               Subsequent place
              :     4.2 Name of publisher, distributor, etc.
              []    4.3 Statement of function of publisher,
                    distributor, etc.
             ,      4.4 Date of publication, distribution, etc.
             (      4.5 Place of manufacturer
             :      4.6 Name of manufacturer
             ,)     4.7 Date of manufacture
                          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             71
                   Organization of Knowledge


                         ISBD
Area         Punctuation                          Element
5. Physical               5.1 Specific material designation and
description area          extent of item
                    :     5.2 Other physical details
                    ;     5.3 Dimensions of item
                    +     5.4 Accompanying material statement
6. Series area            6.1 Title proper of series
Note: A series      =     6.2 Parallel title of series
statement is        :     6.3 Other title information of series
enclosed by
parentheses.
                          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             72
                     Organization of Knowledge


                           ISBD
Area         Punctuation                            Element
6. Series area              6.4 Statements of responsibility
                            relating to the series
Note: When there      /            First statement
are two or more       ;            Subsequent statement
series statements,    ,     6.5 International Standard Serial
each is enclosed            Number of series
by parentheses.       ;     6.6 Numbering within series
                      .     6.7 Enumeration and/or title of
                            sub series
                      =     6.8 Parallel title of sub series
                      :     6.9 Other title information of sub series
                            T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             73
                 Organization of Knowledge


                       ISBD
Area         Punctuation                        Element
6. Series area          6.10 Statements of responsibility
                        relating to the sub series
                  /            First statement
                  ;            Subsequent statement
                        6.11 International Standard Serial
                        Number of sub series
                        6.12 Numbering within sub series



                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             74
                    Organization of Knowledge


                          ISBD
Area          Punctuation                          Element
7. Note area
8. Standard                8.1 Standard number (or alternative)
number (or           =     8.2 Key title
alternative) and     :     8.3 Terms of availability and/or price
terms of             ()    8.4 Qualification (in varying positions)
availability area



                           T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             75
              Organization of Knowledge


                Main Entry
n   Authorship (based on Paris Principle)
    The person or corporate body chiefly responsible for
      the creation of the intellectual or artistic content
      of a work
n   Corporate Authorship
    Administrative (21.1B2)
    Legal/Governmental Laws etc. (21.32-21.39)
    Conference etc. (21.1B1)
    Sound Recordings, Films etc. (21.23)
    Official Communications--Govt. Etc. (21.4D1)

                       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah             76
            Organization of Knowledge


              Main Entry
n   Personal Authorship
    Classical Works (Homer, Plato, etc.)
    Anonymous Classics
    Others
       Single Personal Authorship (21.4A)
       Shared Responsibility (21.6B)



                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    77
           Organization of Knowledge


            Main Entry
– Others
   n Mixed Responsibility

      – Adapter (21.10)
      – Artist/Illus (21.11A)
      – Revised, Enlarged, Updated, etc. (21.12A)
      – Commentator (21.13B)
      – Text/Comm. By a Different Person (21.13C)
      – Translator (21.14A)
      – Biographer/Critic (21.15A)

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah            78
            Organization of Knowledge


            Classification
n   Organize collections/knowledge
    according to some system
n   Provide a systematic arrangement -- a
    formal and orderly access to collections
n   Bring related items together -- leading
    users to identify and locate


                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   79
            Organization of Knowledge


                Criteria
n   Inclusive as well as comprehensive
n   Systematic
n   Flexible and expandable
n   Clear terminology for users and
    classifiers



                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   80
            Organization of Knowledge


               Systems
n   Enumerative (based on collections)
n   Hierarchical (deductive/philosophical)
n   Synthetic (generalized rules/facet
    approach

       (Notation can be pure or mixed)

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     81
             Organization of Knowledge


          Some Examples
n   Dewey’s Decimal Classification
       (Melvil Dewey 1851-1931; Amherst College)
n   Cutter’s Expansive Classification
       (Charles Ammi Cutter 1837-1903; Boston
         Athenaeum)
n   Brown’s Subject Classification
       (James Duff Brown 1864-1914)


                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah         82
             Organization of Knowledge


     Some Examples (cont.)
n   Bliss’s Bibliographic Classification
       (Henry Evelyn Bliss 1870-1955)
n   Ranganathan’s Colon Classification
       (S. R. Ranganathan 1892-1972)




