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					Cookies
Pg. 669 to 674 Culinary Essentials Textbook Pg. 1174 to 1177 On Cooking Book

Objectives
Identify characteristics and types of cookies  Mix, pan and bake cookies.  Cool, serve and store cookies properly.
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Terms
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Crisp cookies – cookies that have very little moisture in the batter. Spread – expand Soft cookies – cookies that have low amounts of fat and sugar in the batter, and a high proportion of liquid, such as eggs. Chewy cookies – cookies that have a high ratio of eggs, sugar, and liquid, but a low ratio of fat. Double pan – to place a sheet pan inside a second pan of the same size to prevent burning the bottom or edges of cookies before they are done.

Cookie Characteristics
Are classified according to texture.  Can be crisp, soft or chewy.  Examples:
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Biscotti are hard and crispy.  Macaroon is chewy and soft.  Chocolate chip can be hard and crispy or chewy and soft.
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Crisp Cookies
Most are made of stiff dough, without much liquid in the mix.  Have a high ratio of sugar.  During the baking process they spread, or expand, more than other cookies because of the greater amount of sugar they contain.  Dry fast during baking because of their thinness and must be stored in air-tight containers without refrigeration.  If they absorb moisture, they will turn soft.
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Soft Cookies
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Has low amounts of fat and sugar in the batter, and a high proportion of liquid, such as eggs. Corn syrup, molasses, or honey is often used along with granulated sugar. Syrups retain moisture after the baking process, providing a soft texture. Are finished baking when their bottoms and edges turn a light golden brown. Must be stored in air-tight containers and not refrigerated. When refrigerated they retain moisture and become soggy.

Chewy Cookies
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All chewy cookies are soft, but not all soft cookies are chewy. Need a high ratio of eggs, sugar and liquid, but a low amount of fat. The gluten in the flour must develop during the mixing stage. The amount of gluten in a particular kind of flour determines how much the cookie will expand. Gluten provides both stretch and flexibility to the cookie, which gives it the chewy characteristic. Pastry flour is ideal for cookie production. A combination of bread flour and cake flour may be used for a chewier texture.

Cookie Spread
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Some cookies require hard labor to produce a particular molded shape. Although some cookies hold their shape while baking, most cookies will spread. The spread of a cookie is determined by six factors:
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Flour type Sugar type Amount of liquid Baking soda Fat type Baking temperature

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1. Flour Type – pastry flour is used for its medium gluten content, allowing for the proper spread. 2. Sugar Type – Granulated sugar provides the proper amount of spread. If a finer grain of sugar, such as confectioners’ sugar, is used, the cookie will spread less. 3. Amount of Liquid – a cookie batter with a high amount of liquid, such as eggs, will have an increased spread. For reduced spread, decrease the amount of eggs in the recipe. 4. Baking Soda – In a cookie batter, the baking soda promotes the proper spread by relaxing the gluten. Baking soda is used as a leavening agent when it is combined with liquid and an acid. 5. Fat Type – the type of fat used in cookie dough also affects the spread of the cookie. When butter or margarine is used, more spread is created. When all-purpose shortening is used, less spread is created. 6. Baking Temperature – Oven temperatures that are too low cause excessive spread. Oven temperatures that are too high give little or no spread.

Mixing Cookies
Most cookie dough contains the same ingredients – sugar, fat, eggs, flour, baking soda, and leavening agents mixed together in varying amounts.  Additional ingredients such as chocolate, nuts or fruit may also be added.  There are two methods for mixing cookie dough:
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One-Stage Method
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A few cookies are made with this method. Melted butter or oil is mixed in a singe stage. All ingredients should be at room temperature and accurately measured. 1. Put all the ingredients in the mixer. 2. Blend at low speed using the paddle attachment. It will usually take 2-3 minutes to blend the batter or dough. 3. Scrape down the sides of the bowl with a spatula as necessary to be sure all the ingredients are well blended.

Creaming Method
The most common procedure for mixing cookie dough.  Creaming together sugar and fat makes a smooth mixture. It is smooth because air has been beaten into the fat and sugar cells.  The air cells expand, lightening the cookies while they bake.  A smooth mixture will easily combine with other ingredients.
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Creaming Method Continued
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1. With all the ingredients accurately measured and at room temperature, use the paddle attachment on the bench mixer to cream sugar, fat, flavorings, and salt together. The mixture will become lighter in volume, texture and color. Cream only slightly for a chewy cookie. Careful consideration should be given to the lightness of a cookie batter. Excessive lightness will cause a cookie to spread too much while it bakes.

Creaming Method Continued
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2. After creaming, add eggs in stages to allow for their proper absorption into the mixture. Blend them in at low speed. 3. In a separate bowl, sift flour and other dry ingredients together. 4. Then add dry ingredients to the creamed mixture and continue to mix on low speed until the dry ingredients are incorporated. Be careful not to over mix the batter. Over mixing develops the gluten, preventing the cookie from spreading properly as it bakes.

