Chapter Six - Philadelphia University Jordan

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					A Gift of Fire
           Third edition

   Sara Baase

  Chapter 6: Work


   Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye
      What We Will Cover
•   Fears and Questions
•   The Impact on Employment
•   The Work Environment
•   Employee Crime
•   Employee Monitoring
      Fears and Questions
• Computers free us from repetitious and boring
  aspects of jobs so that we can spend more time
  being creative and doing tasks that require human
  intelligence.
However…
• The introduction of computers in the workplace
  generated many fears
   – Mass unemployment due to increased efficiency
   – The need for increased skill and training widens
     the earning gap
      Fears and Questions
• New trends still generating fears
  – Offshoring of jobs will lead to mass
    unemployment
  – Employers use of technology to monitor their
    employees
 The Impact on Employment
Job Creation and destruction:
   – Reduced the need for telephone operators, mid-
     level managers, bank tellers, etc.
   Ex:
   – the number of bank tellers dropped by about 37%
     between 1983 and 1993.
   – Some travel agencies closed, as consumers made
     travel reservations online.
   – Kodak laid off thousands of employees.
   – Hundreds of music stores closed.
 The Impact on Employment
• New industries arise
   A successful technology eliminates some jobs, but
     create others.
   – Internet
   – Cellular communications
• Lower prices increase demand and create jobs
   – Music industry changed from serving the wealthy
     to serving the masses, employing more than just
     musicians
   – New technologies and products create jobs in
     design, marketing, manufacture, sales,
     maintenance, etc.
 The Impact on Employment
          (cont.)
Job Creation and destruction:
• Unemployment rates fluctuate
   – Growth of computers has been steady, while
     unemployment has fluctuated widely
• Are we earning less?
   – Since the 1970s, wages decreased , benefits
     increased
   – People work fewer hours since the Industrial
     Revolution
        The Impact on
       Employment (cont.)
Changing Skill Levels:
• The new jobs created from computers are different
  from the jobs eliminated
• New jobs such as computer engineer and system
  analyst jobs require a college degree, where jobs
  such as bank tellers, customer service
  representatives and clerks do not
• Companies are more willing to hire people without
  specific skills when they can train new people
  quickly and use automated support systems
        The Impact on
       Employment (cont.)
A Global Workforce:
• Outsourcing – a company pays another company to
  build parts for its products or services instead of
  performing those tasks itself
• Offshoring - the practice of moving business
  processes or services to another country, especially
  overseas, to reduce costs
• Inshoring - when another company employs
  thousands of people in another country. (e.g.
  offshoring for a German company means inshoring
  for Jordan)
        The Impact on
       Employment (cont.)
A Global Workforce (cont.):
• Problems and side effects of offshoring:
   – Consumers complain about customer service
     representatives, because accents are difficult to
     understand.
   – Employees in companies need new job skills
     (e.g., managing, working with foreign
     colleagues)
   – Increased demand for high-skill workers in other
     countries forces salaries up
   – Time difference cause extra difficulties.
        The Impact on
       Employment (cont.)
Ethics of hiring a foreign worker
- You are a manager at a software company about to
   begin a large software project. You will need t hire
   dozens of new programmers. Using the internet;
   you can hire programmers in another country at a
   lower salary. Should you do so?
       The Impact on
      Employment (cont.)
Getting a Job:
• Learning about jobs and companies
   – Online company histories and annual reports
   – Job search and resume sites
   – Online training
• Learning about applicants and employees
   – Search online newsgroups and social networks
   – Hire data-collection agencies such as ChoicePoint
   – Prospective employees may craft an online profile
     trying to get the job they want
 The Impact on Employment
    Discussion Questions
• What jobs have been eliminated due to
  technology?
• What jobs that were once considered high-
  skill jobs are now low-skill due to technology?
• What new jobs have been created because
  of technology?
  The Work Environment
Job Dispersal and Telecommuting:
• Telecommuting
   – Working at home using a computer
     electronically linked to one's place of
     employment
   – Mobile office using a laptop, working out of
     your car or at customer locations
   – Fulltime and part-time telecommuting
  The Work Environment
         (cont.)
Job Dispersal and Telecommuting (cont.):
• Benefits
   – Reduces overhead for employers
   – Reduces need for large offices
   – Employees are more productive, satisfied, and
     loyal
   – Reduces traffic congestion, pollution, gasoline
     use, and stress
   – Reduces expenses for commuting and money
     spent on work clothes
   – Allows work to continue after storms, hurricanes,
     etc.
  The Work Environment
         (cont.)
Job Dispersal and Telecommuting (cont.):
• Problems
   – Employers see resentment from those who have
     to work at the office
   – For some telecommuting employees, corporation
     loyalty weakens
   – Odd work hours
   – Cost for office space has shifted to the employee
   – Security risks when work and personal activities
     reside on the same computer
  The Work Environment
         (cont.)
Job Dispersal and Telecommuting (cont.):
• Do you think there might be restrictions
  on telecommuting ?
  The Work Environment
         (cont.)
Changing Structure of Business:
• Increase in smaller businesses and
  independent consultants (‘information
  entrepreneurs’)
• ‘Mom and pop multi-nationals’, small
  businesses on the Web
• Growth of large, multi-national corporations
  The Work Environment
         (cont.)
Changing Structure of Business:
• Encourage workers to become self-employed
• The availability of IT enabled many
  businesses to give workers more information
  and more decision- making authority, thus
  “flattening hierarchies” and “empowering
  workers”.
• Not all changes due to technology
   The Work Environment
    Discussion Questions
• Would you want to telecommute? Why or
  why not?
• How has technology made entrepreneurship
  easier? Harder?
         Employee Crime
• Embezzlement - fraudulent appropriation of
  property by a person to whom it has been
  entrusted
• Trusted employees have stolen millions of
  dollars
• Angry fired employees sabotage company
  systems
• Logic bomb - software that destroys critical
  files (payroll and inventory records) after
  employee leaves
         Employee Crime
• Some employers steal data from their
  employer’s computers.
  What is the benefit of stealing data?
• Some employee secretly sabotaged a system
  in the hopes of earning extra money to fix it.