                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   83
             Organization of Knowledge


             Some Others
n   Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
       FID Managed
n   National Library of Medical Classification
       NLM Managed
n   A Classification Scheme for Law Books
       Adaptation of K of LCC




                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   84
              Organization of Knowledge


             Some Others
n   A Classification Scheme for Physics
    Electrotechnology, computers and control
       Inspec Managed
n   The London Classification of Business Studies
n   A Classification of Library and Information
    Science
       CRG Group




                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   85
                       Organization of Knowledge


    Four Major Classification Schemes
n   Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
    – The scheme of classification drawn up by Herbert Putnam in
      1897. Although based in some respects on the Dewey
      Decimal Classification and Cutter’s expansive schemes, it
      does not conform to theoretical rules for classification. It
      was quite explicitly compiled to meet the needs of the
      library’s huge collection of books and is too detailed and
      complex to use in small libraries. It has however, been
      adopted by research and university libraries throughout the
      world.
      Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International
      Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.
                                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                   86
                       Organization of Knowledge


    Four Major Classification Schemes
n   Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
    – Devised by Melvil Dewey and first published in 1876, since
      when it has been revised nineteen times. Knowledge is
      divided into the ten main classes, each designated by a
      numeral form zero to nine, which can be then subdivided by
      the addition of two numerals before a decimal point and
      further numerals after it. It has a relative index which shows
      the relation of each subject that is indexed to a larger
      subject (or class division). The published schedules have
      been extended and modified in successive editions.
      Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International
      Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.
                                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                   87
                       Organization of Knowledge


    Four Major Classification Schemes
n   Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
    – Essentially an elaborate expansion of the Decimal
      Classification of Melvil Dewey, using various symbols in
      addition to Arabic numerals to create long and expressive
      notations for particular documents. This makes it particularly
      appropriate for use in specialist libraries and collections, and
      its adoption by the International Organization for
      Standardization (ISO) has ensured its worldwide use. It was
      developed by the Insitut Internationale de Bibliographie,
      now FID, under the direction of Paul Otet and Henri la
      Fontaine.
      Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International
      Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.
                                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                   88
                       Organization of Knowledge


    Four Major Classification Schemes
n   Colon Classification (CC)
    – Designed by S.R. Ranganathan, it is based on the
      classficiation of any subject by its uses and relations, which
      are indicated by numbers divided by a colon ’:’. It was the
      first example of an analytical-synthetic classification, in
      which the subject field is first analyzed into facets, and class
      numbers are provided for most topics but are constructed
      combining the classes of the various unit schedules of which
      the scheme consists. It has proved particularly popular in
      India and has inspired classification researchers in many
      parts of the world.
      Source: John Feather and Paul Sturges (ed.) (1997). International
      Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science.
                                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                   89
           Organization of Knowledge


       Dewey Summaries
                First Summary
             The Ten Main Classes

000   Generalities
100   Philosophy & psychology
200   Religion
300   Social sciences
400   Language
500   Natural sciences & mathematics
                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   90
            Organization of Knowledge


       Dewey Summaries
600   Technology (Applied sciences)
700   The arts - Fine and decorative arts
800   Literature & rhetoric
900   Geography & history




                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah    91
Organization of Knowledge




       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   92
       T. Kanti Srikantaiah
           Organization of Knowledge


       Subject Cataloging
Purpose:
n Provide access by subject to all material
n Bring together material of same subject
n Show relationships among subjects
n Identify specific document(s) through subject(s)
n Retrieve specific document(s) using subject
  approach
n Search for information on a given subject


                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       93
                    Organization of Knowledge


                  Subject Access
n   Classifying Knowledge- on the teachings of Callimachus,
    Plato, Aristotle, and Bacon
n   ALA List of Subject Headings in 1885
n   Cutter’s Rules for Dictionary Catalog revised in 1905
n   In 1914, Library of Congress first edition of Subject Headings
    Used in the Dictionary Catalogues of the Library of Congress
n   In 1975, title changes to Library of Congress Subject
    Headings (LCSH)
n   In 1988, LC included online version
n   In 1923, Sears List of Subject Headings (Sears) was
    introduced to small libraries
                            T. Kanti. Srikantaiah           94
            Organization of Knowledge


Subject Access to Information
n   Design and Development of Subject
    Headings
    – Main Headings and Subdivisions
    – Cross References
    – Special Types




