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					Statue in the Cathedral of Reims depicting the baptism of Clovis I by Saint Remi there around 496.

Territorial situation of the Frankish Empire, AD 481–814.

Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle: AD 805

                   Five years after the coronation in Rome, Leo III is again with Charlemagne at a religious ceremony.
But this time it is in Germany. He is consecrating Charlemagne's spectacular new church in Aachen, begun just nine
years previously in 796.

The French name of Aachen, Aix-la-Chapelle, specifically features this famous building - a small but richly decorated
octagonal chapel which Charlemagne has consciously modelled on another famous imperial church, Justinian's San
Vitale in Ravenna.

                                 A Gaulish Helmet, showing the high degree of Celtic metalwork

                                                   A Gaulish Chieftain taunts his enemies
                                             Under Caesar the Romans

                                             On December 23 and 24, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles as Emperor in Rome

in a ceremony that formally acknowledged the Frankish Empire as the successor of the (Western) Roman one. The coronation gave the
Empire the backing of the church, and gave permanent legitimacy to Carolingian primacy among the Franks. The

C  harlemagne had several sons, but only one survived him. This son, Louis the Pious, followed his father as the
ruler of a united Empire. But sole inheritance remained a matter of chance, rather than intent. When Louis died in
840, the Carolingians adhered to the custom of partible inheritance, and the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the
Empire in three:

    1. Louis' eldest surviving son Lothair became Emperor and ruler of the Central Franks. His three sons in turn
        divided this kingdom between them into Lotharingia, Burgundy and (Northern) Italy. These areas would later
        vanish as separate kingdoms.
    2. Louis' second son, Louis the German, became King of the East Franks. This area formed the kernel of the
        later Holy Roman Empire, which eventually evolved into modern Germany. For a list of successors, see the
        List of German Kings and Emperors.
      3. His third son Charles the Bald became King of the West Franks; this area became the foundation for the
                             later France. For his successors, see the List of French monarchs.
         On the map to the right, Louis II controlled the area outlined in green, Louis the German controlled the area
                             in yellow, and Charles the Bald controlled the portion in purple.
                                                       Western Europe around 870

One might argue that the divisions of Verdun still provide the general borders of Germany, France, and Italy, but one can scarcely
suppose that they provide any clear cultural divide. They cannot divide the Germanic-Roman Christian legacy begun by the Carolingians.

802 - Charlemagne completes the establshment of his court at Aachen and attempts to gather the best scholars in Europe at his
                                      court in hopes of turning Aachen into an educational metropolis. Alcuin works

    Here is a map of Charlemagne's kingdom. The light-green shows his kingdom holdings after
    his brother's death in 771. The dark-green shows his kingdom holdings in 800. His advances
                                              (as described above) can be seen here.

                                 On December 23 and 24, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles as Emperor in Rome

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