• Do you think sabotaging systems is a new or
  an old problem?
         Employee Crime
• How to reduce the likelihood of large frauds?
         Employee Crime
• How to reduce the likelihood of large frauds?
  – An employee’s access should be canceled
    immediately after he/she quits or gets fired.
  – No one person should have responsibility
    for enough parts of a system to build and
    hide elaborate scams.
  – Some systems provide records of
    transactions and the employee who
    authorized them.
      • Security vs. convenience
    Employee Monitoring
Background:
• Managers have always monitored their
  employees.
• The degree of details and frequency of
  monitoring has varied depending on the kind
  of work.
• Computers have made new kinds of
  monitoring possible and old kinds more
  efficient.
    Employee Monitoring
Background:
  – Early monitoring was mostly ‘blue-collar’ (factory)
    and ‘pink-collar’ (telephone and clerical) jobs
  – Time-clocks and logs
  – Output counts at the end of the day
  – Bosses patrolled the hallways watching workers

  With computers monitoring can be constant ,
   more detailed and unseen by workers.
     Employee Monitoring
           (cont.)
Data Entry, Phone Work, and Retail:
• Data entry
   – Key stroke quotas
   – Encourage competition
   – Beep when workers pause
• Phone work
   – Number and duration of calls
   – Idle time between calls
   – Randomly listen in on calls
• Retail
   – Surveillance to reduce theft by employees
  Employee Monitoring
        (cont.)
Workers complain that constant and detailed
surveillance diminishes their sense of dignity
and independence and destroys their
confidence.
     Employee Monitoring
           (cont.)
• Some argue that monitoring customer-service
  calls is a privacy issue: It infringes the privacy
  of employees and customers.
• Employers argue there is no privacy issue:
  the calls are not personal.
     Employee Monitoring
           (cont.)
Location Monitoring:
• Cards and badges used as electronic keys increase
  security but track employee movements
• GPS tracks an employee's location
   – Used in some hospitals to track nurse locations for
     emergency purposes, also shows where they are
     at lunch or when they use the bathroom
   – Used to track long-haul trucks to reduce theft and
     optimize delivery schedules, also detects driving
     speeds and duration of rest breaks
• Employees often complain of loss of privacy
    Employee Monitoring
          (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use:
• E-mail and voice mail at work
  – Employees often assume passwords mean
    they are private
  – Roughly half of major companies in the
    U.S. monitor or search employee e-mail,
    voice mail, or computer files
  – Most companies monitor infrequently,
    some routinely intercept all e-mail
   Employee Monitoring
         (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use:
• E-mail and voice mail at work
  – Why do some employers monitor their
    employee’s email messages and
    voicemail?
    Employee Monitoring
          (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use (cont.):
• Law and cases
   – Electronic Communications Privacy Act
     (ECPA) prohibits interception of e-mail and
     reading stored e-mail without a court order,
     but makes an exception for business
     systems
   – Courts put heavy weight on the fact that
     computers, mail, and phone systems are
     owned by the employer who provides them
     for business purposes
    Employee Monitoring
          (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use (cont.):
• Law and cases (cont.)
   – Courts have ruled against monitoring done
     to snoop on personal and union activities
     or to track down whistle blowers
   – Many employers have privacy policies
     regarding e-mail and voice mail
   – The National Labor Relation Board (NLRB)
     sets rules and decides cases about worker-
     employer relations
    Employee Monitoring
          (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use (cont.):
• Some companies block specific sites (e.g.
  sports sites, job search sites, social-network
  sites)
• Employees spend time on non-work activities
  on the Web
• Concerns over security threats such as
  viruses and other malicious software
    Employee Monitoring
          (cont.)
E-Mail, Blogging, and Web Use (cont.):
• Concerns about inappropriate activities by
  employees (e.g., harassment, unprofessional
  comment)
      Employee Monitoring
      Discussion Questions
• How much privacy is reasonable for an
  employee to expect in the workplace?
• Under what circumstances is it appropriate for
  an employer to read an employee's e-mail?

				
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posted:12/18/2013
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