                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   95
                   Organization of Knowledge


Subject Access to Information
n   Two Main Viewpoints:
    – Natural Language VS. Controlled Vocabulary
n   Controlled Vocabulary Systems
    –   Evolution
    –   Alphabetic VS. Classified Arrangement
    –   Current Scenario
         n   Library of Congress Subject Headings
         n   Sears List of Subject Headings
         n   Medical Subject Headings
         n   Others

                            T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   96
                          Organization of Knowledge
         Comparison of Natural and
           Controlled Language
Natural Language                                 Controlled Language
Strengths                                        Weaknesses
nHigh  specificity gives precision. Excels in    nLack  of system specificity, even in detailed
retrieving individual terms- names of persons,   systems.
organizations, etc.                              nLack of exhaustively. Cost of indexing to level
nExhaustively gives potential for high recall.   of natural language prohibitive. Also terms
Does not apply to title-only databases.          may be omitted in error by indexers.
nUp-to-date. New terms immediately available.    nNot immediately up-to-date. Time lag while
nWords of author used- no misinterpretation      terms are added to the thesaurus.
by indexer.                                      nWords of authors liable to be misconstrued.
nNatural language words used by searcher.        Errors in indexing terms can cause losses.
nLow input costs.                                nArtificial language has to be learned by the

nEasier exchange of material between
                                                 searcher.
databases- language incompatibility removed.     nHigh input costs.
                                                 nIncompatibility a barrier to easy exchange.

Both natural and controlled language systems offer the same powerful search aids-
truncation, word proximity, etc.       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                             97
                           Organization of Knowledge
        Comparison of Natural and
        Controlled Language (cont.)
Natural Language                                   Controlled Language
Weaknesses                                         Strengths
            effort placed on searcher.
nIntellectual                                      nEases   the burden of searching:
Problems arise with terms having many                    –Controls synonyms and near-synonyms and
synonyms and several species.                            leads to specific natural language concepts to
nSyntax problems. Danger of false drops
                                                         the nearest preferred terms to broaden search
through incorrect term association.                      –Qualifies homographs
                                                         –Provides scope notes
nExhaustively may lead to loss of precision.
                                                         –Displays broader, narrower and related terms
                                                         –Expresses concepts elusive in free text.
                                                   nOvercomes    syntax problems with compound
                                                   terms and other devices.
                                                   nAt normal levels of indexing, avoids precision
                                                   loss through over-exhaustively (i.e. retrieval of
                                                   minor concepts of peripheral interest).
                                                   nAn asset in numerical databases and
                                                   multilingual systems.
Both natural and controlled language systems offer the same powerful search aids-
truncation, word proximity, etc.
                                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                                  98
              Organization of Knowledge


     Controlled Vocabularies
n   Subject Approach
    – Point out what a library/information source or
      database has on a particular subject
    – Point out what a library/information source or
      database has on a related subjects
n   Two popular pre-coordinated subject heading
    lists in the US:
    – The Library of Congress
    – Sears List of Subject Headings

                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah            99
                     Organization of Knowledge


          Controlled Vocabularies
n   Other lists are in specific fields
    – Ex: MESH (Medical Subject Heading List)
n   Approach
    Topical or Form Headings
    – Single Noun: Cats, Economics, Poetry
    – Phrases: Adjectuval--Agricultural credit, English literature, Library
      science, teenage automobile drivers; Prepositional--Children in
      motion pictures, Federal aid to youth services, Costume in art;
      Conjunctive--Emigration and immigration, Open and closed
      shelves, Children’s encyclopedias and dictionaries, bolts and nuts;
      Inverted--Chemistry, Organic, Maps, Statistical, Knowledge,
      Sociology of; Free Floating--Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous),
      1913-, In fiction, drama, poetry, etc.
                               T. Kanti. Srikantaiah               100
                            Organization of Knowledge


Library of Congress Subject Headings
    n    263,000 authority records
          – 19,200 personal
          – 4,500 corporate
          – 12 meeting or conference
          – 480 uniform title
          – 197,000 topical
          – 42,000 geographical

 Source: Library of Congress            T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   101
 Subject Headings, 30th Edition, 2007
           Organization of Knowledge


          LCSH Headings
n   One word
n   Two words
n   More than two words
n   Class numbers (36% of headings
    followed by #S)
n   Scope notes

                  T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   102
            Organization of Knowledge


