Causes of Crime - Ohio Crime Prevention Association

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					Crime and Opportunity

    National Crime Prevention Association
         2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
             Arlington, VA 22202
      202-261-4153 FAX 202-296-1356
        Training Goal

    To provide participants basic
 training on the use of opportunity
based crime prevention as a process
for controlling and reducing crime
    in their home communities.
      Crime Prevention Questions

1) What group of people practices crime
   prevention on a daily basis more than any other

      How do they practice crime prevention?

2) Have you received any formal crime prevention

3) Have you been the victim of a crime within the
   past five years?
Police Training

          Did you learn to
          shoot this way?

          Why not?
Newhall Incident - April 6, 1970

Frago        Gore           Pence        Alleyn

     On April 5, 1970, the officer survival
movement was born out of one of the darkest
days in law enforcement’s history. In less than
  five minutes, two heavily armed and well-
    prepared criminals shot and killed four
      California Highway patrol officers.
    Newhall Incident - April 6, 1970

After Officer Pence fired his sixth and last round, he
reloaded just the way he was taught at the academy.

He dumped the expended rounds into his hand and
put them in his pants pocket, as he had done on the
firing range, then reloaded 6 rounds into his revolver.

This gave Twining enough time to flank Pence and
put a bullet in the back of his head.
          Crime Prevention Users
            Michigan POST - Police Skills

IV.B.1.12. Demonstrates and Understanding of
Controlling Violent Confrontation as a Civilian.

a.Demonstrates an understanding of strategies to
avoid criminal attack and control violent
confrontation (crime prevention tips).

(1) avoids the confrontation;
(2) evades or escapes the confrontation; or
(3) controls the confrontation.
       Crime Prevention Users

What group of people
uses crime prevention
more than any other?
Crime Reporting
Crime Analysis
           Why Analyze Crime Data?

• To help develop a         National Crime Trends
  better understanding of   crimes per 100,00 persons
  the nature of crime and

• To produce greater
  community safety and

• To evaluate the
  effectiveness of crime
  fighting programs.
       Official Sources for Crime Data

Uniform Crime Report - UCR
  Federal Bureau of Investigation

National Crime Victimization Survey
  Bureau of Justice Statistics
       Uniform Crime Report - FBI

• The UCR Program began in 1930.

• Began as and is still a voluntary program.

• Summary information about reported crime and

• In Virginia crime reporting is mandatory and is
  managed by the State Police.
Uniform Crime Report - VA
     Uniform Crime Reports

         Index or Part I Crimes

Violent Crime            Property Crime

   • Murder                • Burglary

   • Rape                  • Larceny

   • Robbery               • Auto Theft

   • Assault               • Arson
          Data Analysis Process

Step 1: Assess Overall Conditions
        Determines overall risk.

Step 2: Draw Conclusions
        Understand what the data means.

Step 3: Analyze the Problems
        Recognize trends and patterns.

Step 4: Respond to the Problems
        Begins the process of developing solutions.
         Uniform Crime Reports

                    • Type

                    • Location

                    • Month, Day & Time of Day
Data Reveals
Problems by......   • Victims

                    • Victim Characteristics

                    • Offender Characteristics

                    • Circumstance

                    • Disposition
  Calculating Crime Rates

• Crimes

• Divided by Population

• Multiplied by 100,000

• Equals the Crime Rate
Uniform Crime Reporting Problems

 Data Collection Problems

 • Public Housing
 • Domestic Violence
 • Schools
 • Car Jacking
 • Church Bombings
Uniform Crime Reporting Problems


§ Voluntary system in most states

§ Police control the reporting

§ Many crimes are not reported to the police

§ Summary based system lacking detail
  National Crime Victimization Survey

• Collects information about reported and
  unreported crime.

• Collects more detail about each crime - injuries,
  time lost from work, protection measures used
  and much more.