Cookie Dough Error Poorly mixed Too little sugar Too much sugar

Spreading

Crumbly

Hard

Dry

Lack of Spread

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Too little flour
Too much flour Too much leavening Too much baking soda Not enough eggs

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Too much shortening

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Types of Cookies
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There are seven basic types of cookies.
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Drop Rolled Icebox Molded Bar Pressed Wafer

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It is easier to classify cookies by their type rather than their mixing method. It is important that all the cookies in a batch be of the same thickness and size.

Drop Cookies
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Examples – chocolate chip, peanut butter and oatmeal. The soft batter or dough uses the creaming process. 1. Choose a scoop for the size of cookie that is desired. 2. Drop the cookies onto parchment-lined baking sheets; if the recipe calls for greased baking sheets, be sure to follow directions. 3. Leave enough space between the cookies on the baking sheet to allow for even baking and spreading. Keep in mind how much a particular type of cookie will spread. Sometimes a recipe will recommend using a weight dipped in sugar to flatten each cookie. Most drop cookies will spread without being flattened.

Rolled Cookies
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Examples – sugar cookies. 1. Chill the dough for rolled cookies after mixing. Using as little flour as possible, roll out the dough to 1/8 inch thickness. 2. Use cookie cutters to cut out the cookies. To minimize the amount of wasted dough, cut the cookies as close together as possible. The dough can be rolled and cut twice. The scrap left over after the second cutting should be discarded because it will make tough cookies. 3. Place cookies on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake.

Icebox Cookies
Are perfect for making sure that freshly baked cookies are always on hand.  Drop cookie dough and sugar cookie dough work well for icebox cookies.  The dough can be made ahead of time and stored in the refrigerator.  Once the rolls of mixed dough have been placed in the refrigerator, the cookies can be sliced and baked as needed.
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Molded Cookies
Examples – crescents, almond lace, and tuile (TWEEL)  Crescents are hand shaped before baking.  Almond lace and tuile cookies are shaped after baking.
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Bar Cookies
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These cookies are made from dough that has been shaped into long bars, baked, and then cut. Examples – hermits, coconut bars, and fruit bars. 1. Weigh the dough into 1 ¼ lb. units. 2. Mold the dough into cylinders that are as long as the sheet pan. 3. On each parchment-lined sheet pan, place three strips spaced a fair distance apart. Use your fingers to flatten the dough to ¾ inch wide and ¼ inch thick. 4. Brush the dough with an egg wash if the recipe calls for it, and then bake. Egg wash is a mixture of egg yolk or white with water or milk. 5. After the cookies have baked and cooled, cut the strips into bars about 1 ¾ inch wide.

Pressed Cookies
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Also referred to as bagged or spritz cookies. Made with a soft dough that is forced through a pastry tip or cookie press. Are usually small with a distinct, decorative shape. Dough's for these cookies often use eggs as their only liquid. Eggs contribute body and help the cookies retain their shape. Using too much fat or too soft flour can cause the cookies to spread and lose their shape.

Wafer Cookies
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Are extremely thin and delicate. Made with a thin batter that is poured or spread onto a baking sheet and baked. While still hot, the wafer is molded into a variety of shapes. The most popular shapes the tightly rolled cigarette, the curved tuile and the cup-shaped tulipe. Wafer batter, known as stencil batter, is sweet and buttery and is often flavored with citrus zest or ground nuts.

Baking and Cooling Cookies
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Always use clean, unwarped pans for baking cookies. Lining the pans with parchment paper keeps cookies from sticking to the pan. It also allows for even browning. Because of their small size and high sugar content, cookies can burn quickly. The heat from the pan continues to bake the cookies once they are removed from the oven is called carry over baking. For this reason, it is better to slightly underbake cookies.

Baking and Cooling Cookies
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To prevent burning the bottoms or edges before they are done, double pan them by placing he sheet pan inside a second pan of the same size. This double-pan technique is especially good for rich dough. When baking two sheets at one time on separate oven racks, reverse them halfway through the baking process. This ensures even baking. Cookies are done when the bottoms and edges turn light golden brown. Be sure not to remove cookies from the pans until they are firm enough to handle. Some cookies, like drop or macaroons, will crack if they are cooled in a draft or too quickly.

Storing Cookies
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Be sure that cookies are completely cooled before storing them. Cookies are best kept in airtight containers away from moisture. They should not be refrigerated. Most cookies can be stored up to 1 week in a airtight container. Cookies have the best flavor and texture for only a few days. Most types of cookies can be frozen for up to three months. They should be carefully wrapped to keep the freezer’s dry air from pulling our moisture. Use heavy-duty freezer bags, aluminum foil, or plastic freezer containers. Do not store crisp and soft cookies together. The crisp cookies will absorb moisture from the soft cookies, ruining the texture of both cookies.

Knowledge Check
Identify the factors that influence the spread of a cookie.  Identify the five different types of cookies.  Choose one type of cookie and explain how to make it.
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