            Subdivisions
n   Topical Subdivision
n   Form Subdivision
n   Chronological Subdivision
n   Geographical Subdivision
n   Free-Floating Subdivision
n   Pattern Headings

                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   103
               Organization of Knowledge


        Subdivisions (contd)
n   Order of Subdivision
    – Main Heading--Topical Subdivision--Geographic
      Subdivision--Chronological Subdivision--Form
      Division
    France--Intellectual Life--20th Century--Historiography
    Teachers--Training of--United States--Bibliography
    Farm Buildings--Specifications--Maryland--Montgomery
      County
    Visual Aids--Collectors and Collecting--Standards--Japan
                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah           104
                Organization of Knowledge


         Subdivisions (contd)
n   Form Subdivisions:
     – Engineering-examinations, questions, etc.
     – Gardens--Pictorial Works
     – Poetry
     – Engineering--Dictionaries
n   Topical Subdivisions:
     – Wages--Minimum Wage
     – Engineering--Research
     – Agriculture--Accounting
                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah      105
            Organization of Knowledge


       Subdivisions (contd)
n   Period (Chronology)
    France--History--Louis XIV, 163-1715
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
    Greece--History--1453-1821
    English Language--Grammar--1950-
    Sculpture, Ancient
    Great Britain--History--Wars of the Roses,
      1455-1485
                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah       106
               Organization of Knowledge


         Subdivisions (contd)
n   Geographic
    Sports--England
    Education, Elementary--United States
    Music--Africa
    Education--Demographic Aspects--Japan
    Art--Great Britain
    Charities--Italy--Florence
    Wool Industry--Government Policy--Italy--Naples
    Cities and Towns--India--Bangalore
    Agriculture--Florida
    Music--Scotland
                       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah          107
                Organization of Knowledge


        Subdivisions (contd)
n   Free Floating:
    – General
       --Abstracts
       --Cost Effectiveness
       --Library Resources
       --Periodicals--Indexes
       --Software
       --Study and Teaching

                       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   108
              Organization of Knowledge


        Subdivisions (contd)
n   Free Floating (contd):
    – Specific Type
       Actors--Political Activity
       Asian Americans--Race Identity
       Illinois--Governors--Election




                      T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   109
               Organization of Knowledge


        Subdivisions (contd)
n   Free Floating (contd):
    – Control by Pattern Headings
       Colonies       Great Britain--Colonies
       Chemical       Copper
                      Insulin
       Indians                Indians of North America
       Military Services      United States--Armed Forces
       Musical Compositions         Operas
       Sacred Works           Bible
       Wars           World War, 1939-1945
                       T. Kanti. Srikantaiah            110
             Organization of Knowledge


           LCSH Headings
n   References
    – Equivalence relationships
    – Hierarchical relationships
    – Associate relationships
    – General references




                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   111
                Organization of Knowledge


             Cross References
n   Equivalence Relationship
    English Hymns use Hymns, English
    Unconventional Warfare use Guerilla Warfare
    Illiteracy use Literacy
    Hymns, English UF English Hymns
    Literacy                UF Illiteracy
n   Hierarchical Relationship
    Poetry                 BT Literature
                           NT Children’s Poetry
                              Classical Poetry
                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     112
             Organization of Knowledge


         Cross References
n   Associative Relationship
    Aliens        RT Citizenship
                     Immigrants
                     Naturalization
    Physicians    RT Medicine
    Similarly,
    Medicine      RT Physicians


                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   113
              Organization of Knowledge


         Cross References
n   General references
    Atlases        SA Subdivision maps under
                   names of countries, cities etc.,
                   and under topics
    Cranberries --Diseases and Pets
                   SA Names of pests,
                   e.g. Cranberry Root-worm
    Court of Last Resort        SA Names of
                         individual supreme courts
                     T. Kanti. Srikantaiah      114
                          Organization of Knowledge
Outline of Subconcepts of Subject Analysis
n    Identify concepts and determine what is the purpose of the information
     package (e.g., who the intended users are) in the following:
      –   Title and subtitle.
      –   Table of contents or equivalent.
      –   Preface and/or introduction (etc.).
      –   Illustrations and their captions.
n    Identify names used as subject concepts.
n    Identify role(s) of any geographic name(s) present.
n    Identify chronological elements.
n    Identify form of the item being analyzed.
n    Construct a sentence giving analysis of what this information package is
     about.
      – Identify index terms from the sentence to be searched in the controlled
        vocabulary.
      – Translate the terms into specific headings from the controlled vocabulary list.
n    Construct the hierarchy (discipline/subdiscipline/concept/topic, etc.) into
     which the “aboutness” falls.
      – Convert the hierarchy into a classification notation.