• Provides another process for measuring crime.
National Crime Victimization Survey
National Crime Victimization Survey
         Crime Trends

Crime in the United States - FBI

Crime in You State or Locality

        US and Virginia
         1965 - 2007
National Crime Trends
  Crimes per 100,000 persons

           Total Crime


            Total Crime Trends
             crimes per 100,00 persons


            Violent Crime Trends
              crimes per 100,00 persons


       Property Crime Trends
            crimes per 100,00 persons


          Murder Trends
        Murders per 100,00 persons


             Rape Trends
            Rapes 100,00 persons


              Robbery Trends
            Robberies per 100,00 persons


Aggravated Assault Trends
       Assaults per 100,00 persons


         Burglary Trends
       Burglaries per 100,000 persons


          Larceny Trends
        Larcenies per 100,000 persons


             Auto Theft Trends
            Auto Thefts per 100,000 persons


Burglary Predictor Month - June 8.1%

       Burglary in Virginia
        1975 - 1989 Red
       1990 - 2005 Yellow
Robbery Predictor Month - June 7.3%

        Robbery in Virginia
         1975 - 1989 Red
        1990 - 2005 Yellow
Auto Theft Predictor Month

  Auto Theft in Virginia
    1975 - 1989 Red
   1990 - 2005 Yellow
Police Service Calls - Minneapolis 85/86

                          Calls By Place

       IBR Crime Reporting

  Incident Based Reporting - IBR

Fully implemented in Virginia in 1999
       (change began in 1986)
       Benefits of IBR Reporting

• greater specificity in reporting

• more correlation between offenses, property,
  victims, offenders and arrestees

• expanded victim/offender relationships

• distinction between attempted and completed

• increased reporting of various circumstances
  relative to specific crimes
 Burglary Prevention Measures
            Virginia: 2002 - 2006

                        Total       % of Total
Prevention Measure
Alarm                   7,479          5.1%
Bars/Grate                446          0.3%
Camera                  1,686          1.1%
Dog                       796          0.5%
Dead Bolt               9,082          6.2%
Locked                 47,111         32.0%
Unlocked                9,435          6.4%
Lights                  2,186          1.5%
Fence                   1,017          0.7%
Neighborhood Watch         82          0.1%
Other                   1,362          0.9%
None                    4,164          9.6%
   Other Sources for Crime Information

• School Reports

• Hospital Emergency Room Admissions

• Public Opinion Polls

• Insurance Industry: Auto Theft and Arson

• Special Interest Groups: Handgun Control - NRA

• Industry Groups: convenience stores, shopping malls

• Rumor and Gossip
          Public Opinion - Gallup Poll

Is there more crime in the U.S. than there was a year ago, or less?

                More         Less      Same      No Opinion
     2005        67%         21%          9%          3%
     2004        53%         28%         14%          5%
     2003        60%         25%         11%          4%
     2002        62%         21%         11%          6%
     2001        41%         43%         10%          6%
     2000        47%         41%          7%          5%
     1997        64%         25%          6%          5%
     1993        87%          4%          5%          4%
     1989        84%          5%          5%          5%

   Perceptions of Crime - Gallop Poll
Is there more crime in the US than there was a year ago?
 Insurance Industry - Auto Theft

      National Insurance Crime Bureau
10 most common stolen autos in the U.S. - 2004
 1. 1995 Honda Civic
 2. 1989 Toyota Camry
 3. 1991 Honda Accord
 4. 1994 Dodge Caravan
 5. 1994 Chevrolet Full Size C/K 1500 Pickup
 6. 1997 Ford F150 Series
 7. 2003 Dodge Ram Pickup
 8. 1990 Acura Integra
 9. 1988 Toyota Pickup
 10. 1991 Nissan Sentra
Crime in Your Community

 What are the Crime Rates
  for your community?
    Crime in Your Community

You’re at a community meeting to talk
about a recent rash of crimes. A reporter
with the local newspaper is there and
asks you this question.

What is the crime rate for the community?

What is your response?
         Crime in Your Community

• Describe a serious crime problem in your community?

• Where is it located?

• What types of crime take place there?

• What is the public's perception of the site?

• What are the negative impacts on the community?

• What can be done about it?
Crime and Opportunity
Bicycle Theft Trends - US
      Thefts Per 100,000 Persons
       Bicycle Theft

50’s                   90’s
Bicycle Theft - Better Security
Bicycle Theft - Better Security
            Burglary Trends
        Burglaries per 100,000 persons


            Burglary 1965 - 1975

• Most burglaries
  were at night -
  the Cat Burglar.
            Burglary 1965 - 1975

• Prior to the mid 60’s there was less home burglary
  because there was someone home during the day.

• More women going to work left homes and
  neighborhoods unattended and unprotected.
           Burglary 1965 - 1975

• Burglars didn't break into homes by entering
  through bathroom windows.

• Technology made it easier to take steal more things
  from the home.

• Most homes did not have good locks.
Gold – Price Per Ounce
             Burglary 1981

The increase in gold prices in 1980 (up to $800
per ounce) caused silver prices to go up and
thieves broke into homes all over the country to
get the family silver.
  Price of Silver Per Ounce

       Value Adjusted for Inflation 2008



Actual Value
         Silver Value of $10,000
  How many pounds would you need to steal in 2008 dollars?