    Source: Taylor                    T. Kanti. Srikantaiah                     115
                 Organization of Knowledge


     Mechanization of Bibliography
n   Automation first entered in 1870’s with the
    introduction of typewriters (Lot of discussion)
n   In 1890’s, the documentation Movement in Europe
n   Development of Professional Organizations and
    Scientific Research
n   UDC was discussed in 1892 conference in Brussels
    (organized by Otlet and LaFontaine)
n   In 1937, the American Documentation Institute was
    formed. In 1968 changed its name to ASIS. In 2000
    became ASIS & T
                        T. Kanti. Srikantaiah     116
                  Organization of Knowledge


    Mechanization of Bibliography
n   In 1938, FID was established
n   In 1928, Eastman Kodak’s technological advance in
    microfilm
n   World War II- Information Explosion
n   In 1945, Vannevar Bush opened a new era
    (associative index)
n   In the 1950 and 1960’s many mechanization
    attempts:
    – Creation of MARC format at LC
    – OCLC (online college library center)
    – RLIN (research libraries network) in 1977
                          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   117
                     Organization of Knowledge
    How does system design relate to the
       organization or information?
n   System design holds together the metadata that serve as
    surrogates for the information package within a domain.
n   Before computerization, the people who created surrogate
    records were the same people who organized them, so system
    design was not a separate process.
     – Panizzi’s rules proposed the contents of surrogate records and
       also the standards for cataloging them.
     – Cutter’s rules included an emphasis on collocation (logical
       juxtaposition of records) and a design for the card catalog and
       filing.
     – Each edition of ALA filing rules has assumed that the system
       design is based on a card catalog.
                              T. Kanti. Srikantaiah              118
                     Organization of Knowledge
    System designs differ, so users must
        learn each system by asking:
n   How does the system accept queries? Commands? Forms? Menus?
    Command structure?
n   Can one search by Author? Title? Subject? Form/genre? Keywords?
    Combinations? Exact word-for-word matches?
n   Are Boolean searches allowed? Order of operations? Default AND or
    OR? How are search results displayed? In what order?
n   Are “guides” presented before actual listings of records? How do
    they divide up (organize) responses? How do you sift through a
    multiscreen response?
n   What kinds of information are included in records in the database?
    Is coded data translated in a meaningful way?
n   Is a record displayed in full or briefly, and what is included at each
    level of detail?
                              T. Kanti. Srikantaiah               119
                   Organization of Knowledge
    System designs differ, so users must
        learn each system by asking:
n   Do records contain subject data in the form of controlled
    vocabulary?
n   Does the system support controlled vocabulary by displaying
    relationships between subjects? (Broader, narrower, and
    related terms)
n   How are author searches interpreted by the system- exact
    match, near match, keyword?
n   Which keys on keywords have special functions in the
    system? (Ctrl, Alt)
n   How are hyphens, punctuation, symbols treated?
    Normalization algorithms?
n   Does the system “remember” where the user is in a search?
    Navigation?             T. Kanti. Srikantaiah            120
                         Organization of Knowledge


                         Filing Principles




                                 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   121
From different sources          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                         Organization of Knowledge

                  Filing Principles (Cont.)




                                 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   122
From different sources          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                         Organization of Knowledge

                  Filing Principles (Cont.)




From different sources          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   123
                           Organization of Knowledge

                   Filing Principles (Cont.)
                           Examples of Basic ALA Rules




                                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   124
Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                           Organization of Knowledge

                Filing Principles (Cont.)




                                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   125
Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                           Organization of Knowledge

                Filing Principles (Cont.)




                                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   126
Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                           Organization of Knowledge

                Filing Principles (Cont.)




                                   T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   127
Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti Srikantaiah
                           Organization of Knowledge

                Filing Principles (Cont.)




Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   128
                           Organization of Knowledge

                 Filing Principles (Cont.)




Source: ALA Filing Rules          T. Kanti. Srikantaiah   129

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:12/19/2013
language:English
pages:129