                                                        125 lbs

                                             63 lbs

                                  32 lbs
                      21 lbs
13 lbs     16 lbs
           Precious Metal Prices

                March 2008    January 2009

• Platinum       $2,273 /oz    $988 / oz

• Gold           $1,011 /oz    $847 / oz

• Silver         $20.92 /oz    $11.22 / oz

• Copper         $4.00 / lb    $1.51 / lb
            Total Crime Trends
             crimes per 100,00 persons


               Business Crime

             Sunday was a day of rest.

   Elimination of Blue Laws increased business
exposure to crime by 17%, open 6 days rather than 7.
Business Crime

   • Businesses became more
     exposed to robbery,
     shoplifting and employee theft.

   • New longer hours attracted
     more customers who exposed
     themselves to more crimes
     and left more homes
              24 / 7 Operation

New development is abundant in Lower
Manhattan, and buyers are counting on
TriBeCa and the Financial District's
ability to transition from a 9-to-5
neighborhood to a vibrant 24-hour one.

August 2008
         24 / 7 Operation

• Wal-Marts

• Home Depot stores
• thousands of 7-Eleven’s stores
• American Family Fitness Centers

• What’s Open 24/7 in Your community?
       Crimes Against Women

  Percent of
Women Working

  1940 - 25%
  1950 - 34%
  1960 - 38%
  1970 - 43%
  1980 - 52%
  1990 - 58%
  1998 - 60%
  2004 - 59%
        Crimes Against Women

• More women going to work left homes and
  neighborhoods unattended and unprotected.

• Women became more exposed to assault,
  robbery, larceny and auto theft.

• Murder is the leading cause of death for women
  in the workplace.
    Auto Theft - US

Thefts Per 100,000 Registered Vehicles
Auto Theft - US

 Arrests - Under Age 18
                      Auto Theft

• stolen auto 47 times more
  likely to be involved in an

• Federal Motor Vehicle Theft
  Standard No. 114 - 1968

      steering wheel locks
      key buzzers
Larceny from Autos - US

     Rate Per 100,000 Persons
          Larceny from Autos

• late 60’s - 8 tracks tape players were a hot
  consumer product and were very easy to steal.

• Mid 70’ - CB radios became an even hotter
  consumer product and just like 8 track tape
  players they were easy to steal.
                   Larceny from Autos

late 60’s - 8 tracks tape
players were a hot
consumer product and
were very easy to steal.

William Lear created the eight
track tape player in the early 60’ .
He also invented the first
workable automobile radio in
1924. He signed over the rights
to Motorola, (short for "motor
              Larceny from Autos

Mid 70’ - CB radios
Became an even
hotter consumer
product and just like
8 track tape players
they were easy to
             Larceny from Autos

                                  Anti-Theft Code
                          If the radio is removed from the
                               vehicle or if the power is
                            disconnected, a special code
                              must be entered to enable
                                 operation of the set.

Ask your Volvo retailer for the correct code.

After three unsuccessful coding attempts the set will
lock and remain locked for two hours.
                  Larceny from Autos
                        What’s Hot Today?

Baccarat Phang
24 X 9.5 in.      
Cost - $5,095 EACH

                                    [Close Window]    

Larceny from Autos
            Larceny from Autos

             Global Recycling Network

Catalytic Converters Scrap Exchange Listings
               WANTED : LW801241
             Catalytic Convertor Scrap

 Illinois and NW Indiana I am buying your catalytic
convertors at top dollar between $10 - $320 each. We
 also buy scrap aluminum and copper Will pick up
within 60 mile radius Cash paid. Located in Lynwood
           Illinois and Schererville Indiana.
             Handgun Violence

Prior to 1990, 68% of the
handguns manufactured
in this country were
revolvers - typically six

                            Today over, 73% of the
                            handguns manufactured
                            are semi-automatic, from
                            12 to 19 shots.
Domestic Pistol & Revolver Production
                      United States 1980 - 2005

                  FBI Murders


 Source: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
                  Gun Issues - 1925

“The ideal tool for the
protection of large
estates, ranches,
plantations, etc.”
     History of Crime Prevention

Quemadmodum gladius
  neminem occidit,
 occidentis telum est.

 “A sword never kills
anybody; it is a tool in
  the killer's hand.”

  Seneca the Younger:
   Letters to Lucilius
  (first century Rome)

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